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CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
BY CHRISSI KEOGH
THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD
What is the Enlightenment?
It occurred from 1600 to 1800; it was an intellectual period in Europe.

During in this era, re...
Key Concepts
Favouring Science over Religion; it was a time that
rejected ‘supernatural’ ideas.

Philosophers ideas had im...
Key Philosophes
Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Voltaire (1694-1788)

David Hume (1711-1776)

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

Immanuel...
The Birth of Sociology
“The Philosophy of the Eighteenth Century had
been critical and revolutionary, that of the
nineteen...
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Grew up in the wake of the French Revolution.

As a person, he rejected religion and royalty and...
EMILE
DURKHEIM
1858-1917
Social phenomena and societies cannot be
understood in reference to individuals.

Individuals are the products of society....
Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas
Religions represent the expression of moral codes, they
define acceptable behaviour and lay o...
Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas
Society requires an increasing division of labour in order to maximise
production as well as...
Social Change
Durkheim’s approach to human societies come in
two fundamental types; traditional and modern.

Firstly, trad...
The division of labour exists yet the term does not
just refer to different jobs but instead the
institutions and functions...
Society experiences dysfunction and conflict
which is caused by the absence of established
normalities and functions. This ...
THE MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY
KARL MARX
1818-1883
“Men can be distinguished from animals by
consciousness, by religion or anything else you
like. They begin to distinguish ...
“The human being is in the most literal sense a
zoon politikon (an animal which lives in
communities), not merely a gregar...
Marx’s model is referred to as ‘base’ and
‘superstructure’ model.

Within said model, the material is referenced as
“means...
Primitive Communism: this concept originated from Marx and
‘Friedrich Engels’ both arguing that societies were originally
...
In antiquity, plebeians (commoners) and slaves get
exploited by the upper classes; patricians.

In feudalism, the serfs (l...
Marx defines class as an objective representation
in relation to the means of production.

Marx also introduces the idea of...
“In so far as there is merely a local
interconnection among these small holding
peasants, and the identity of their intere...
Within Marx’s theory there are two aspects; the
materialist and the humanist. These are also sometimes
known as ‘structure...
Throughout history there has been class struggles.

However, beneath that struggle is the development of
productive forces...
“Men make their own history, but they do not
make it just as they please; they do not make it
under circumstances chosen b...
THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF
CAPITALISM
MAX WEBER
1864-1920
Weber rejects mono-casual explanations and
materialist conceptions (Marxist) of history. This is
based on the fact that th...
He sees capitalism as a system within which the
goal is to maximise profits through peaceful means,
rational organisation o...
Weber highlights an affinity between the belief system of
Calvinists and the necessary behaviour of successful
capitalists.
...
The theory continues that we are all pre-destined to
either salvation or damnation. God has already
decided the fate on wh...
These beliefs indirectly encourage investigation using
Science.

Having a belief in predestination creates a pathological
...
Wealth accumulation, scientific investigation,
frugal consumption, strong productivity and
reinvestment are all the behavio...
Traditional

Affective

Wetrational (value rational)

Zweckrational (instrumentally rational)

This idea fits with his idea ...
While Weber is against the idea of determinism he
believes the future is going to experience
increasing rationalisation an...
CAPITALISM: A MARXIST ANALYSIS
Capitalism is a system that lacks a central organisation and
is made up of individual capitalist concerns; the main aim
is...
There tends to be a rise in the organic ratio of fixed capital in
relation to labour.

These usually lead to the rate of pr...
In the long-run, there is a tendency to incorporate
huge number of workers into huge productive
units and cities.

Additio...
The tendency for capitalism to centralise means
crises increase in severity, and the effects of each
crisis get more and mo...
While creating the proletariat; capitalism creates issues
for itself. Marx believes this class will rise up and remove
cap...
SUICIDE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION: DURKHEIM
Emile Durkheim describes his position as
sociological rationalism.

“man is a product of history: there is nothing in him
...
‘a thing originating in the
institutions or culture of a
society which affects the
behaviour or attitudes of an
individual ...
Mechanical solidarity is the social integration of
members in a society that share common beliefs
and values. The common v...
In the Division of Labour (1893) the relationship
between specialisation and differentiation of
function, secularisation, i...
“every case of death resulting directly or indirectly from a
positive or negative act performed by the victim himself
and ...
Egoistic: suicide occurs in a society which experiences excessive
individualism i.e. low social integration. Committed by ...
Expression of a moral crisis in Western society.

Over integration and over-regulation can lead to pathological
consequenc...
THE CONCEPT OF ALIENATION: MARX
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have had a
significant impact in current understandings of
modernity.

Contemporary society ...
Alienation is a central theme in Marx’s philosophy
of history.

There are themes of alienation in capitalism; the
origins ...
The Economic and Philosophical Manuscript (1844)

Defines labour as: “mans self-confirming essence” -
Marx.

The basis of hu...
It occurs when there is a lack of control, when the
ability to control ones life, environment, labour,
institutions and so...
Influence of Ludwig Feuerbach.

Religion dissociates us from ourselves.

We project our power onto God- what we create domi...
Forms of Alienation
A worker is alienated from the product of his labour i.e. the worker gets
objectified. The product bein...
Overall Concept
The overall idea of alienation is that control over
the world has been taken by capitalism i.e. in an
expl...
RATIONALISATION/DISENCHANTMENT: WEBER
Rationalisation
Rationalisation: Refers to the impact of planning
modern life.

Bureaucracy: is a form of administration t...
Individuals become more and
more insignificant due to large
administrative structures.

Reduced all value of non-
religious...
Disenchantment
Growth of Science takes over other ways of
understanding the world.

Science is unable to provide meaning t...
Weber’s Theories and Ideas
Individuals would have to find
meaning in modern life by finding
areas not colonised by
rationali...
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Classical Sociological Theory

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University First Year level revision notes on Classical Sociological Theory. Contains notes on Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim among others. All notes come from university lecture notes and online research. Includes quotes from sociologists, a history of sociology, keywords and theories and ideas.

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Classical Sociological Theory

  1. 1. CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY BY CHRISSI KEOGH
  2. 2. THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD
  3. 3. What is the Enlightenment? It occurred from 1600 to 1800; it was an intellectual period in Europe. During in this era, revolutionary ideas regarding the relationship between society and man evolved. The time saw a generation of thinkers known as Philosophes that happened across Paris; extending to Scotland and other countries in Europe. Philosophes (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals in the Enlightenment period. These people applied reason to different concepts such as economics, social issues, philosophy etc. “Have courage to use your own reason” -Immanuel Kant
  4. 4. Key Concepts Favouring Science over Religion; it was a time that rejected ‘supernatural’ ideas. Philosophers ideas had importance over Priests. Belief that men-society relationship could be perfect and productive. Science was a superior concept.
  5. 5. Key Philosophes Montesquieu (1689-1755) Voltaire (1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Adam Smith (1723 – 1790) Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) Timeline Industrial Revolution/Urbanisation The American War of Independence French Revolution 1760 1776 1789
  6. 6. The Birth of Sociology “The Philosophy of the Eighteenth Century had been critical and revolutionary, that of the nineteenth century will be inventive and constructive”- Saint-Simon (1760-1825). Sociology is the idea that rational Science can be applied to the social world to create progress and an improved life
  7. 7. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Grew up in the wake of the French Revolution. As a person, he rejected religion and royalty and focused on studying society; this he named Sociology. During his young life the European society was experiencing alienation and violent conflicts. Influenced by Henri de Saint-Simon. Established a new religion of humanity based on Science. Different ideas: Theological- In this stage, anything that cannot be explained is put down to the supernatural. It is divided into three stages: a) Fetishism: where man accepts existence of the soul or spirit. B) Polytheism: where man begins to believe in magic. They believed in several Gods, created the class of Priests and get the blessings of these Gods. C) Monotheism: Man believes there is only one centre of power which controls the activities of the World. They believed in the power of a single God. Metaphysical-In this stage it was believed that the an abstract power determines World events and does not believe in one single God. Positivism- No place for belief or superstition; everything is explained in a rational sense. Comte was against all types of irrational elements in that of social thinking. It only takes into account logical or mathematical proof; rejecting both theism and metaphysics.
  8. 8. EMILE DURKHEIM 1858-1917
  9. 9. Social phenomena and societies cannot be understood in reference to individuals. Individuals are the products of society. ‘Social facts’ are facts that can be studied scientifically. They influence the way individuals act and how they think. Humanity has a dual character; including the capacity for morality and an insatiable appetite. Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas
  10. 10. Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Religions represent the expression of moral codes, they define acceptable behaviour and lay out what is socially necessary. Durkheim is also known as a ‘functionalist’. Social facts have a cause and a function; the cause explains the origin whereas the function explains the perseverance. Durkheim explains how change is possible. ‘Utilitarians’ have the belief that industrialisation is underlined by rational economic behaviour.
  11. 11. Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Society requires an increasing division of labour in order to maximise production as well as increasing the amount of human happiness. Vast amount of individuals become a social force and their behaviour can be understood from a societal perspective. In order for such a social force to exist; society itself must have changed in some key respect. There is not any evidence suggesting the sum of human happiness has been increased by industrialisation. In a study of suicide it was suggested that while individual cases may be best explained by psychology; the social phenomenon of suicide rates is best explained by sociology.
  12. 12. Social Change Durkheim’s approach to human societies come in two fundamental types; traditional and modern. Firstly, traditional society can be categorised as mechanical solidarity. This is due to the resemblance of the members of society based on functions and beliefs. Furthermore, modern societies are can be categorised as organic solidarity. This is the analogy that relates to organs in the body; each have separate functions yet are mutually dependent.
  13. 13. The division of labour exists yet the term does not just refer to different jobs but instead the institutions and functions within society. The economic division of labour reflects societal differentiation. Societies either have to compete or co-operate in order to survive. This is settled by the triumph of morality over appetite. Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas
  14. 14. Society experiences dysfunction and conflict which is caused by the absence of established normalities and functions. This state Durkheim describes as ‘anomie’. Durkheim’s theory of power and exploitation needs developing. Often, he is considered a defender of capitalism- a ‘conservative’ thinker. He called himself a ‘socialist’ despite being opposed to Marxism and communism. Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas
  15. 15. THE MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY KARL MARX 1818-1883
  16. 16. “Men can be distinguished from animals by consciousness, by religion or anything else you like. They begin to distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence, a step which is conditioned by their physical organisation. By producing their means of subsistence men are indirectly producing their actual material life.” -Marx [In McLellan, D. (1973) pp. 144-145] Marx’s Quotes
  17. 17. “The human being is in the most literal sense a zoon politikon (an animal which lives in communities), not merely a gregarious animal, but an animal which can individuate itself only in the midst of society. Production by an isolated individual outside society is as much of an absurdity as is the development of language without human beings living together and talking to each other” -Marx [In Callinicos, A. (1983) pp. 69] Marx’s Quotes
  18. 18. Marx’s model is referred to as ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ model. Within said model, the material is referenced as “means of production” and surrounds “forces of production” and “objects of production”. “Relations of production” refers to the social side. “The mode of production” is the combination of the relations and means of production that define societies essential nature. Marx’s Theories and Ideas
  19. 19. Primitive Communism: this concept originated from Marx and ‘Friedrich Engels’ both arguing that societies were originally based on egalitarian (people who believed in equal opportunities) social relations etc. Antiquity: meaning the ancient past; prior to the middle ages. Feudalism: a social system of the Middle Ages in which people fought and worked for nobles who gave them land use and protection in return. Capitalism: is a political and economic system within which the country’s industry and trade get controlled by private owners (for profit) instead of by the state. Modes of Production
  20. 20. In antiquity, plebeians (commoners) and slaves get exploited by the upper classes; patricians. In feudalism, the serfs (lowest feudal class) as well as the peasants are exploited by aristocracy and landowners. In capitalism, the proletarians (industry workers) are exploited by the bourgeoisie (capitalists). Who Exploits Who?
  21. 21. Marx defines class as an objective representation in relation to the means of production. Marx also introduces the idea of “class consciousness” in some works. Class struggle transforms society; the material factors within society are the determinants of what is possible. Marx’s Theories and Ideas
  22. 22. “In so far as there is merely a local interconnection among these small holding peasants, and the identity of their interests begets no community, no national bond and no political organisation among them, they do not form a class.” -Marx [The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, A. (1852)] Marx’s Quotes
  23. 23. Within Marx’s theory there are two aspects; the materialist and the humanist. These are also sometimes known as ‘structure’ and ‘agency’. Capitalism is based on production for ‘accumulation’ and capitalists themselves are continuously changing the means of production. Additionally, capitalism also creates new class i.e. the proletariats. Marx considers the material basis for creation of classless societies a result of an absence of scarcity. Marx’s Theories and Ideas
  24. 24. Throughout history there has been class struggles. However, beneath that struggle is the development of productive forces. Feudalism created aspects of capitalism but the system itself had to be eradicated in order for capitalism to thrive. In the beginning capitalism was largely progressive, however, after a while it puts a strain on further human development. Technical developments within capitalism prove it is possible creating a better world, although, whether it occurs depends on active participation of people and class struggle. Marx’s Theories and Ideas
  25. 25. “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.” -Marx [The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, A. (1852)] Marx’s Quotes
  26. 26. THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM MAX WEBER 1864-1920
  27. 27. Weber rejects mono-casual explanations and materialist conceptions (Marxist) of history. This is based on the fact that they remove the human elements in social action. The correlation between capitalism and Protestantism is accepted. Weber reverses the Marxist view of base and superstructure. Weber’s Theories and Ideas
  28. 28. He sees capitalism as a system within which the goal is to maximise profits through peaceful means, rational organisation of production and the use of Science and technology. He considers capitalism a system within which there are not any limits on desires to accumulate. Traditional limits/boundaries are no longer in function. Weber’s analysis of capitalism is extremely similar to that of Karl Marx. Weber’s Theories and Ideas
  29. 29. Weber highlights an affinity between the belief system of Calvinists and the necessary behaviour of successful capitalists. Calvinist beliefs: an absolute God who is incomprehensible to humans. God is divine while humans are not and it is impossible to understand God’s ways. Trying to understand His ways is considered arrogant. This God is considered to have created the world and universe for His own glory; all humans exist only to serve the greater glory of God. God does not exist for humanity, humanity exists for God. Calvinists and Belief in God
  30. 30. The theory continues that we are all pre-destined to either salvation or damnation. God has already decided the fate on whether people should be saved or damned. God’s decision cannot be changed, or questioned as we cannot assume our power is greater than His. A small minority will be saved for heaven while the vast majority is condemned to eternal damnation. In addition, all pleasures of the flesh are considered sinful. Calvinists and Belief in God
  31. 31. These beliefs indirectly encourage investigation using Science. Having a belief in predestination creates a pathological state of anxiety. Calvinists overcome their anxiety by living a life of hard work. Wealth gets accumulated rather than consumed. Their behaviour is not logical but rather psychological; Calvinists try to reassure themselves that they must be an elected one for heaven. Calvinists and Belief in God
  32. 32. Wealth accumulation, scientific investigation, frugal consumption, strong productivity and reinvestment are all the behaviours generated by the Calvinist belief system; corresponding to the requirements of capitalism. Weber demonstrates that action can be shaped by beliefs; he believes in the typology of action. Calvinists and Belief in God
  33. 33. Traditional Affective Wetrational (value rational) Zweckrational (instrumentally rational) This idea fits with his idea of Verstehen. Weber is not attempting to replace one mono-casual explanation of history with another; he is suggesting that there is non mono-casual explanation in the first place. Typology of Action
  34. 34. While Weber is against the idea of determinism he believes the future is going to experience increasing rationalisation and bureaucratisation. The effect of this is to destroy the human spirit and create an “iron cage of bureaucracy”. The Future is Bleak
  35. 35. CAPITALISM: A MARXIST ANALYSIS
  36. 36. Capitalism is a system that lacks a central organisation and is made up of individual capitalist concerns; the main aim is accumulation. There is a strong desire for profits. These profits are the result of labour. The values of any given thing is essentially determined by the necessary amount of labour power needed to produce it. Labour power is elastic. Competition forces investment to create competitive edge. Overall, this results in capitalism being more and more productive and constantly increases technology. What is Capitalism? CAPITALISM
  37. 37. There tends to be a rise in the organic ratio of fixed capital in relation to labour. These usually lead to the rate of profit falling. Therefore creating a crisis of overproduction and profit squeeze; some companies go bankrupt. However, each crisis is eventually overcome i.e. each slump is eventually followed by a boom. Capitalist state: the executive of the modern state, however, it is a committee for managing bourgeoisie affairs. The capitalist state attempts to overcome individual interests. CAPITALISM
  38. 38. In the long-run, there is a tendency to incorporate huge number of workers into huge productive units and cities. Additionally, there are constant tries to increase exploitation which strives workers to organise as well as defend their interests. Due to capitalists forcing trade union issues on workers; these workers learn their own power and become class conscious. CAPITALISM
  39. 39. The tendency for capitalism to centralise means crises increase in severity, and the effects of each crisis get more and more dramatic. While the system may be able to recover, it leaves many individuals unable to and in these cases changing the system seems a more reasonable solution. Feudalism became an obstacle in human progress and was violently eradicated- therefore for Marx’s capitalism in its decline also became an obstacle and has to be overthrown. CAPITALISM
  40. 40. While creating the proletariat; capitalism creates issues for itself. Marx believes this class will rise up and remove capitalism; alike to when the bourgeoisie overthrew feudalism. This will, in his theory, create a new era. In proletariat terms the only solution is communism or socialism. Due to the lack of any private property there would be no rich or poor, no masters over servants and ultimately no inequality all together. Despite these theories, Marx does no give a detailed analysis of how communism would function in practise. CAPITALISM
  41. 41. SUICIDE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION: DURKHEIM
  42. 42. Emile Durkheim describes his position as sociological rationalism. “man is a product of history: there is nothing in him that is either given or defined in advance” - Durkheim [1979, pp. 69]. Demonstrating Sociological method: Rules of Sociological Method (1895)
 It argues that “the cause of sociology that is (i.e.) objective, specific and methodical” -Durkheim [1982, pp. 35]. Rationalist strategy to understand the social reality
  43. 43. ‘a thing originating in the institutions or culture of a society which affects the behaviour or attitudes of an individual member of that society.’ Social facts have a representational nature i.e. they are signs of common culture. E.g. law, language, religious practises, the division of labour and beliefs. Social Facts Bonds of Social Solidarity They determine the extent to which individuals are connected to specific rules. It is also the extent to which individuals get controlled by norms, values of society and social rules.
  44. 44. Mechanical solidarity is the social integration of members in a society that share common beliefs and values. The common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that functions internally in individual members allowing them to cooperate. Differentiation required a new form of solidarity i.e. organic connection to community. Social Relatedness
  45. 45. In the Division of Labour (1893) the relationship between specialisation and differentiation of function, secularisation, individualism and freedom of markets. Modern society contains certain pathological features. Relationship: Individual and Society
  46. 46. “every case of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act performed by the victim himself and which strives to produce this result” -Durkheim [In Aron (1970) pp. 35] What causes suicide? Social Phenomenon Suicide is not seen as an expression of mental state/ individual pathologies Balance between integration and regulation Suicide (1897)
  47. 47. Egoistic: suicide occurs in a society which experiences excessive individualism i.e. low social integration. Committed by people who are not supported in a cohesive social group. ! Altruistic: a term coined to describe suicide committed for the benefit of others in a community e.g. self-sacrifice for military objectives in wartime. It reflects a courageous indifference in the loss of a life. Anomie (normlessness in contemporary world): a condition in which social and moral normalities are unclear or not present. Lack of norms lead to atypical behaviour. Fatalistic (over-regulation): that occurs in social conditions where the individual experiences prolonged unjust treatment. Durkheim considers it the result of excessive regulation; when you are over-regulated in a society. Types of Suicide
  48. 48. Expression of a moral crisis in Western society. Over integration and over-regulation can lead to pathological consequences. Critique Durkheim places over-emphasis on the social causes. Under representation of individual mental states. Not enough recognition of the role of belief in determining whether or not a death is considered a suicide. Some factors of Durkheim’s studies need to be challenged. Suicide and the Wider Society
  49. 49. THE CONCEPT OF ALIENATION: MARX
  50. 50. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have had a significant impact in current understandings of modernity. Contemporary society regularly uses the concept of alienation. Alienation highlights a sense of dissatisfaction with experiences and lack of control or connection with people/institutions. The Concept of Alienation
  51. 51. Alienation is a central theme in Marx’s philosophy of history. There are themes of alienation in capitalism; the origins do not exist within our psychology but instead in social relations. Marx’s goal was to understand as well as explain what about capitalism is dysfunctional. Why does Alienation occur?
  52. 52. The Economic and Philosophical Manuscript (1844)
 Defines labour as: “mans self-confirming essence” - Marx. The basis of human labour involves culture, life and the ability to engage with nature. Labour is considered a fundamental part of our existence. Marx’s materialism: Human capacity to produce and reproduce on the basis of existence; objective activity in that of food, shelter and clothing. Labour
  53. 53. It occurs when there is a lack of control, when the ability to control ones life, environment, labour, institutions and social relations is deprived. It can also represent a sense of disconnection i.e. separating oneself from others, the inability to develop ones life. Thesaurus: objectification, estrangement, rationalism, anomie & fetishism. Alienation as a Term
  54. 54. Influence of Ludwig Feuerbach. Religion dissociates us from ourselves. We project our power onto God- what we create dominates us. Religion is considered the heart of a heartless world or the spirit of an unspiritual situation. “Religion is the self-conscious feeling of man who has not yet either found himself or has already lost himself.” -Marx. [In Elements of the Philosophy of Rights, (1835)] Religions Involvement in Alienation
  55. 55. Forms of Alienation A worker is alienated from the product of his labour i.e. the worker gets objectified. The product being produced is therefore of higher importance than whoever is producing it. A worker is also alienated from the process of production. Therefore, there is no internal satisfaction in working; the worker is externalised from the process. Certain forms of work can create a sense of loss in purpose and meaning for a worker, for instance, television sales. Alienation can also be experienced in the sense of conscious productive activity i.e. what distinguishes humans from other animals. The idea that what is animal becomes human and what is human becomes animal. Another form of alienation is in the sense of humans being alienated from social communities and other people. ‘The basis of life under capitalism is replaced individualism’.
  56. 56. Overall Concept The overall idea of alienation is that control over the world has been taken by capitalism i.e. in an exploitive and egoistic way. This negativity is shown through environmental struggles we have, economic issues, social justice and what we consume.
  57. 57. RATIONALISATION/DISENCHANTMENT: WEBER
  58. 58. Rationalisation Rationalisation: Refers to the impact of planning modern life. Bureaucracy: is a form of administration that relies on rules, regulations, chains of command, hierarchies and guidelines. Formal rationality: amount of quantitative calculation & logical thought used when performing administrative duties. Substantive rationality: measures of ultimate values.
  59. 59. Individuals become more and more insignificant due to large administrative structures. Reduced all value of non- religious functional bureaucracy. Iron Cage McDonaldization “The process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world” -George Ritzer. Represents Weber’s bureaucratisation and iron cage. Rules, regulations and systems predetermine the structure of the production process. It represents a loss of individual choice and creativity. Assembly line production of food (from production to sales).
  60. 60. Disenchantment Growth of Science takes over other ways of understanding the world. Science is unable to provide meaning to substantive questions of how we should live or how we should die. Disillusionment: is the loss of an ethical substantive value in Western culture. Pessimistic outlook: our fate is characterised by rationalisation and disenchantment of the world.
  61. 61. Weber’s Theories and Ideas Individuals would have to find meaning in modern life by finding areas not colonised by rationalisation. World becoming dispirited. Socialism is not a solution to rationalisation & the loss of meaning.

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