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Social control and deviance


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Social control and deviance

  1. 1. Social Control
  2. 2. Social Control consists of the methods and means that regulate behavior within society
  3. 3. The functionalists, interactionists and the conflict theoretical viewpoints:
  4. 4. Functionalists see social control as an indispensable requirement for survival.
  5. 5. What would it be like if nobody obeyed rules? What would society be like? What would this school be like?
  6. 6. So how far do we go?
  7. 7. London. Yes, now.
  8. 8. London’s Underground (subway)
  9. 9. On the other hand, the conflict theorists see social control as operating in favor of powerful groups and to be a disadvantage to others.
  10. 10. And the latest.
  11. 11. OWS at UC Davis peaceful protest, 2012
  12. 12. Who makes the rules now? Who makes the laws? Do property laws benefit everyone or only property owners? Example: Public/private beaches.
  13. 13. Are any social arrangements neutral? Laws? rules?
  14. 14. Three main types of Social Control processes:
  15. 15. • Internalized norms • Structure of the social experience • Formal and informal sanctions
  16. 16. The process of “Internalization”
  17. 17. The Process: • Learn what the norms are. • Learning to believe that the norms are legitimate. • Are all of our norms legitimate?
  18. 18. The structure of social experience: • It is a parochial experience • We are locked within the social environment provided by our culture
  19. 19. Formal and Informal Sanctions:
  20. 20. What are some typical formal sanctions? What are some typical informal sanctions?
  21. 21. Formal Sanctions: • Reactions to official agents of social control • Police; courts; psychiatrists; businesses with rewards and threat of firing; school administrations
  22. 22. Informal Sanctions: • Occur among small groups or friends • Unofficial pressures to conform • Being late for class might get a scowl • We shrug our shoulders • We look askance • We make a dry comment
  23. 23. Sanctions:
  24. 24. Some theories on Deviance • Biological and Physiological Perspectives at the dawn of the 20th Century • Becker’s Labeling Perspective • Merton’s theory of Structural Strain • Cultural Transmission • Conflict Theory
  25. 25. Cesare Lombroso 1835-1909 and his theory of deviance
  26. 26. Atavistic Stigmata: truncated evolution or the throwback
  27. 27. Negative Evolution
  28. 28. Lombroso facial features
  29. 29. All this is called Biological Determinism (now debunked)
  30. 30. Labeling Perspective
  31. 31. Howard Becker
  32. 32. According to Becker, deviance is the creation of social groups and not the quality of some act or behavior. (A socially constructed process.)
  33. 33. Deviance is culturally relative. Consider the Etoro as described in Hughes and Kroehler (2007) and their bizarre sexual practices. This is “normal” for the Etoro while extremely deviant in our culture.
  34. 34. Studying the act of the individual is unimportant because deviance is simply rule breaking behavior that is labeled deviant by persons in positions of power.
  35. 35. The rule breaking behavior is constant, the labeling of the behavior varies. Write or think about this: how does it affect the way we normally see deviance (crime) in society?
  36. 36. • The interaction between who makes and enforces the rules and those who break them. • There is a cultural relativity to deviance • Some acts, like violence, however, are generally agreed upon as socially deviant.
  37. 37. Again, who makes the rules?
  38. 38. What does the term “Moral Entrepreneurs” make you think about?
  39. 39. Some “Moral Entrepreneurs” • MADD • Religious organizations • Greenpeace • Operation Rescue • Prohibition (1920-1933)
  40. 40. Four Traditional Views of Deviance According to Becker • Statistical • Pathological • The Question of Social Stability (Functionalism and politics) • The Failure to Observe Group Rules
  41. 41. Edwin Lemert 1912-1996 Noted for social control theories that emphasized the influence of social forces.
  42. 42. Primary and Secondary Deviance
  43. 43. Primary deviance is the initial incidence of an act causing an authority figure to label the actor deviant. It usually goes unnoticed. Think of some deviant acts you, or we, commit and get away with.
  44. 44. • Exceed the speed limit • Experiment with drugs • Cheat on a homework assignment • Swim in the nude • Become intoxicated • Commit vandalism in celebration of a football victory • Trespass on private property
  45. 45. But if the label sticks and if the labeled deviant reacts to this process by accepting the deviant label, and further entrenches his/herself in deviant behavior, this is referred to as secondary deviance.
  46. 46. Secondary deviance is an internalization process. One is first labeled and then the concept of being a deviant is internalized.
  47. 47. The internalization process is one in which individuals incorporate within themselves the standards of behavior of the larger society. Hughes and Kroehler, 2007
  48. 48. Labels don’t have to relate to criminal deviance. They can relate to other realms of society as well. Think of some.
  49. 49. Tracking (within school effects) • The process of categorizing students into groups by IQ and achievement scores. • The intent is to better facilitate them into higher achievement. • The result is labeling and self-fulfilled prophesy. • Consider the Rosenthal and Jacobson study • Consider the Jennie Oakes study. (note: if link fails place cursor in address bar to right of address and hit return again.) 52
  50. 50. Mental Illness What do you think? I’ll give you more in the next slide.
  51. 51. There is a stigmatization to being labeled “mentally ill.” Being so labeled can (and does) alter self perceptions.
  52. 52. Master Status There are labels that we either have ascribed to us or we achieve in society. We have many labels of status, called the status set. (Student, teacher, father, daughter, employee, etc.) One, however, stands out above the rest. It can be positive or negative. Think up some examples of what might constitute a master status.
  53. 53. Robert K. Merton 1910-2003 Structural Strain Theory
  54. 54. Based on Durkheim’s theory of Anomie
  55. 55. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917
  56. 56. Briefly, anomie is the condition one experiences when there is a breakdown of social norms; that is, a condition where norms no longer control the activities of members in society.
  57. 57. Changing conditions as well as adjustment to life leads to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance. He observed that social periods of disruption (economic depression, for instance) brought about greater anomie and higher rates of crime, suicide, and deviance. (Hewett Sociology, UK)
  58. 58. The collective conscience is the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average members of a society. An act is criminal when it offends the collective conscience. (DOL)
  59. 59. It is actually public opinion and opposition which constitutes the crime. An act offends the common consciousness not because it is criminal, but it is criminal because it offends that consciousness. A crime is a crime because we condemn it.
  60. 60. Does this sound a little like Labeling Perspective?
  61. 61. Durkheim found that crime serves a function in the social system.
  62. 62. Punishment publicly demonstrates that the sentiments of the collectivity are still unchanged … and the crime inflicted on society is made good. In fact, the primary intent of punishment is to affect honest people.
  63. 63. “Consider the Perp Walk”
  64. 64. Lee Harvey Oswald
  65. 65. Bernie Madoff
  66. 66. Bear Sterns Employee
  67. 67. Bear Sterns Employee
  68. 68. Kenneth Lay of Enron Scandal
  69. 69. Jeffrey Skilling of Enron Scandal
  70. 70. Martha Stewart
  71. 71. Durkheim suggests that the social system needs the criminal for three reasons: • First, factors such as biological heredity, or the physical milieu in which the individual lives, or relative strength of different social influences make it inevitable that some of these differences should be of a criminal type.
  72. 72. • Secondly, any society in which the norms were rigorously followed without exception would be doomed in the long run, for the social organism must be capable of change. Space must be left for individuals and groups to innovate.
  73. 73. • Third, Crime is the price that the system pays in order to have the benefits of innovation. Crime is the social equivalent to the biological phenomena of pain; it is necessary, but it is also detestable.
  74. 74. The criminal offers the social system the opportunity of reactivating norms, or reinforcing them through the public staging of the ignominy of those who refuse to obey them.
  75. 75. So Durkheim saw crime as functional, if disdainful, in society. Merton on the other hand sees our values in conflict with our reality.
  76. 76. For Merton, in a society that so highly values material wealth, we must ask: what are the traditional means to that wealth?
  77. 77. Does everyone have the same access to those means?
  78. 78. Only when a society extols common symbols of success for the entire population, while structurally restricting the access of large numbers of people to the approved means for acquiring these symbols, is antisocial behavior generated. (Hughes and
  79. 79. It is argued “that the strain toward deviance, particularly crime, is stronger when the economy is the dominant institution in society and when social status is primarily dependent on performance in economic roles. Crime rates are particularly high in societies where people are completely dependent on the labor market for resources necessary for survival…” (Messner and Rosenfeld in Hughes, 2007:146)
  80. 80. Merton’s five responses to the ends- means dilemma: • Conformity • Innovation • Ritualism • Retreatism • Rebellion
  81. 81. Conformity accepts both the goals and their cultural holds as desirable and the socially approved means of pursuing those goals.
  82. 82. Innovators are determined to achieve conventional goals but are willing to use unconventional means of doing so (cheat, bribe, steal, etc.)
  83. 83. Ritualists are the opposite of innovators. They are compulsive about following the rules to the point where the means become an end in themselves and original goals are forgotten.
  84. 84. Rebels reject both the values and the norms of their society. They substitute new goals and means. This could be radical movements to the extreme right or left such as militia movements or radical socialists.
  85. 85. Retreatists have given up on both the means and the goals. They are societies dropouts. They could be homeless, drug addicts, alcoholics, and the like. (Question: is retreat necessarily a choice or an effect?)
  86. 86. Modes of Adapting Accepts Culturally Approved Goals Accepts Culturally Approved Means Conformist Yes Yes Innovator Yes No Ritualist No Yes Retreatist No No Rebel Creates new goals Creates new means Merton’s Typology of Adaptation to Anomie
  87. 87. Do you know anyone who fits Merton’s typology perfectly? Where do you fit?
  88. 88. Cultural Transmisson Theory • Beginning with Gabriel Tarde in the nineteenth century he concluded that imitation explains deviance. He thought that there was a “group mind.” • Criminals (like good people) imitate those around them.
  89. 89. Cultural Transmisson Theory Later expanded by another nineteenth century thinker named Gustave Le Bon the group mind applied to the masses, i.e. crowd psychology.
  90. 90. • The cultural transmission perspective was further developed in part from the research of a group of sociologists at the University of Chicago (Herbert Blumer). • They concluded that deviance is culturally passed from one generation to the next. • As new groups enter an already deviant orientated neighborhood, the juveniles learn social deviance.
  91. 91. Differential Association Theory What does the term say to you?
  92. 92. Edwin Sutherland, 1883- 1950
  93. 93. Sutherland states that if the situations favorable to deviance outweigh the situations unfavorable to deviance learned in other situations, deviance is likely to occur.
  94. 94. Being exposed to more pro- criminal than anticriminal norms and values is the process of “differential association.”
  95. 95. We learn from our peers and intimate others. Our friends. It is the “interaction” between ourselves and others that creates the learning of values. Do we learn deviance as well?
  96. 96. Sutherland says yes. Built on the interactionist perspective people learn not only how to be deviant but learn attitudes favorable to deviance.
  97. 97. How can or do we apply Sutherland’s theory of “differential association?”
  98. 98. How about parents moving to a “better” neighborhood? What do parole officers suggest about parolees affiliations?
  99. 99. On the other hand, what are the lessons learned in prison? This is still cultural transmission isn’t it?
  100. 100. Note that most incarcerated juvenile delinquents, and about a third of adult offenders have immediate family members who also have been in jail or prison.
  101. 101. So what holds us together in the first place?
  102. 102. Travis Hirschi and the Social Bond
  103. 103. • Attachment • Involvement • Commitment • Belief
  104. 104. Attachment: The process of being involved in social relationships with others. “Control is more likely where the psychological and emotional connections among group members are high and members care about one another’s opinions.” (Shoemaker in Hughes and Kroehler)
  105. 105. Involvement is the process of being involved in social relationships with others. One way to keep people from being deviant is to get them to spend their time conforming. I.e. Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, church fellowships, school programs, etc. (Hughes and Kroehler)
  106. 106. Commitment refers to the strength of the investment people have made in conventional social ties and relationships. Those who have strong commitments in their social lives are not likely to deviate because of the losses they may incur if they are identified as deviant.
  107. 107. Belief is a bond by way of conventional values and ideas about morality. The less people believe in the conventional values of society, the more likely it is that deviance will occur. (ibid.)
  108. 108. Conflict Theory
  109. 109. Conflict theory has its origins in Karl Marx
  110. 110. According to orthodox Marxism, a capitalist ruling class exploits and robs the masses, yet avoids punishment for its crimes. Is “crimes” too strong a word?
  111. 111. What about corporate price fixing (US drug prices) and corporate pollution? What about robbing pension plans? Are these crimes? Note that corporate crime costs the US economy over 200 billion dollars a year. That is more than street crime.
  112. 112. To get conflict theory you have to think in terms of class. Randall Collins explains:
  113. 113. 1. Historically, particular forms of property (slaves, feudal landholding, capital) are upheld by the coercive power of the state; hence classes formed by property divisions (slaves and slave-owners, serfs and lords, capitalists and workers) are the opposing agents in the struggle for political power …
  114. 114. • Slave owners • Lords • Capitalists • Slaves • Serfs • Today’s workers Each Group is in a struggle for Power
  115. 115. Who owns most of the property in our society?
  116. 116. The top 20 percent of households in wealth own more than 80 percent of all wealth.
  117. 117. 1. Nearly 94 percent of wealth in America is owned by 40 percent of households. That leaves only 6 percent of America’s wealth for the remaining 60 percent of households.
  118. 118. 2. Material contributions determine the extent to which social classes can organize effectively to fight for their interests; such conditions of mobilization are a set of intervening variables between class and political power. [The more wealth you have the more political power you have.]
  119. 119. 3. Other material conditions – the means of mental production – determine which interests will be able to articulate their ideas and hence to dominate the ideological realm.
  120. 120. Addendum:
  121. 121. Anonymous
  122. 122. Anonymous
  123. 123. Euro Pirate Party