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C2 Anomie


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Social Structure, Anomie
Anomie and its manifestations in Society - Casteism and Communalism

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C2 Anomie

  1. 1. Anomieand its manifestations in society<br />
  2. 2. SOCIAL STRUCTURE<br />Definition and Concept<br />
  3. 3. Social Structure<br />Definitions<br />Radcliffe Browndefines social structure as “an arrangement of persons in institutionally controlled or defined relationships, (such as the relationship of king and subject, or that of husband and wife)”.<br />Morris Ginsberg regardssocial structure as “the complex of principal groups and institutions which constitute societies”.<br />
  4. 4. Social Structure<br />…Definitions<br />Ogburn and Nimkoff are of the opinion that “In society, the organization of a group of persons is the social structure. What the group does is the function”.<br />Many sociologists have used the term ‘social structure’ to refer to “the enduring, orderly and patterned relationships between elements of a society”. <br />
  5. 5. Social Structure<br />Understanding Social Structure<br />The term ‘structure’ refers to “some sort of ordered arrangements of parts or components”<br />A musical composition, a sentence, a building, a molecule or an animal have a structure.<br />Similarly, society too has its own structure called ‘social structure’.<br />The components or units of social structure are “persons”.<br />
  6. 6. Social Structure<br />Elements<br />According to H.M John, the main elements of social structure are as follows:<br /><ul><li>Subgroups of various types;
  7. 7. Roles of various types;
  8. 8. Regulative norms governing sub-groups and roles;
  9. 9. Cultural values </li></ul>(any one of these elements – a sub-group, a role, a social norm, or a value-may be called a “partial structure”)<br />
  10. 10. Social Structure<br />Parts<br />According to Radcliffe Brown, the parts of a social structure are;<br /><ul><li>all social relations of person to person;
  11. 11. different social roles of individuals;
  12. 12. differentiated social positions</li></li></ul><li>Anomie<br />The word anomie comes from the Greek root:<br />A = without<br />Nomos = law<br />Émile Durkheim<br />1958 - 1917<br />
  13. 13. Anomie<br />Background<br />The demise of traditional communities and the disruption of norms, values, and a familiar way of life were major concerns of nineteenth-century philosophers and sociologists. Hence, the concept anomie was used by early sociologists to describe changes in society produced by the Industrial Revolution.<br />Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie as a basis of deviant behavior<br />
  14. 14. Anomie<br />Durkheim defined the term anomie as a condition where social and/or moral norms are confused, unclear, or simply not present. Durkheim felt that this lack of norms or pre-accepted limits on behavior in a society led to deviant behaviour. ∴Anomie = Lack of Regulation/Breakdown of Norms <br />Anomie refers to an environmental state where society fails to exercise adequate regulation or constraint over the goals and desires of its individual members <br />
  15. 15. Anomie<br /><ul><li>Durkheim believed that anomie is common </li></ul> when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in its economic fortunes, whether for good or for worse and, more generally, when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and what was actually achievable in everyday life.<br /><ul><li>Anomie is a breakdown of social norms and it is a condition where norms no longer control the activities of members in society.
  16. 16. Individuals cannot find their place in society without clear rules to help guide them. Changing conditions as well as adjustment of life leads to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance.
  17. 17. He observed that social periods of disruption leads to higher rates of suicide.</li></li></ul><li>Anomie<br />Robert King Merton also adopted the idea of anomie to develop Strain Theory to explain deviant behavior, defining it as the discrepancy between common social goals and the legitimate means to attain those goals. <br />In other words, an individual suffering from anomie would strive to attain the common goals of a specific society yet would not be able to reach these goals legitimately because of the structural limitations in society. <br /><ul><li>As a result the individual would exhibit deviant behavior.</li></li></ul><li>Anomie<br />Merton discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory. <br />For Merton, anomie is the state in which social goals and the legitimate means to achieve them do not correspond. <br />
  18. 18. Anomie<br />Anomie = Anarchy?<br />According to Durkheim, anomie is a reaction against or a retreat from the regulatory social controls of society, and is a completely separate concept from anarchy which is an absence of effective rulers or leaders.<br />Anarchy denotes lack of rulers, hierarchy, and command<br />whereas <br />anomie denotes lack of rules, structure, and organization. <br />
  19. 19. Anomieand Its manifestations in Society<br />
  20. 20. CASTE<br />A sociologist would define caste as a hereditary, endogamous, usually localized group, having a traditional association with an occupation, and a particular position in the local hierarchy of castes. <br />Relations between castes are governed, among other things, by the concepts of pollution and purity, and generally, maximum commensality occurs within the caste<br />Caste in India<br />Jaati is the term used to denote communities and sub-communities in India. It is a term used across religions.<br />
  21. 21. CASTE<br />Varna<br />Early Indian texts like the Rigveda, Manusmriti and the Puranas speak of &apos;Varna,&apos; which means order, category, type, colour (of things), and groups the human society into four main types as follows <br />Brahmin-the class of educators, law makers, scholars and preachers of Dharma in Hinduism. <br />Kshatriya - Warrior<br />Vaishya - merchants, artisans, and cultivators<br />Shudra - workers, farmers and service providers<br />
  22. 22. CASTE<br />In Durkheim&apos;s usage, anomiereferred to a situation in which cultural norms break down because of rapid change. <br />Merton changes the concept slightly, to refer to a situation in which there is an apparent lack of fit between the culture&apos;s norms about what constitutes success in life (goals) and the culture&apos;s norms about the appropriate ways to achieve those goals (means).<br />
  23. 23. CASTE<br />Casteism leading to anomie<br />Different ways of following and interpreting existing norms-no collective consciousness<br />State of norm-lessness in between normal and pathological conditions <br />Anomie leading to casteism<br />Need to have a collective consciousness<br />
  24. 24. COMMUNALISM<br />Communalism<br />Communalism is an ideology which states that society is divided into religious communities whose interests differ and are, at times even opposed to each other the antagonism practiced by the people of one community against the people of other community or religion can be termed “communalism”.<br />T.K.Oommen has suggested six dimensions of communalism:<br />Assimilationist: scheduled tribes are Hindus.<br />Welfarist: Parsi association working for the uplift of Parsis.<br />Retreatist: Bahai community.<br />Retaliatory.<br />Separatist: Bodos in Assam, Gorkhas in west Bengal.<br />Secessionist: Sikh population demanding for Khalistan.<br />
  25. 25. COMMUNALISM<br />Hindu – Muslim Communalism.<br />Md. Ghazni & Md. Gori. : looting. <br />Qutubdin: first sultan of Delhi, religious dominance.<br />After Second World War:<br />“Unity from top”: Congress party.<br />1942 Muslim league came as strong party.<br /> M.A. Jinna: congress is a Hindu body.<br />1940: slogan of Pakistan by Muslim League.<br />1946: creation of Pakistan.<br />1992-93: Ramjanam Bhoomi-babri Masjid issue.<br />
  26. 26. COMMUNALISM<br />Hindu - Sikh Communalism. <br />1. Akalis: wanted the shrines to be by a body of democratically elected representative…. SGPC came into existence in 1925.<br />2. Nirankari: reformist movement against the induction of Hindu religious practices in the Sikh system of worship.<br />3. Militant group: led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale started a Sikh separatist movement and began a demand for separate state of KHALISTAN.<br />1984: Operation Blur Star.<br />1984, October: Operation Black Thunder.<br />
  27. 27. COMMUNALISM<br />Features of communal riots:<br />Politically motivated than fuelled by religion.<br />Besides political interest, economic interest too plays a vigorous part.<br />More common in north India than south and east India.<br />Most communal riots take place on the occasion of religious festivals.<br />The use of deadly weapons in the riots is on the ascendancy.<br />Theories of communal violence.<br />communalviolence is a collective violence. When a large section of people in the community fail to achieve their collective goals, or feel that they are being discriminated against and deprived of equal opportunities, they feel frustrated and disillusioned and this collective frustration leads to collective violence.<br />1. Social Barriers Theory.<br />2. Theory of polarisation and Cluster Effect.<br />
  28. 28. Theories of communal violence.<br />Communalviolence is a collective violence. When a large section of people in the community fail to achieve their collective goals, or feel that they are being discriminated against and deprived of equal opportunities, they feel frustrated and disillusioned and this collective frustration leads to collective violence.<br />1. Social Barriers Theory.<br />2. Theory of polarisation and Cluster Effect.<br />COMMUNALISM<br />
  29. 29. Anomie<br />