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ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TROPICAL AND
INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN SUB-SAHARA
AFRICA
Oluwole Kukoyi
22 April 2015
Greetings from my wife
And our children
And our organisation (work in progress)
Sir Joe Madu's visit to NACC
Outline
Introduction
Definitions
Demography
The tropical and infectious diseases
Overview of the impact
Economic impact
Su...
Some geography
• Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the
area of the continent of Africa that lies south
of the Sahara ...
The map
Dark and lighter green: Definition of "Sub-Saharan Africa" as used in the
statistics of UN institutions.
Lighter g...
Demographics of SSA
Indicator Value
GDP (current US$) $1.643 trillion
Population, total 936.3 million
GNI per capita,
(cur...
Economy of SSA
• In the mid-2010s, private capital flows to Sub-
Saharan Africa — primarily from the BRICs,
private-sector...
Economy of SSA
• Between 2011 and 2015, the economic growth rate of
the average nation in Africa is expected to surpass th...
SSA and electricity
• Fifty percent of Africa is rural with no access
to electricity. Africa generates 47 GW of
electricit...
Infrastructure in SSA
• According to researchers at the Overseas
Development Institute, the lack of
infrastructure in many...
Check list of the infectious diseases
Category Diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS, Syphilis.
Blood-borne dise...
The Neglected Tropical Diseases
NTDs are a diverse group of diseases
They have distinct characteristics
They thrive mainly...
The NTDs
Pathogen Examples
Protozoa Chaga disease, Leishmaniasis
Bacteria Leprosy, Trachoma, Yaws
Helminth Cysticercosis, ...
The disease burden
• NTDs along with HIV, TB, and malaria are
collectively referred to as ‘infectious diseases
of poverty’...
Overview of impact
• Morbidity and mortality
• Economic
• Transport, Travel, Tourism, and Social
Gatherings
• Impact on de...
Economic impact
• The economic costs of infectious diseases--
especially HIV/AIDS and malaria--are already
significant, an...
Economic effects
• Effect on employment in several ways
– reduced attendance due to infection, fear of
infection, or absen...
2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Case counts
(CDC/WHO updated as at 21-April 2015)
Countries with widespread transmissi...
2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Case counts
(CDC/WHO updated as at 21-April 2015)
Previously affected countries
Countr...
The Ebola outbreak
Impact within the US8
• Although multidrug therapies have cut HIV/AIDS deaths by
two-thirds to 17,000 annually since 1995,...
Impact within the US8
• Influenza now kills some 30,000 Americans annually, and
epidemiologists generally agree that it is...
Implications to US security8
• As a major hub of global travel, immigration, and commerce with wide-
ranging interests and...
Implications to US security8
• The infectious disease burden will weaken the military capabilities of
some countries--as w...
Acknowledgements
• West Africa America Chamber of Commerce
and Industry WACCI
• President of WACCI, Sir Joe Madu
• Partici...
References
• 1. http://esa.un.org/unpp/definition.html
• 2. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm. United Na...
Thank you
• Merci
• Gracias
• Arigato
• Dank
•E se pupo
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The West Africa-America Chamber of Commerce & Industries presents: Sub sahara africa economic impact of tropical and infectious diseases

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The West Africa-America Chamber of Commerce & Industries presents: Sub sahara africa economic impact of tropical and infectious diseases by Dr. Oluwole Kukoyi

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The West Africa-America Chamber of Commerce & Industries presents: Sub sahara africa economic impact of tropical and infectious diseases

  1. 1. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TROPICAL AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA Oluwole Kukoyi 22 April 2015
  2. 2. Greetings from my wife
  3. 3. And our children
  4. 4. And our organisation (work in progress)
  5. 5. Sir Joe Madu's visit to NACC
  6. 6. Outline Introduction Definitions Demography The tropical and infectious diseases Overview of the impact Economic impact Summary and appreciation References
  7. 7. Some geography • Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan, even though Sudan sits in the Eastern portion of the Sahara Desert).1 It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world
  8. 8. The map Dark and lighter green: Definition of "Sub-Saharan Africa" as used in the statistics of UN institutions. Lighter green: However, Sudan is classified as North Africa by the United Nations.[1]
  9. 9. Demographics of SSA Indicator Value GDP (current US$) $1.643 trillion Population, total 936.3 million GNI per capita, (current US$) $1,686 Urban population (% of total) 37% Life expectancy at birth 57 Source World bank
  10. 10. Economy of SSA • In the mid-2010s, private capital flows to Sub- Saharan Africa — primarily from the BRICs, private-sector investment portfolios, and remittances — began to exceed official development assistance.3 • As of 2011, Africa is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. Six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies over the previous decade were situated below the Sahara, with the remaining four in East and Central Asia4 .
  11. 11. Economy of SSA • Between 2011 and 2015, the economic growth rate of the average nation in Africa is expected to surpass that of the average nation in Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa is by then projected to contribute seven out of the ten fastest growing economies in the world.3 • According to the World Bank, the economic growth rate in the region had risen to 4.7% in 2013, with a rate of 5.2% forecasted for 2014. This continued rise was attributed to increasing investment in infrastructure and resources as well as steady expenditure per household.
  12. 12. SSA and electricity • Fifty percent of Africa is rural with no access to electricity. Africa generates 47 GW of electricity, less than 0.6% of the global market share. Many countries are affected by power shortages.5
  13. 13. Infrastructure in SSA • According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).6
  14. 14. Check list of the infectious diseases Category Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS, Syphilis. Blood-borne diseases Hepatitis B and C, HIV/AIDS and malaria Vector-borne diseases Malaria, Yellow fever Food borne and waterborne diseases Traveler diarrhoea, Hepatitis A, Cholera, typhoid fever Rodent-borne diseases Plague, Lassa fever Haemorrhagic fevers Ebola virus disease Airborne diseases Tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles, Influenza, Zoonoses Tularemia, brucellosis, certain viral haemorrhagic fevers.
  15. 15. The Neglected Tropical Diseases NTDs are a diverse group of diseases They have distinct characteristics They thrive mainly among the poorest populations. Are endemic in 149 countries Affect more than 1.4 billion people Cost developing economies billions of dollars every year They result from 4 different causative pathogens
  16. 16. The NTDs Pathogen Examples Protozoa Chaga disease, Leishmaniasis Bacteria Leprosy, Trachoma, Yaws Helminth Cysticercosis, guinea-worm disease, Schitosomiasis Virus Dengue, Rabies The NTDs result from 4 different causative pathogens:
  17. 17. The disease burden • NTDs along with HIV, TB, and malaria are collectively referred to as ‘infectious diseases of poverty’ (IDoPs), and these are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America7 • More than 90% of the total impact as a result of death and disability caused by neglected diseases occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa8
  18. 18. Overview of impact • Morbidity and mortality • Economic • Transport, Travel, Tourism, and Social Gatherings • Impact on delivery of healthcare • Social e.g. huge orphan cohort • Political.. severe social and economic impact of infectious diseases is likely to intensify the struggle for political power to control scarce state resources
  19. 19. Economic impact • The economic costs of infectious diseases-- especially HIV/AIDS and malaria--are already significant, and their increasingly heavy toll on productivity, profitability, and foreign investment will be reflected in growing GDP losses, as well, that could reduce GDP by as much as 20 percent or more7
  20. 20. Economic effects • Effect on employment in several ways – reduced attendance due to infection, fear of infection, or absenteeism of workers caring for their families. – Broader economic problems caused by reduced workforces may then initiate economic downturn and further unemployment
  21. 21. 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Case counts (CDC/WHO updated as at 21-April 2015) Countries with widespread transmission Country Total cases (suspected, probable, and Confirmed Laboratory- confirmed cases Total deaths Guinea 3565 3136 2358 Liberia 10042 3151 4486 Sierra Leone 12,265 8,573 3877 Total 25,872 14,860 10,721
  22. 22. 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Case counts (CDC/WHO updated as at 21-April 2015) Previously affected countries Country Total cases (suspected, probable, and Confirmed Laboratory- confirmed cases Total deaths Nigeria 20 19 8 Senegal 1 1 0 Spain 1 1 0 USA 4 4 1 Mali 8 7 6 UK 1 1 0 Total 35 33 15
  23. 23. The Ebola outbreak
  24. 24. Impact within the US8 • Although multidrug therapies have cut HIV/AIDS deaths by two-thirds to 17,000 annually since 1995, emerging microbial resistance to such drugs and continued new infections will sustain the threat. • Some 4 million Americans are chronic carriers of the hepatitis C virus, a significant cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis. The US death toll from the virus may surpass that of HIV/AIDS in the next five years. • TB, exacerbated by multidrug resistant strains and HIV/AIDS co-infection, has made a comeback. Although a massive and costly control effort is achieving considerable success, the threat will be sustained by the spread of HIV and the growing number of new, particularly illegal, immigrants infected with TB.
  25. 25. Impact within the US8 • Influenza now kills some 30,000 Americans annually, and epidemiologists generally agree that it is not a question of whether, but when, the next killer pandemic will occur. • Highly virulent and increasingly antimicrobial resistant pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, are major sources of hospital-acquired infections that kill some 14,000 patients annually. • The doubling of US food imports over the last five years is one of the factors contributing to tens of millions of foodborne illnesses and 9,000 deaths that occur annually, and the trend is up.
  26. 26. Implications to US security8 • As a major hub of global travel, immigration, and commerce with wide- ranging interests and a large civilian and military presence overseas, the United States and its equities abroad will remain at risk from infectious diseases. • Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, many of which are likely to continue to originate overseas, will continue to kill at least 170,000 Americans annually. Many more could perish in an epidemic of influenza or yet-unknown disease or if there is a substantial decline in the effectiveness of available HIV/AIDS drugs. • Infectious diseases are likely to continue to account for more military hospital admissions than battlefield injuries. US military personnel deployed at NATO and US bases overseas, will be at low-to-moderate risk. At highest risk will be US military forces deployed in support of humanitarian and peacekeeping operations in developing countries.
  27. 27. Implications to US security8 • The infectious disease burden will weaken the military capabilities of some countries--as well as international peacekeeping efforts--as their armies and recruitment pools experience HIV infection rates ranging from 10 to 60 percent. The cost will be highest among officers and the more modernized militaries in Sub-Saharan Africa and increasingly among FSU states and possibly some rogue states. • Infectious diseases are likely to slow socioeconomic development in the hardest-hit developing and former communist countries and regions. This will challenge democratic development and transitions and possibly contribute to humanitarian emergencies and civil conflicts. • Infectious disease-related embargoes and restrictions on travel and immigration will cause frictions among and between developed and developing countries.
  28. 28. Acknowledgements • West Africa America Chamber of Commerce and Industry WACCI • President of WACCI, Sir Joe Madu • Participants • Almighty God, for journey mercy and His grace every day
  29. 29. References • 1. http://esa.un.org/unpp/definition.html • 2. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm. United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2015. • 3. World Bank Report 2013 retrieved 15 April 2015 • 4. http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/case-counts.html retrieved 21 April 2015 • 5. http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/01/daily_chart retrieved on 16 April 20155. Creamer Media. Africa’s energy problems threatens growth, says Nepad CEO 12 November 2009 • 6. Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape, London: Overseas Development Institute • 7. http://www.idpjournal.com/content/3/1/21. Accessed on 15 April 20158. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet 2012, 379(9832):2151-2161. Retrieved 16 April 2015 • 8. NIE 99-17D, January 2000
  30. 30. Thank you • Merci • Gracias • Arigato • Dank •E se pupo

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