Cell structure


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Cell structure

  1. 1. Basic Structure of a Cell copyright cmassengale
  2. 2. Introduction to Cells <ul><li>Cells are the basic units of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>C ells can only be observed under microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Basic types of cells: </li></ul>Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell copyright cmassengale
  3. 3. Number of Cells <ul><li>Organisms may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular – composed of one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular - composed of many cells that may organize </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  4. 4. Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic <ul><li>Prokaryotes include bacteria & lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes include most other cells & have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (plants, fungi, & animals) </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  5. 5. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Nucleoid region contains the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane & cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  6. 6. Eukaryotic Cell <ul><li>Contain 3 basic cell structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm with organelles </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  7. 7. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell copyright cmassengale
  8. 8. Organelles <ul><li>Very small size </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be observed under a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Have specific functions </li></ul><ul><li>Found throughout cytoplasm </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  9. 9. Organelles Found in Cells <ul><li>Examples of Organelles include: </li></ul>Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) – canals for movement Golgi Bodies – wrap & export proteins Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Lysosomes – digests & gets rid of wastes Ribosomes – makes proteins copyright cmassengale
  10. 10. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Stacks of flattened sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Have a shipping side & a receiving side </li></ul><ul><li>Receive & modify proteins made by ER </li></ul><ul><li>Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends </li></ul>Transport vesicle copyright cmassengale
  11. 11. Lysosome <ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  12. 12. Nucleolus <ul><li>Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Disappears when cell divides </li></ul><ul><li>Makes ribosomes that make proteins </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  13. 13. Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT copyright cmassengale
  14. 14. Cell Powerhouse <ul><ul><li>Rod shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of Cellular respiration </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  15. 15. In Animal Cells: <ul><ul><li>Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn sugars to produce energy ATP </li></ul></ul>Mitochondria copyright cmassengale
  16. 16. Surrounding the Cell <ul><ul><li>Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of protein and phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Cell membrane
  17. 17. Cell or Plasma Membrane <ul><ul><li>Living layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable </li></ul></ul>Cell membrane copyright cmassengale
  18. 18. Cell Wall <ul><ul><li>Nonliving layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells </li></ul></ul>Cell wall copyright cmassengale
  19. 19. Cytoplasm of a Cell <ul><ul><li>Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Cytoplasm
  20. 20. More on Cytoplasm <ul><ul><li>Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: chloroplast & mitochondrion </li></ul></ul>Cytoplasm copyright cmassengale
  21. 21. Control Organelle <ul><ul><li>Controls the normal activities of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain the DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by a nuclear membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains chromosomes </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Nucleus
  22. 22. More on the Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes control cell characteristics </li></ul></ul>Nucleus copyright cmassengale
  23. 23. Plant Cell Organelles <ul><ul><li>Contain the green pigment chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process called photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Chloroplast
  24. 24. Plant Cell <ul><ul><li>Dead layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely permeable </li></ul></ul>Cell wall copyright cmassengale
  25. 25. Plant Cell <ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong and rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plant cells </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Cell wall
  26. 26. Plant Cell <ul><ul><li>Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist entry of excess water into the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give shape to the cell </li></ul></ul>Cell wall copyright cmassengale
  27. 27. Plant Cell Organelles <ul><ul><li>Have a large central vacuole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by tonoplast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains cell sap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale Vacuole
  28. 28. Different kinds of plant cells copyright cmassengale Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  29. 29. Animal cell mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole copyright cmassengale
  30. 30. Animal Cell Organelles <ul><li>Near the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Paired structures </li></ul><ul><li>Help cell divide </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  31. 31. Different kinds of animal cells copyright cmassengale white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  32. 32. Similarities between plant cells and animal cells <ul><li>Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm </li></ul>Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria copyright cmassengale
  33. 33. Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present copyright cmassengale
  34. 34. Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells Animal cells Plant cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall copyright cmassengale
  35. 35. Compound Microscope <ul><li>Instrument for observing small objects </li></ul><ul><li>Magnify images up to 2000X their size </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  36. 36. Different parts of a microscope copyright cmassengale
  37. 37. copyright cmassengale Eyepiece Fine adjustment Arm Stage Condenser control knob Base Body tube Coarse adjustment Iris diaphragm Revolving nosepiece Objective Clip Condenser Mirror
  38. 38. The cell is the Basic Unit of Life <ul><li>Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only </li></ul><ul><li>The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and root hair cells for water absorption </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  39. 39. Levels of organization <ul><li>Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  40. 40. Tissue <ul><li>A group of similar cells to perform a particular function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants : vascular tissue, mesophyll </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  41. 41. Organ <ul><li>Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  42. 42. The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell copyright cmassengale
  43. 43. The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ) copyright cmassengale
  44. 44. System <ul><li>Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant : root and shoot systems </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  45. 45. Human Body Systems <ul><li>Examples of systems : </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive System </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  46. 46. Examples of a Human Body System copyright cmassengale
  47. 47. Examples of a Human Body System copyright cmassengale
  48. 48. Examples of a Human Body System Circulatory System copyright cmassengale
  49. 49. Examples of a Human Body System Nervous System copyright cmassengale
  50. 50. Levels of Organization <ul><li>CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) </li></ul><ul><li>TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEMS (circulatory system) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANISM (human) </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  51. 51. It’s You! copyright cmassengale