Using instructional media


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Using instructional media

  1. 1. Using instructional Media
  2. 2. Using instructional Media The instructional devices prepared by the teacher take the centre stage in this teaching methodology. The teaching aids are used to provide a concrete experience about the lesson for the children since they are seen or heard or both. Modern classrooms which are equipped with audio- visual equipment and a rich collection of audio-visual materials for learning enable the teacher to plan ideal teaching-learning scenarios. Today the teaching of some special topics in science are facilitated through tape recordings, radio programs and television lessons.
  3. 3. Using instructional Media Such audio-visual tools which range from the simplest tricks, stones, and chalkboards to the more recent micro-films and video tapes are now referred to as instructional media. The science teacher must be knowledgeable in planning and using these non- human resources for effective classroom instruction.
  4. 4. Using instructional Media The audio-visual materials widely used in teaching science can be grouped into the following types: 1. Projected teaching aids, e.g., films , slides, filmstrips 2. Prepared transparencies 3. Real objects and specimens, e.g., flower, fruit, insect, rock, mineral, soil, and stuffed animals. 4. Models e.g., globe, human torso, models of volcano, surface relief of the earth, solar system, layers of the earth, various land forms, miniatures, etc.
  5. 5. Using instructional Media 5. Graphic materials, e.g., political maps and relief maps 6. Mounted pictures, photographs and clippings 7. Diagrams, drawing, painting and sketches 8. Aquarium, terrarium, mini weather station, mini zoo 9. Collection, e.g., variation in plants and animals 10. Clippings, e.g., inventions, significant science events. 11. Tapes and records for audio lessons
  6. 6. Using instructional Media Some audio-visual equipment that help greatly in teaching science which are usually found in the schools audio-visual centre or media centre are. 1. Projectors, e.g., slide, opaque, micro projector 2. Record player 3. Tape recorder 4. Radio 5. Television set 6. Video tape recorder 7. camera
  7. 7. Using instructional Media A general listing of educational media for teaching and learning science includes the following: • Textbooks • Encyclopaedia • Newspapers • Documents • Collections • Transparencies • Models, mock ups • Puppets • Cartoons • Posters • Displays • Fair exhibits • Recordings • Slides • Clippings • Films
  8. 8. Using instructional Media • Specimens • Maps, globes • Radio programs • Graphs, charts, diagrams • Magazines, journals • Flannel board materials • Supplementary books • Flat pictures, photographs The science resource centre may provide a space where the children can construct or improvise tools which they will need in various laboratory activities. The work area should provide simple construction tools, drawing materials and boards for preparing unit displays. A fully equipped media centre provides equipment for viewing films and audio devices for listening.
  9. 9. Advantages of Using Instructional Media As a teaching technique, the use of instructional media provides a concrete and direct learning experience for children in the elementary age group. Still in the concrete stage of their intellectual development they understand and attach meanings to objects and phenomena which they personally see, hear, manipulate, and witness. One of the general goals of science teaching is the development of skill in the basic investigative processes such as observing and describing properties of objects, comparing and classifying things around them, and estimating and measuring various quantities they need daily. The use of real objects, specimens and models will greatly enhance their skill in observing since they are able to touch, taste, smell , listen and examine things closely. Preparing graphs, diagrams, and charts help develop the skill in recording and interpreting data.
  10. 10. Advantages of Using Instructional Media The use of films, slides and flat picture afford the children the opportunity to view objects or organisms at close range such as films on microorganisms and internal organ systems. They are able to view distant places which might be difficult for them to reach, like a safari which shows the habitat of wild animals. Projected materials communicate directly thus eliminating much use of words. Simple concepts of nuclear fusion and fission might be difficult to explain and be understood well by the pupils or read in printed materials but may more easily be learned when viewed in films. This group of instructional aids captures the attention and sustains the concentration of the young especially if action-filled, coloured, or presented in carton style.
  11. 11. Suggestion for Effective use of Instructional Media Instructional media can greatly enrich teaching if used effectively. Some suggestions for their effective use are here given. 1. The teacher must be in constant search for media resources which are available in the immediate environment of the children such as objects and organisms such as stuffed birds and fishes. Present live, harmless animals. Use real flowers which will add to the pupils environment than plastic forms which are poor imitations of nature
  12. 12. Suggestion for Effective use of Instructional Media Local radio programs may include broadcasts about current science information. Science lessons are also presently shown on television. Films can be rented or borrowed from the Film Exchange Centre or the National Media Production Centre. Such as resource. Such resources if available in the locality will undoubtedly help achieve some specific objectives of a science lesson. Science teachers should not miss the chance of utilizing them to great advantage.
  13. 13. Suggestion for Effective use of Instructional Media 2. Involve the children in a variety of learning activities that would require construction of audio-visual materials such as preparing posters, bulletin board displays, exhibits, puppets, models, etc. these activities will encourage pupils to design their own learning tools as well as enhance their creativity and resourcefulness. They may be motivated to take photographs for their own record of significant scientific events.
  14. 14. Suggestion for Effective use of Instructional Media 3. If possible, provide a workshop which is equipped with simple construction tools, drawing materials, recording equipment, radio and television set. 4. Choose carefully the films, educational programs and printed materials to be used to suit the children’s age, needs, interests and level of understanding. 5. Models and miniatures must be checked as to accuracy of the information being presented. Use materials that are similar to the original if possible. Scaled models are highly informative.
  15. 15. Suggestion for Effective use of Instructional Media 6. Avail of information regarding radio broadcasts that can supplement special science lessons. These broadcasts usually provide up-to-date information and can disseminate such to a great number of listeners in very short time. But like films, they must be selected to the suit the age level and background of the children. Sample lessons using instructional media. The science teacher should be able to identify which lessons can be taught more effectively with the use of instructional media and what media may be used. A few are mentioned below: • Model of solar system • Relief of the earth • Lives of famous scientists • Discovery of electricity • Structure of the atom