Social Disorganization Theory


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Social Disorganization Theory

  1. 1. Bernardo GuillenGovernor State University
  2. 2. IntroductionClifford Shaw and Henry McKay initially proposed the theory in their book published in the year 1942.Highlights variations in crime rates among neighborhoods.Assumes that basis of crime behavior is entirely dependent on neighborhood’s structural and cultural states.
  3. 3. Development of the TheoryClifford and Henry examined distribution of delinquency among various groups in Chicago.Found that cases of delinquency reduced as one moved from the city center outwards.Neighborhoods with high levels of delinquency had high numbers of social problems.Concluded that crime is a likely product of neighborhoods dynamics.
  4. 4. Family as a process leading to crimeSocial disorganization causes juvenile violence by affecting family structures and stability.Family instabilities eliminates essential set of regulations that control youth’s behavior.Weak families and lack of effective guardianship lead to increased crimes.
  5. 5. The influence of SutherlandSutherland sets the stage for understanding several theories on crime based on Differential Association Theory.An individual can acquire criminal tendencies by associating with persons who are considered deviant.This relationship allows persons to learn specific traitsFrequency, and time determine the likelihood of crime
  6. 6. Influence of SutherlandSutherland’s assertion explains the influence of peers in crime processes.Sutherland presents nine propositions that can be summarized as learning crime.Additionally, he addresses explores criminal motivation, communication, logic, and group think.
  7. 7. Neighborhood processes and crime occurrenceSocial disorganization such as low economic status, residential mobility and ethnic heterogeneity affect informal regulations plans.
  8. 8. Neighborhood processes and crime occurrenceNeighborhoods with compromised social state are likely to have sparse local friendship network, unsupervised youths and poor social organization.Lack of effective control measures increases the rates of crimes.Social disorganization models promote the assessment of important social dynamics that result in cohesive and helpful neighborhoods
  9. 9. Economic factors and crime ratesEconomic deprivation leads to social disorganization.Social disorganization and poverty increases violence among youths.Poor communities lacks enough resources for defending their interest collectively.Economic inequalities creates latent hostilities.
  10. 10. The Implication of the theoryPublic spending and private investments should be channeled towards impoverished areas.Family preservation programs should be funded.Large public bureaucracies should be neighborhood-based.
  11. 11. References Akers, R. L. (2009). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers. Steenbeek, W., & Hipp, J. R. (2011). A longitudinal test of social disorganization theory: feedback effects among cohesion, social control, and disorder. Criminology, 49(3), Sun, I., Ruth T., & Randy G. (2004). “ Social Disorganization, Legitimacy of local institutions and neighborhood crime: An exploratory study of perceptions of police and local governments,” journal of crime and justice Witherspoon, D., & Ennett, S. (2011). “An Examination of Social Disorganization and Pluralistic Neighborhood Theories with Rural Mothers and Their Adolescents.” Journal Of Youth & Adolescence,