Introduction to  Biology <ul><li>Lecture-1 </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
Үнэлгээ: <ul><li>Дадлага ажлын үнэлгээ – 325 оноо  / тус бүр -25 оноо  / </li></ul><ul><li>Явцын шалгалт  I –  40 оноо </l...
Бие даалт:   <ul><li>Дадлага ажлын удирдамж монгол, англи хэлээр бичигдсэн байгаа. Англи хэл дээр бичигдсэн дадлага ажлууд...
<ul><li>Явцын шалгалт : </li></ul><ul><li>Богино асуулт,  </li></ul><ul><li>Олон сонголттой асуулт, </li></ul><ul><li>Проц...
Улирлын шалгалт:   <ul><li>Энэхүү шалгалт нь 400 оноо байна. Шалгалтын 65 %  нь явцын шалгалттай ойролцоо материал,  35%  ...
Topics <ul><li>What is Biology? </li></ul><ul><li>All Living Things Share Common Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Life is...
What is Biology? <ul><li>Biology   is  the study of all living things </li></ul><ul><li>Living things are called  organism...
All Living Things Share Common Characteristics <ul><li>Basic Unit is the  Cell </li></ul><ul><li>They  Reproduce </li></ul...
Common Characteristics <ul><li>Obtain & Use Materials &  Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Respond  To Their Environment </li></ul>...
copyright cmassengale
 
All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale
Facts About Cells <ul><li>Cells are the  smallest living unit  of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All cells contain living m...
PROKARYOTES BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYOTES
More Cell Facts <ul><li>Cells are complex & highly  organized </li></ul><ul><li>Cells have parts called  organelles  that ...
More Cell Facts <ul><li>The simplest cells are called  Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells  DO NOT have a nucleus or...
More Cell Facts <ul><li>More complex cells are called  Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells  DO have a nucleus and mem...
Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells <ul><li>Unicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Organism Made Up...
Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale
Two Types of  Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves 2 parents </li></ul><ul><li>Egg fertiliz...
Two Types of  Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a single organism or cell </li></ul><ul...
Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale
Genetic Code <ul><li>DNA  ( deoxyribose nucleic acid ) carries the genetic code for all organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All or...
Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale
Growth & Development <ul><li>Organisms  grow  by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms  d...
Growth <ul><li>Grow occurs as the result of  cell division and cell enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division  is the fo...
<ul><li>The process by which an adult organism arise is called  development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated cell divisions ...
Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale
Aim : How can we describe the types of  nutrition in living things? Do now :  1. What is nutrition? 2. Why do living thing...
Food Requirements <ul><li>Autotrophs  can make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs  use sunlight to make food...
Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis
Food Requirements <ul><li>Heterotrophs  can NOT make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>They must consume other organisms </...
Examples of heterotrophs paramecium
Metabolism <ul><li>Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All  require energy </li></ul><ul><l...
Metabolism <ul><li>Cellular Respiration   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods </li><...
Organisms Respond to Stimuli <ul><li>Organisms  Respond  to  stimuli  (Temperature, Water, Food, Supplies, etc.)  In Order...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Keeping The Internal Environment  (Homeostasis)  Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required Fo...
Living Things Evolve <ul><li>Groups Of Organisms  (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing E...
Evolve <ul><li>Ability to adapt to their environment through the process of  evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable charact...
Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural selection is the  driving force in evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that have certa...
Natural Selection <ul><li>Survival of organisms with favorable traits cause a  gradual change in populations over many gen...
Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale
Levels <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cells  – life starts here ...
Levels <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>co...
copyright cmassengale
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Biology lecture 1

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  • Notice that in this chart, each of the codons (white rectangles) is composed of three letters representing the first base, second base, and third base. For example, find the rectangle where C for the first base and A for the second base intersect. You will see that U, C, A, or G can be the third base. CAU and CAC are codons for histidine; CAA and CAG are codons for glutamine.
  • Biology lecture 1

    1. 1. Introduction to Biology <ul><li>Lecture-1 </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
    2. 2. Үнэлгээ: <ul><li>Дадлага ажлын үнэлгээ – 325 оноо / тус бүр -25 оноо / </li></ul><ul><li>Явцын шалгалт I – 40 оноо </li></ul><ul><li>Явцын шалгалт II- 40 оноо </li></ul><ul><li>Бие даалт – 195 оноо / тус бүр -15 оноо / </li></ul><ul><li>Нийт 600 оноо </li></ul><ul><li>Улирлын шалгалт: Энэхүү шалгалт нь 400 оноо байна. Шалгалтын 65 % нь явцын шалгалттай ойролцоо материал, 35% нь шинэ материал байна. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    3. 3. Бие даалт: <ul><li>Дадлага ажлын удирдамж монгол, англи хэлээр бичигдсэн байгаа. Англи хэл дээр бичигдсэн дадлага ажлуудын үнэлгээг бие даалтын ажилд тооцно. Дадлага ажил дууссаны дараагийн долоо хоногийн хичээл дууссаны дараа дадлага ажлын дэвтэрээ хураалгаж, бие даалт шалгуулна. Дадлага ажлын дэвтэр хоцорч хураалгах ( ба шалтгаангүйгээр суугаагүй ) үед тухайн өдрийн үнэлгээ 20 % -иар буурна. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    4. 4. <ul><li>Явцын шалгалт : </li></ul><ul><li>Богино асуулт, </li></ul><ul><li>Олон сонголттой асуулт, </li></ul><ul><li>Процессыг тайлбарлах, </li></ul><ul><li>Хоосон зайг бөглөх, </li></ul><ul><li>Зөв / Буруу, </li></ul><ul><li>Үгийн сүлжээ зэрэг хэлбэртэй байна. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    5. 5. Улирлын шалгалт: <ul><li>Энэхүү шалгалт нь 400 оноо байна. Шалгалтын 65 % нь явцын шалгалттай ойролцоо материал, 35% нь шинэ материал байна. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    6. 6. Topics <ul><li>What is Biology? </li></ul><ul><li>All Living Things Share Common Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Life is Organized on Several Levels </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    7. 7. What is Biology? <ul><li>Biology is the study of all living things </li></ul><ul><li>Living things are called organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    8. 8. All Living Things Share Common Characteristics <ul><li>Basic Unit is the Cell </li></ul><ul><li>They Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & Develop </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    9. 9. Common Characteristics <ul><li>Obtain & Use Materials & Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Respond To Their Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain A Stable Internal Environment </li></ul><ul><li>AS A GROUP , Living Things Evolve , That Is They Change Over Time </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    10. 10. copyright cmassengale
    11. 12. All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale
    12. 13. Facts About Cells <ul><li>Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All cells contain living material called cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    13. 14. PROKARYOTES BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYOTES
    14. 15. More Cell Facts <ul><li>Cells are complex & highly organized </li></ul><ul><li>Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    15. 16. More Cell Facts <ul><li>The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are examples </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    16. 17. More Cell Facts <ul><li>More complex cells are called Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    17. 18. Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells <ul><li>Unicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
    18. 19. Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale
    19. 20. Two Types of Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves 2 parents </li></ul><ul><li>Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring DIFFERENT from parents </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    20. 21. Two Types of Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a single organism or cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cell divides </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring IDENTICAL to parent </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    21. 22. Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale
    22. 23. Genetic Code <ul><li>DNA ( deoxyribose nucleic acid ) carries the genetic code for all organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms contain DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work </li></ul><ul><li>DNA in every body cell (SOMATIC CELLS ) is exactly alike </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    23. 24.
    24. 25. Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale
    25. 26. Growth & Development <ul><li>Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    26. 27. Growth <ul><li>Grow occurs as the result of cell division and cell enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division is the formation of two cells from a preexisting cell </li></ul><ul><li>New cells enlarge as they mature </li></ul><ul><li>When a cell grows to a size where its surface area isn’t big enough for its volume , the cell divides </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
    27. 28. <ul><li>The process by which an adult organism arise is called development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated cell divisions and cell differentiation </li></ul></ul>Development Copyright Cmassengale
    28. 29. Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale
    29. 30. Aim : How can we describe the types of nutrition in living things? Do now : 1. What is nutrition? 2. Why do living things need nutrition?
    30. 31. Food Requirements <ul><li>Autotrophs can make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    31. 32. Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis
    32. 33. Food Requirements <ul><li>Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>They must consume other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores eat plants </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores eat meat </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores eat plants & animals </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    33. 34. Examples of heterotrophs paramecium
    34. 35. Metabolism <ul><li>Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All require energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    35. 36. Metabolism <ul><li>Cellular Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    36. 37. Organisms Respond to Stimuli <ul><li>Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food, Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Takcic-photo </li></ul><ul><li>-chemo </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    37. 38. Homeostasis <ul><li>Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life </li></ul><ul><li>Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc . </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    38. 39. Living Things Evolve <ul><li>Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    39. 40. Evolve <ul><li>Ability to adapt to their environment through the process of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable characteristics are selected for and passed on to offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Called adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by natural selection or “survival of the fittest” </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
    40. 41. Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural selection is the driving force in evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to successfully reproduce than organisms that lack these traits </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
    41. 42. Natural Selection <ul><li>Survival of organisms with favorable traits cause a gradual change in populations over many generations </li></ul><ul><li>Also Called “Survival of the Fittest” </li></ul>Copyright Cmassengale
    42. 43. Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale
    43. 44. Levels <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cells – life starts here </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    44. 45. Levels <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    45. 46. copyright cmassengale

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