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Crime and Deviance
Labelling theorists argue no act is inherently
criminal or deviant in itself, in all situations
and all times. instead, it...
To answer this, sociologists are interested in
the role of what Becker calls, moral
entrepreneurs. These are people who le...
For example, Platt argues the idea of ‘juvenile
delinquency’ is a result of a campaign by
upper-class Victorian moral entr...
Becker notes social control agencies may
campaign for a change in law to increase
their power. For example, the passing of...
Whether a person is arrested, charged or
convicted depends on factors...
 Their interactions with agencies of social
cont...
Cicourel believes officers have typifications (their
commonsense stereotypes of what the typical
delinquent is like). This...
Cicourel thinks justice is negotiable. He notes
the middle class are less likely to be charges
due to their background not...
Cicourel used official crime statistics within
his study. He argues statistics don’t give a
valid picture and so can’t be ...
Lemert distinguishes between primary and
secondary deviance.
 Primary deviance
deviant acts that aren’t publically labell...
 Secondary deviance
deviant acts which are the result of labelling.
This means an actor may now only be seen in
terms of ...
Young conducted a study of ‘Hippy’ marijuana
users in Notting Hill. Initially, their use of
drugs were peripheral (primary...
Lemert and Young’s work illustrates that it is
the hostile social reaction that creates
serious deviance. Therefore, the s...
The deviance amplification spiral is a process
in which the attempt to control deviance
leads to an increased level of it....
Recent studies have shown how increases in the
attempt to punish and control young are having
the opposite effect. Triplet...
Braithwaite distinguishes between 2 types of shaming...
 Disintegrative: the crime and the criminals are labelled as
bad ...
 Too deterministic
 Ignores the real victims of crime
 Ignores people could actively choose to deviate
 Why do people ...
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Labelling Theory

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Crime and Deviance, A2 AQA Sociology

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  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
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Labelling Theory

  1. 1. Crime and Deviance
  2. 2. Labelling theorists argue no act is inherently criminal or deviant in itself, in all situations and all times. instead, it only comes to be so when others label it as such. It is that nature of society’s reaction to the act which makes it deviant. For Becker, a deviant is someone to whom the label has been successfully applied.
  3. 3. To answer this, sociologists are interested in the role of what Becker calls, moral entrepreneurs. These are people who lead a moral ‘crusade’ to change the law in the belief it will benefit those to whom it is applied. But, Becker argue this new law has 2 effects...  The creation of a new group of ‘outsiders’  The creation/expansion of a social control agency to enforce the rule and impose labels on offenders
  4. 4. For example, Platt argues the idea of ‘juvenile delinquency’ is a result of a campaign by upper-class Victorian moral entrepreneurs to protect young people at risk. The ‘juveniles’ has a separate court so the state could extend it’s power into ‘status offences’ (i.e truancy)
  5. 5. Becker notes social control agencies may campaign for a change in law to increase their power. For example, the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 was to outlaw its use. He argues this law was actually to extend the Bureau’s sphere of influence. Thus, it is the efforts of the powerful individuals and groups to redefine behaviour as acceptable that leads to new laws being created.
  6. 6. Whether a person is arrested, charged or convicted depends on factors...  Their interactions with agencies of social control  Appearance, background, biography  The situation and circumstances of the offence Piliavin and Briar found police decide to arrest youths based on judgements of physical cues. Decisions were also influenced by class, gender, ethnicity, time and place.
  7. 7. Cicourel believes officers have typifications (their commonsense stereotypes of what the typical delinquent is like). This resulted in law enforcement showing a class bias, so the police patrol working class areas more intensively, resulting in more arrests and so confirming their typifications. Other social control agencies also reinforce the bias. For example, probation officers held the ‘commonsense theory’ that juvenile delinquents came from broken homes, poverty and lax parenting. They assume they would offend in the future and so supported non-custodian sentences for them.
  8. 8. Cicourel thinks justice is negotiable. He notes the middle class are less likely to be charges due to their background not fitting that of a ‘typical delinquent’ and that parents could negotiate and be apologetic. This meant the suspect could be ‘counselled, warned and released’
  9. 9. Cicourel used official crime statistics within his study. He argues statistics don’t give a valid picture and so can’t be used as a resource. Instead, they need to be treated as a topic and we should investigate how the statistics were created. (this is a good point to make in any essay when statistics are a form of evidence or even in essays regarding research methods)
  10. 10. Lemert distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance.  Primary deviance deviant acts that aren’t publically labelled. It is pointless to seek a cause as it is so widespread and is usually uncaught. It is easy to rationalise these acts as ‘a moment of madness’ for example as they aren’t part of an organised deviant way of life. They have little significance for self status or concept and so actors don’t generally seem themselves as deviant.
  11. 11.  Secondary deviance deviant acts which are the result of labelling. This means an actor may now only be seen in terms of the label by society which comes to be their master status. This provokes a crisis for an actors self-concept and one way to resolve this is to accept the label which could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Acting out from the label is what Lemert refers to as secondary deviance.
  12. 12. Young conducted a study of ‘Hippy’ marijuana users in Notting Hill. Initially, their use of drugs were peripheral (primary deviance). However, labelling and the persecution by the control culture led the hippies to see themselves as outsiders. They retreated to becoming a closed group and started using drugs as a central activity (secondary deviance)
  13. 13. Lemert and Young’s work illustrates that it is the hostile social reaction that creates serious deviance. Therefore, the social control process produces the opposite to law abiding behaviour. However, Downes and Rock note we can’t predict whether someone who has been labelled will follow a deviant career.
  14. 14. The deviance amplification spiral is a process in which the attempt to control deviance leads to an increased level of it. This leads to more control and so yet more deviance. A good example of this is Cohen’s study: “Folk Devils and Moral Panics” (more of this to be found in the media powerpoint – to be uploaded soon!)
  15. 15. Recent studies have shown how increases in the attempt to punish and control young are having the opposite effect. Triplett notes an increasing tendency to see young offenders as evil and to be less tolerant of minor deviance. The criminal justice system has relabelled status offenders such as truancy as serious and so now there are harsher sentences. So, as Lemert predicted, this has led to an increase in deviance. These findings prove labelling has important policy implications. Logically, we should make and enforce less rules to be broken.
  16. 16. Braithwaite distinguishes between 2 types of shaming...  Disintegrative: the crime and the criminals are labelled as bad and so the offender is excluded from society.  Reintegrative: this shaming just labels the act and not the actor. Reintegrative shaming avoids stigmatising the offender, but makes them aware of their actions and the impact upon others. It also encourages society to forgive them and accept the offender back into society. This avoids pushing the actor into secondary deviance. He points out that in societies where reintegrative shaming is used, crime rates are lower.
  17. 17.  Too deterministic  Ignores the real victims of crime  Ignores people could actively choose to deviate  Why do people commit primary deviance before they are labelled?  It implies that without labelling, deviance wouldn’t exist  Implies deviants are unaware that they are deviant until they have been labelled  It recognises the role of power, but ignores the source of it by focusing on ‘middle range officials’ (it ignores who makes the rules)  Ignores the origin of labels and why they are applied to certain groups

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