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communism Capitalism
A2 GCE Geography Unit 4 Super Power Geographies http://current.com/search.htm?s=on&v=on&r=off&context=&context_id=&context...
Superpower Geographies Lesson 1  defining superpowers What factors are  influencing power?   b) <ul><li>Learning Objective...
Background <ul><li>Power – both economic and political – is not evenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Some nations and peop...
What is a superpower? A  superpower  is a nation which is able to project its influence anywhere in the world. It is a  do...
Current superpower former superpower Potential emerging superpower True superpowers are rare because they demand such huge...
Criteria for being a successful student. 1) Attendance 2) Punctuality 3) Attitude 4) Homework
Criteria for being a successful football team. 1) 2) 3) What criteria would you choose to define the necessary characteris...
What criteria defines a superpower? Criteria for defining a superpower Size/ land area population Natural resources milita...
WHAT IS NEEDED TO BECOME A SUPERPOWER? COMMON INGREDIENTS NEEDED <ul><li>Geographical influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large la...
Each territory’s size on the map is drawn according to its land area SIZE How might size be included in the criteria for a...
Size <ul><li>Countries with a large land area are important because they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to have greater natur...
A map showing the proportion of worldwide population relative to territory size POPULATION Why might population be include...
Population <ul><li>Countries with a large population are seen as important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth ...
A map showing the proportion of worldwide fuel imports relative to territory size RESOURCES Why is access to resources a c...
Resources <ul><li>Countries with resources necessary for economic development should hold significant power </li></ul><ul>...
A map showing the proportion of armed forces personnel relative to territory size MILITARY INDICATORS Why is military stre...
Military Indicators <ul><li>Countries with a large military may be viewed to be more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. India...
Territory size shows proportion of worldwide GDP to be produced there in 2015 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Why is economic strength...
Economic Indicators <ul><li>Countries with the largest economies have a significant influence over global economies </li><...
<ul><li>Cultural Indicators </li></ul>
Religion
Religion <ul><li>Religion varies in influence across the world </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of European (predominantly ...
Belief Systems <ul><li>Religion is not the only form of belief system </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has a huge, and ever gr...
Language and culture <ul><li>English has most speakers worldwide- so countries having English as their official language –...
Other cultural influences <ul><li>Global capitalism is promoted by media, especially global new networks, ie. CNN </li></u...
Global Influence <ul><li>All of the factors considered above are variable. By consequence, the influence countries have on...
Task 1 :   Rank  this criteria used to define superpowers in order of  importance Task 2 :   Justify  your choice. RELIGIO...
Superpower Geographies 1. Superpower Geographies   a) defining superpowers   b)  influencing power   b) changing patterns ...
Economic Power © Geography Department, London Academy Wealth allows superpowers to export their power around the world, bu...
© Geography Department, London Academy Source: Forbes, 2008 The world’s top ten richest companies. Where do you think thes...
<ul><li>The USA has the world’s most powerful military machine and this is geographically widespread. (p103 in your book s...
Cultural Power Individual Task: Read through the article by  Timothy Garton Ash What is cultural power? What examples of c...
Geographical Power This is the  sphere of influence  a superpower has. It relates to how many countries it borders, etc Wh...
Criteria for defining a superpower Military Power Economic Power Cultural Power Geographical Power How do each of these po...
<ul><li>Have we oversimplified? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there different types of Superpower- have we oversimplified! </li></ul>
Is there a Power Spectrum <ul><li>Emerging superpowers   have growing influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging powers   are f...
Exam Question <ul><li>Giving examples, explain how superpowers can exert their influence/ power (10) </li></ul>
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Lesson1 definingsuperpowers

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Lesson1 definingsuperpowers

  1. 1. communism Capitalism
  2. 2. A2 GCE Geography Unit 4 Super Power Geographies http://current.com/search.htm?s=on&v=on&r=off&context=&context_id=&context_type=&q=superpower 4 relevant clips for criteria
  3. 3. Superpower Geographies Lesson 1 defining superpowers What factors are influencing power? b) <ul><li>Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To know what a superpower is </li></ul><ul><li>To know how Superpowers have changed over time </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to suggest and justify criteria for becoming a SP and maintaining status </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>Power – both economic and political – is not evenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Some nations and people have a disproportionate influence over decision making (may be regional or global) </li></ul><ul><li>Other nations and people have very limited influence </li></ul><ul><li>Some nations gain power over time, whilst others lose it </li></ul><ul><li>By consequence, the geography of power has changed over time and continues to change </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a superpower? A superpower is a nation which is able to project its influence anywhere in the world. It is a dominant global force . Former superpower- countries that used to have power and influence over other places in the world. Have in the past been a dominant global force Emerging Superpower- a country that may become a dominant global force in the future
  6. 6. Current superpower former superpower Potential emerging superpower True superpowers are rare because they demand such huge resources. However, as you may have guessed the global superpowers have changed over time. Starter Task: In pairs, use the cards you have been given to decide which countries are superpowers. Sort your chosen superpowers into three groups
  7. 7. Criteria for being a successful student. 1) Attendance 2) Punctuality 3) Attitude 4) Homework
  8. 8. Criteria for being a successful football team. 1) 2) 3) What criteria would you choose to define the necessary characteristics of a a successful football team? How would you explain this criteria?
  9. 9. What criteria defines a superpower? Criteria for defining a superpower Size/ land area population Natural resources military strength- army size/ no. of bases Economic strength TASK: In pairs choose one of the criteria and discuss your ideas as to how it could define a superpower. Can you think of any examples that you already know? Energy potential language Interaction with other nations
  10. 10. WHAT IS NEEDED TO BECOME A SUPERPOWER? COMMON INGREDIENTS NEEDED <ul><li>Geographical influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large land/ sea area </li></ul><ul><li>Enough resources to be self sustaining if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Large population. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Military influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large ability to project power over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Large land, sea and air army which can be easily deployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Possession of nuclear power advantageous. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large national economy (high GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>High economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of companies (TNC’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic self suffiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural influence </li></ul><ul><li>.Strong cultural influence over other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Media control </li></ul><ul><li>Language dominance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Each territory’s size on the map is drawn according to its land area SIZE How might size be included in the criteria for a superpower? 1 2 3 4 5 6
  12. 12. Size <ul><li>Countries with a large land area are important because they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to have greater natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend influence over a larger number of neighbours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia has a very large land area with enormous volumes of natural resources. Further, it has 14 neighbours over whom it is able to extend varying degrees of influence. Although Russia is so big, it’s neighbours are all very different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With size comes position- also important for example, the problems in the Arctic are predominantly controlled by Canada and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Russia is the largest country and Canada second largest in world by area. But Russia has 14 neighbours and Canada only 1 </li></ul><ul><li>But the UK dominated early superpower days and is in comparison a country with little geographical influence in terms of size! </li></ul>
  13. 13. A map showing the proportion of worldwide population relative to territory size POPULATION Why might population be included in the criteria for a superpower? China India USA Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Nigeria Russia Japan
  14. 14. Population <ul><li>Countries with a large population are seen as important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth cannot be sustained without sufficient number of workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap workers can help to promote economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. China and India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger populations encourage economic growth through markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, some countries have managed to promote significant economic growth without a large population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Singapore- growth due to tax and tariff free state </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. A map showing the proportion of worldwide fuel imports relative to territory size RESOURCES Why is access to resources a criteria for superpower?
  16. 16. Resources <ul><li>Countries with resources necessary for economic development should hold significant power </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Russia – gas; it can and has cut off supplies before </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East – oil- control the price of barrels through OPEC (do either have power outside energy) </li></ul><ul><li>However, countries with significant resources are not necessarily powerful because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exporting raw materials adds little value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Australia – iron ore it makes nothing from it as it is all exported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today TNC’s control large volumes of resources- limits power for state/ gov especially under capitalist regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. BP – control much of Nigeria’s oil reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China has variety of natural mineral deposits and energy producing natural landscapes, but so does Congo DR and Brazil- </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A map showing the proportion of armed forces personnel relative to territory size MILITARY INDICATORS Why is military strength a criteria for superpower?
  18. 18. Military Indicators <ul><li>Countries with a large military may be viewed to be more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. India and China </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of the military- e.g. china have more control over their military </li></ul><ul><li>However, the type of weapons owned is also representative of power </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Countries in possession of nuclear weapons : USA, Russia, UK, France, China, India, Pakistan, North Korea, (Israel- thought but not proven)- are seen to be more powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact the 1 st 5 France, USA, UK, China and Russia are the permanent members of the UN security council- who decide military policy across the world </li></ul><ul><li>USA has many military bases across the globe </li></ul>
  19. 19. Territory size shows proportion of worldwide GDP to be produced there in 2015 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Why is economic strength a criteria for superpower?
  20. 20. Economic Indicators <ul><li>Countries with the largest economies have a significant influence over global economies </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, the world’s 12 largest economies were: </li></ul><ul><li>USA China India Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Canada Brazil UK France </li></ul><ul><li>Spain Germany Italy Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Between these countries they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earn around 2/3 of world GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the world’s most powerful currencies ($, € and £) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine economic policies which affect the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition, the G20 group (countries with the 19 largest economies plus the EU) influence the global economy and control aid to LDCs </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Cultural Indicators </li></ul>
  22. 22. Religion
  23. 23. Religion <ul><li>Religion varies in influence across the world </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of European (predominantly Christian) colonisation can be seen in North and South America, southern Africa and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is the main religion in northern Africa, the Middle East and many parts of central and south east Asia- also increasing influence in the ‘west’ </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders can influence politics through their beliefs (e.g. contraception, abortion) </li></ul><ul><li>Different Religions have different outlooks on life, e.g. war attitudes </li></ul>
  24. 24. Belief Systems <ul><li>Religion is not the only form of belief system </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has a huge, and ever growing, influence on the world (particularly since the collapse of the USSR in 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism is the system by which land, labour and capital are owned privately and are used to generate profit </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst not everyone agrees with capitalism, it’s influence reaches most of the world, aided by globalisation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Language and culture <ul><li>English has most speakers worldwide- so countries having English as their official language – power over media, literature and media (TV, Music lyrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by increasing Globalisation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Other cultural influences <ul><li>Global capitalism is promoted by media, especially global new networks, ie. CNN </li></ul><ul><li>While the media alone does not make the USA a superpower, it does help it to maintain the USA’s position by using its influence politically. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fox TV has been a strong supporter of the Iraq war and the ‘war on terror’ in the USA </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Global Influence <ul><li>All of the factors considered above are variable. By consequence, the influence countries have on surrounding nations and, more broadly, the world, can change. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, countries which may once have been considered Superpowers may no longer have such influence, whilst other countries are gaining in power </li></ul>
  28. 28. Task 1 : Rank this criteria used to define superpowers in order of importance Task 2 : Justify your choice. RELIGION POPULATION SIZE/ AREA RESOURCES ECONOMIC STRENGTH MILITARY STRENGTH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION POTENTIAL
  29. 29. Superpower Geographies 1. Superpower Geographies a) defining superpowers b) influencing power b) changing patterns of power c) theories explaining the growth of superpowers <ul><li>Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To know the four main ways that superpowers exercise their power </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to give specific examples of exercised power </li></ul>© Geography Department, London Academy
  30. 30. Economic Power © Geography Department, London Academy Wealth allows superpowers to export their power around the world, buy resources and influence trade patterns. Also can ‘buy’ other nations Gives power in international organisations
  31. 31. © Geography Department, London Academy Source: Forbes, 2008 The world’s top ten richest companies. Where do you think these companies originate? Five of the the top 10 richest companies are from the USA. 776 of the top 2000 are from the USA.
  32. 32. <ul><li>The USA has the world’s most powerful military machine and this is geographically widespread. (p103 in your book shows military bases) </li></ul><ul><li>45% of all world spending on military is by the U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Army Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Spies </li></ul>© Geography Department, London Academy Military Power
  33. 33. Cultural Power Individual Task: Read through the article by Timothy Garton Ash What is cultural power? What examples of cultural power are illustrated in the article? What other examples of cultural power can you think of? Add notes to your grid
  34. 34. Geographical Power This is the sphere of influence a superpower has. It relates to how many countries it borders, etc What geographical power is identified in these images?
  35. 35. Criteria for defining a superpower Military Power Economic Power Cultural Power Geographical Power How do each of these powers affect each other? Which of these is the most important? Why? Think! Japan holds the world’s THIRD largest economy and almost half of the world’s top 100 companies are Japanese. What reason could you think of which might explain why Japan is not a “superpower”?
  36. 36. <ul><li>Have we oversimplified? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there different types of Superpower- have we oversimplified! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Is there a Power Spectrum <ul><li>Emerging superpowers have growing influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging powers are further away from superpower status. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have powerful cards, such as energy resources, but not a full deck of cards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional powers play an important economic and political role on their continent. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Exam Question <ul><li>Giving examples, explain how superpowers can exert their influence/ power (10) </li></ul>

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