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Lecture 9: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

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Lecture 9: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction
Dr. Riyanti Djalante (UNU-IAS)
2018 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School
8 March 2018

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Lecture 9: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

  1. 1. ProSPER.Net Young Researchers School – Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Dr. Riyanti Djalante United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Studies for Sustainability (UNU-IAS) djalante@unu.edu March 8th, 2018 1
  2. 2. • Currrent: Academic Research Officer, UNU-IAS, Global Change and Resilience • Research • Conceptualizations of hazards, risks, disasters, vulnerability, resilience and transformations • Governance and social implications of DRR/CCA • Constributions • IPCC Lead Author on Impacts of 1.5 degree change, Assessment Report 6 Working Group II • UN Environment on Global Environmental Outlook 6, on climate change • IRDR Science Committe member • Indonesian government (Development Planning, Disaster Management) • Consultancies on DRR/CCA projects in Indonesia: USAID, World Bank, ADB, JIRCAS • UNISDR: SFDRR Indicators and Words into Action, Report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to DRR • Education • Bachelor: University of New South Wales, Australia • Master: Queensland University, Australia. • PhD: Macquarie University, Australia. • UNU-EHS, Alexander von Humboldt Fellowships for experienced researcher, Germany ResumeProfile
  3. 3. Outline 1. Global risk landscape 2. Key concepts: hazard, risks, vulnerability, resilience 3. Cities and disasters risks 4. International processes and frameworks 5. Current actions and strategies 3
  4. 4. Global Landscape of Natural Hazards 4
  5. 5. Global Distribution of Disaster Risk 5
  6. 6. Climate Change Vulnerability Index 6
  7. 7. Disaster impacts – No of disasters Disaster “A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.” For a disaster to be entered into the database at least one of the following criteria must be fulfilled: • Ten (10) or more people reported killed. • Hundred (100) or more people reported affected. • Declaration of a state of emergency. • Call for international assistance. 7 14,426 disasters
  8. 8. Disaster impacts – Total deaths 8 32,613,261 deaths
  9. 9. Disaster impacts – Total affected persons 9 7,925,050,661 total affected
  10. 10. Disaster impacts – Displacements due to disasters 10
  11. 11. Disaster impacts – Displacements due to disasters 11
  12. 12. Disaster impacts – Total economic damage 12 USD 3,115 Billion total damage (0.01% of Japan 2015 ODA 16.5 Million USD)
  13. 13. Outline 1. Global risk landscape 2. Key concepts: hazard, risks, vulnerability, resilience 3. Cities and disasters risks 4. International processes and frameworks 5. Current actions and strategies 13
  14. 14. Terminologies • Hazard: A process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. • (Disaster) Risk: Disaster risk signifies the possibility of adverse effects in the future. It derives from the interaction of social and environmental processes, from the combination of physical hazards and the vulnerabilities of exposed elements https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4-wg2.pdf Key Concepts
  15. 15. UN Photo: Tropical Storm Jeanne floods Haiti, 2004 UN Photo: Aftermath of tsunami in the Indian Ocean, 2004 Hazard
  16. 16. Risks The product of hazards over which we have no control. It combines: • the likelihood or probability of a disaster happening • the negative effects that result if the disaster happens • these are increased by vulnerabilities (characteristics/circumstances that make one susceptible to damaging effects of a hazard) • and decreased by capacities (combination of strengths, attitudes and resources)
  17. 17. Risks Risks
  18. 18. RisksRisks Risks
  19. 19.  “... a human condition or process resulting from physical, social, economic, and environmental factors which determine the likelihood and scale of damage from the impact of a given hazard“ (UNDP, 2004)  “The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impacts of hazards“ (UNISDR, 2004)  “The degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse affects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity and adaptive capacity” (IPCC, 2007)  “The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.” (IPCC, 2014) Vulnerability
  20. 20. Terminologies • Resilience: The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management. • Adaptive Capacity: (in relation to climate change impacts) The ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4-wg2.pdf Resilience
  21. 21. Outline 1. Global risk landscape 2. Key concepts: hazard, risks, vulnerability, resilience 3. Cities and disasters risks 4. International processes and frameworks 5. Current actions and strategies 21
  22. 22. Cities and Disasters Risk 22
  23. 23. 23 Cities and Disasters Risk
  24. 24. 24 Cities and Disasters Risk
  25. 25. • The impact of a natural disaster in a densely populated area can be catastrophic. This is why disaster planning is nowhere more urgent than in the world’s big urban centres. • Cities are centres of economic activity and growth. As more people move to the cities and businesses invest locally, more lives and assets concentrate in disaster- prone areas. • Since most major cities developed along the sea or waterways, flood risk threatens more people than any other natural catastrophe. Across the 616 cities assessed, river flooding poses a threat to over 379 million residents. Over 283 million inhabitants could potentially be affected by earthquakes, and 157 million people are at risk from strong winds. In many cases, urban populations must be prepared to cope with more than one hazard. • Natural disasters, along with other shocks such as human pandemics and acts of terrorism, are likely to materialise in urban locations and affect millions of residents. Strengthening the resilience of the world’s cities is therefore an urgent priority 25 Cities and Disasters Risk SwissRe: Mind the risk, 2016
  26. 26. Cities and Disasters Risk Certain urban characteristics have obvious relevance to understanding disaster risks: • Concentrated populations due to a concentrated labour market for nonagricultural activities (which is what underpins virtually all urban centres); • Land markets that are unrelated to the land’s agricultural potential, with land costs often pricing most or all low-income groups out of “official” land-for-housing markets. This means that large sections of the urban population acquire land and build housing outside of the official system of land-use controls and building standards, yet these controls and standards are meant to reduce the vulnerability of buildings and urban neighbourhoods to disasters; • High-density populations plus concentrations of their solid and liquid household wastes (a particular problem if there are no services to collect and remove these); and • Large, impermeable surfaces and concentrations of buildings that disrupt natural drainage channels. 26 Bull-Kamanga et al 2003
  27. 27. 27 Cities and Disasters Risk Hunt and Wattkiss 2010 Their consensus findings are that the most important effects of climate change on cities are likely to be: • Effects of sea level rise on coastal cities (including the effects of storm surges); • Effects of extreme events on built infrastructure (e.g. from wind storms and storm surges, floods from heavy precipitation events, heat extremes and droughts); • Effects on health (from heat and cold related mortality and morbidity, food and water borne disease, vector borne disease) arising from higher average temperatures and/or extreme events; • Effects on energy use (heating and cooling, energy for water); • Effects on water availability and resources.
  28. 28. Cities and Disasters Risk 28 Bull-Kamanga et al 2003
  29. 29. 29 Cities and Disasters Risk • The vast majority of cities are prone to river flooding • Earthquakes are prevalent in many locations • Storms endanger mostly urban areas on the coast SwissRe: Mind the risk, 2016
  30. 30. 30 Cities and Disasters Risk SwissRe: Mind the risk, 2016
  31. 31. 31 Cities and Disasters Risk SwissRe: Mind the risk, 2016
  32. 32. 32 Cities and Disasters Risk SwissRe: Mind the risk, 2016
  33. 33. 33 Cities and Disasters Risk UN, The World’s Cities in 2016
  34. 34. 34 Cities and Disasters Risk UN, The World’s Cities in 2016
  35. 35. 35 Cities and Disasters Risk Hallegate et al 2013
  36. 36. 36 Cities and Disasters Risk Hallegate et al 2013AAL=Average Annuall Loss
  37. 37. 37 Cities and Disasters Risk Hallegate et al 2013AAL=Average Annuall Loss
  38. 38. Cities and Disasters Risk 38
  39. 39. Cities and Disasters Risk 39 McGranahan et al 2011
  40. 40. 40 Cities and Disasters Risk Pelling in Brauch 2011
  41. 41. Outline 1. Global risk landscape 2. Key concepts: hazard, risks, vulnerability, resilience 3. Cities and disasters risks 4. International processes and frameworks 5. Current actions and strategies for urban risk reduction 41
  42. 42. 1960s: The UN/GA adopted measures regarding severe disasters (Iran, Yugoslavia, Carribeans, etc) 1980-1986: Assistance in cases of Natural Disasters 2000-Now: Disasters, Vulnerability, International Strategy for Disaster Reduction 1990-1999: The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction International processes and frameworks - Timeline 1971-1979: Creation of the United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO), UNDRCoordinator 1994: World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction at Yokohama, Japan  Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World 2015: Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction at Sendai, Japan  Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 SDGs NUA 2002: World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) at Johannesburg, South Africa  Plan of Implementation of the WSSD 1989: The GA proclaims the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-2000) 1999: The GA approved the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) 2005: World Conference on Disaster Reduction at Kobe/Hyogo, Japan  Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 2006: The Global Platform on Disaster Reduction 42
  43. 43. A. Coordinate • Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction • Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) • The Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction • Regional Platforms • National Platforms • Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 • The World Conference • UN and Disaster Risk Reduction B. Campaign • Making Cities Resilient • Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools • International Day for Disaster Reduction 13 Oct • UN Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction • Safe Schools and Hospitals • ARISE • Tsunami Awareness Day 5 Nov C. Advocate • Climate Change Adaptation • Education • Gender • Sustainable Development • Disaster Risk Reduction Champions The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) 43
  44. 44. Priorities for Actions 1: Governance. 2: Risk assessments and early warning. 3: Education and knowledge. 4: Reduce the underlying risk factors. 5: Preparedness. 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 HFA 1 HFA 2 HFA 3 HFA 4 HFA 5 Total progress 2007-2009 2009-2011 2011-2013 The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 44
  45. 45. UNISDR (2015) The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 45 https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=17&v=N6soXnTsgZg
  46. 46. The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 46
  47. 47. UNISDR (2015) The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 47
  48. 48. UNISDR (2015) Priorities For Actions Priority 1 Understanding disaster risk Priority 2 Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk Priority 3 Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience Priority 4 Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to «Build Back Better» in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 48
  49. 49. UNISDR (2015) Priority 1 Understanding disaster risk • Risk assessments • Systematic collection and analyses of Disaster losses • Early warning system + community outreach • National and local risk assessments • National disaster information • DRR into education • Public education and awareness • Scientific collaborations • Traditional and indigenous knowledge The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 49
  50. 50. UNISDR (2015) The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 50
  51. 51. UNISDR (2015) Priority 2 Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk • Global and regional menchanisms • DRR into sectoral development plans and strategies • DRR in national and local budget • Legal and institutional frameworks for DRR • Multi-stakeholder platforms • Increasing roles of local authorities and parliamentarians The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 51
  52. 52. UNISDR (2015) Priority 3 Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience • Public and private investment • Structural and non-structural measures • Disaster risk transfer and insurance, risk sharing, retention and financial protection • Focus on critical facilities; schools, hospitals, physical infrastrucues, and specific sites • DRR into land use, urban planning, building codes • DRR into ecosystem functions • DRR into health systems • Inclusive policies and social safety net, livelihoods, assets. The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 52
  53. 53. UNISDR (2015) Priority 4 Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to «Build Back Better» in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction • strengthen disaster preparedness for response • capacities are in place for effective response and recovery • Inclusive, disabilities, and gender informed actions • Plans for preparendess and contingency policies • people-centred multi-hazard, multispectral forecasting and early warning systems, disaster risk and emergency communications mechanisms, social technologies and hazard-monitoring telecommunications systems • Volunteers • Collaborations in post-disaster reconstruction • Use rehabilitation and reconstruction as opprtunities for DRR inclusion • Psychological and mental health supports for disaster victims The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 53
  54. 54. The Sustainable development goals 54 SLC (2016) UNDP (2016)
  55. 55. Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable development goals SDG 1 (1.5.1-2-3): By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-relate extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters SDG 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilience and sustainable • Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction (SFDRR) (SDG 11.b) • Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and management, including community-base and ecosystem-based DRR (SDG 11.5) • Disaster risk finance and insurance (SDG 1.4-5) • Resilience Cities (SDG 11.b) • Inclusive and sustainable urbanization (SDG 11.3, 11.5) • Human security including conflicts - environment nexus (Par. 13, on the New Agenda) 55UNISDR, 2017
  56. 56. Outline 1. Global risk landscape 2. Key concepts: hazard, risks, vulnerability, resilience 3. Cities and disasters risks 4. International processes and frameworks 5. Current actions and strategies 56
  57. 57. Current actions and strategies
  58. 58. • UNISDR • Mayors and local governments are both the key targets and drivers for the campaign. • Making cities safe from disaster is everybody's business. • 3853 cities Making Cities Resilient
  59. 59. • The Ten Essentials: An operational framework of Sendai Framework at local level. • A Handbook For Local Government Leaders [2017 Edition] • Quick Risk Estimation (QRE) • Disaster Resilience Scorecard for Cities: A tool for disaster resilience planning. • DESINVENTAR: Inventory system of the effects of disasters • Resilient Cities Connect: An online marketplace that provides access to cities, service providers and development partners Disaster Risk Reduction
  60. 60. • Essential One: Organise for Disaster Resilience • Put in place organization and coordination to understand and reduce disaster risk, based on participation of citizen groups and civil society. Build local alliances. Ensure that all departments understand their role to disaster risk reduction and preparedness. The Ten Essentials: An Operational Framework Of Sendai Framework At Local Level.
  61. 61. • Essential Two: Identify, Understand and Use Current and Future Risk Scenarios • Assign a budget for disaster risk reduction and provide incentives for homeowners, low-income families, communities, businesses and public sector to invest in reducing the risks they face. The 10 essential
  62. 62. • Essential Three: Strengthen Financial Capacity for Resilience • Maintain up-to-date data on hazards and vulnerabilities, prepare risk assessments and use these as the basis for urban development plans and decisions. Ensure that this information and the plans for your city's resilience are readily available to the public and fully discussed with them. The 10 essential
  63. 63. • Essential Four: Pursue Resilient Urban Development and Design • Invest in and maintain critical infrastructure that reduces risk, such as flood drainage, adjusted where needed to cope with climate change. The 10 essential
  64. 64. • Essential Five: Safeguard Natural Buffers to Enhance Ecosystems’ Protective Functions • Assess the safety of all schools and health facilities and upgrade these as necessary. • After any disaster, ensure that the needs of the survivors are placed at the centre of reconstruction with support for them and their community organizations to design and help implement responses, including rebuilding homes and livelihoods. The 10 essential
  65. 65. • Essential Seven: Understand and Strengthen Societal Capacity for Resilience • Ensure education programmes and training on disaster risk reduction are in place in schools and local communities. The 10 essential
  66. 66. • Essential Six: Strengthen Institutional Capacity for Resilience • Apply and enforce realistic, risk compliant building regulations and land use planning principles. Identify safe land for low- income citizens and develop upgrading of informal settlements, wherever feasible. The 10 essential
  67. 67. • Essential Eight: Increase Infrastructure Resilience • Protect ecosystems and natural buffers to mitigate floods, storm surges and other hazards to which your city may be vulnerable. Adapt to climate change by building on good risk reduction practices. The 10 essential
  68. 68. • Essential Nine: Ensure Effective Disaster Response • Install early warning systems and emergency management capacities in your city and hold regular public preparedness drills. The 10 essential
  69. 69. • Essential Ten: Expedite Recovery and Build Back Better • After any disaster, ensure that the needs of the survivors are placed at the centre of reconstruction with support for them and their community organizations to design and help implement responses, including rebuilding homes and livelihoods. The 10 essential
  70. 70. • 100 Resilient Cities—Pioneered by the Rockefeller Foundation (100RC) is dedicated to helping cities around the world become more resilient to the physical, social and economic challenges that are a growing part of the 21st century. • URBAN RESILIENCE: Resilience is about surviving and thriving, regardless of the challenge. • Urban resilience is the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience. 100 Resilient Cities
  71. 71. • Resilient cities demonstrate seven qualities that allow them to withstand, respond to, and adapt more readily to shocks and stresses. • Reflective: using past experience to inform future decisions • Resourceful: recognizing alternative ways to use resources • Robust: well-conceived, constructed, and managed systems • Redundant: spare capacity purposively created to accommodate disruption • Flexible: willingness and ability to adopt alternative strategies in response to changing circumstances • Inclusive: prioritize broad consultation to create a sense of shared ownership in decision making • Integrated: bring together a range of distinct systems and institutions 100 Resilient Cities
  72. 72. Conclusion 1. Cities are the place for opportunities, but the process of cities and urbanizations create risks 2. The roles of cities are internationally recognized and acknoledged in various international frameworks 3. Actions to deal with urban disaster risks are taken place at different levels 72
  73. 73. ProSPER.Net Young Researchers School – Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Dr. Riyanti Djalante United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Studies for Sustainability (UNU-IAS) djalante@unu.edu March 8th, 2018 73

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