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  1. 1. Study of Biology copyright cmassengale 1
  2. 2. What is Biology?Biology is the study of all livingthings Living things are calledorganismsOrganisms include bacteria,protists, fungi, plants, & animals copyright cmassengale 2
  3. 3. All Living Things ShareCommon Characteristics1. Basic Unit is the Cell2. They Reproduce3. All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)4. Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 3
  4. 4. Common Characteristics5. Obtain & Use Materials & Energy6. Respond To Their Environment7. Maintain A Stable Internal Environment8. AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time copyright cmassengale 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale 5
  6. 6. All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale 6
  7. 7. Facts About CellsCells are the smallest living unitof an organismAll cells contain living materialcalled cytoplasmAll cells are surrounded by a cellmembrane that controls whatenters & leaves the cell copyright cmassengale 7
  8. 8. More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobse.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars copyright cmassengale 8
  9. 9. More Cell FactsThe simplest cells arecalled ProkaryotesThese cells DO NOThave a nucleus ormembrane-boundorganellesBacteria are examples copyright cmassengale 9
  10. 10. More Cell FactsMore complex cells arecalled EukaryotesThese cells DO have anucleus and membrane-bound organellesPlants, animals,protists, & fungi areexamples copyright cmassengale 10
  11. 11. Organisms are Grouped by their Number of CellsUnicellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of One CellMulticellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells copyright cmassengale 11
  12. 12. Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale 12
  13. 13. Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents copyright cmassengale 13
  14. 14. Two Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent copyright cmassengale 14
  15. 15. Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale 15
  16. 16. Genetic CodeDNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)carries the genetic code for allorganismsAll organisms contain DNADNA codes for the proteins thatmake up cells & do all the work copyright cmassengale 16
  17. 17. Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 17
  18. 18. Growth & DevelopmentOrganisms grow byproducing MORECELLS & by cellENLARGEMENTOrganisms develop asthey mature into anadult organism copyright cmassengale 18
  19. 19. Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale 19
  20. 20. Food RequirementsAutotrophs can maketheir own foodPhotoautotrophs usesunlight to make food(photosynthesis)Chemoautotrophs usechemicals such as iron& sulfur as theirenergy copyright cmassengale 20
  21. 21. Food RequirementsHeterotrophs can NOT make theirown foodThey must consume otherorganismsHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat meatOmnivores eat plants & animals copyright cmassengale 21
  22. 22. MetabolismSum of all the chemical reactionsin an organismAll require energySunlight is the ultimate energyfor life on Earth copyright cmassengale 22
  23. 23. Metabolism Cellular Respiration – Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O copyright cmassengale 23
  24. 24. Organisms Respond to StimuliOrganisms Respond to stimuli(Temperature, Water, FoodSupplies, etc.) In Order ToSurvive & Reproduce copyright cmassengale 24
  25. 25. HomeostasisKeeping The Internal Environment(Homeostasis) Of The Cell orOrganism Within The Ranges RequiredFor LifeStable internal conditions of pH,temperature, water balance, etc. copyright cmassengale 25
  26. 26. Living Things EvolveGroups Of Organisms(Not Individuals)Change Over Time InOrder To SurviveWithin ChangingEnvironments.Fossil records showchanges in groups oforganisms copyright cmassengale 26
  27. 27. Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale 27
  28. 28. LevelsAtomsMoleculesOrganellesCells – life starts hereTissuesOrgansSystemOrganism copyright cmassengale 28
  29. 29. LevelsPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere copyright cmassengale 29
  30. 30. copyright cmassengale 30
  31. 31. copyright cmassengale 31