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  1. 1. Bureaucracy<br />bureaucracy<br />Click on the links!<br />
  2. 2. Bureaucracy<br />Complex structure of offices, tasks, rules and principles of organization.<br />Rely on division of labor<br />Hierarchical <br />
  3. 3. Preferences in bureaucratic arrangements<br />Congress<br />Prefers decentralized, insulated bureaucracy<br />Preference guided by INSTITUTIONAL constraint of re-election pressure<br />Because social fear of state, Congress goes along with their preferenc.<br />Presidency<br />Prefers centralized, unified, coordinated bureaucracy that they control from the top.<br />Preference guided by the blame they receive. <br />“Presidents are held responsible by the public for virtually every aspect of national performance…”<br />
  4. 4. Administration/ Implementation<br />Service Provision <br />Regulation/ Rule-making<br />Licensing<br />Information gathering<br />Policymaking<br />
  5. 5. Adjudication<br />Discretionary Implementation<br />Advisory Role<br />
  6. 6. Bureaucracies are able to make regulations because…<br />The president has ceded power to make executive orders.<br />Congress has delegated the power to agencies.<br />No case has yet asked the Supreme Court to exercise judicial review to this unconstitutional activity<br />Article III of the Constitution gives them this power.<br />
  7. 7. Bureaucracies are able to make regulations because…<br />Congress has delegated the power to agencies.<br />
  8. 8. Sources of Bureaucratic Power (Rourke)<br />Internal Sources<br />Expertise of staff <br />Leadership<br />Organizational Esprit<br />Cohesion<br />External Sources<br />Public opinion of agency<br />Support of clientele<br />Public opinion of clientele<br />
  9. 9. The Cabinet<br />Symbolic Importance<br /> Representing Clienteles (labor, transportation, farmers)<br /> Representing constituencies through appointments<br />“Marrying the natives” or “Locked in the Cabinet”<br />
  10. 10. Department of Homeland Security<br />Created in response to 9-11 terrorist attack.<br />Decisions questioned in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.<br />Assessment of DHS coordination<br />Interview with former FEMA Chief Michael Brown<br />
  11. 11. Non-Cabinet Agencies<br />Independent Agencies<br />NASA, EPA, NSA<br />Government Corporations<br />Post Office, Amtrak<br />Independent Regulatory Commissions<br />FCC, Federal Reserve Board<br />
  12. 12. Federal Reserve System<br />Responsibilities<br />Facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit<br />Regulates member banks<br />Uses monetary policy to fight inflation and deflation<br />Need for political insulation<br />
  13. 13. What we want from Bureaucracy<br />Accountability (for actions)<br />Flexible<br />Fair<br />Expert<br />Effective <br />Efficient<br />Inexpensive<br />WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS LIST?<br />
  14. 14. Principle Agent Relationships<br />Principles: Individual with the authority to make a decision.<br />Agent: Someone who makes and implements decisions on behalf of someone else.<br />Agency Loss: The difference between what principles want, and what agents do.<br />
  15. 15. Principle Agent Problem <br />Bureaucratic Drift: bureaucratic implementation of a policy more to the liking of the bureaucracy than original legislative intent<br />Shirking and Sabotage<br />Collective Action Problem<br />Coalitional Drift: prospect that enacted policy will change because the composition of the enacting coalition is temporary and provisional. <br />
  16. 16. Can Principles Control Their Agents?<br />President<br />Congress<br />Oversight<br />Appropriations<br />Courts<br />
  17. 17. Congressional Oversight<br />Police Patrols<br />vs.<br />Fire Alarms<br />Which type is strategic for Congress?<br />
  18. 18. Will bureaucrats shirk or sabotage?<br />Constraints<br />Conflicting organizational goals<br />Civil service laws<br />Influences<br />Individual bureaucrat’s preferences<br />Peers and organizational culture<br />Contact with clientele<br />
  19. 19. Trump, continued<br /> I discovered that the city’s incompetence had extended to every imaginable detail, large and small. One week after I’d made my deal to take over rebuilding the rink, a city report was released on mistakes made over the past six years. The report provided an astounding chronology of sloppiness, indecision, incompetence, and stupidity, but it came to absolutely no conclusions about who was responsible for the fiasco and what could be done to avoid such failures in the future. If it weren’t so pathetic, it would have been almost comical. <br />The Art of the Deal, 1987<br />
  20. 20. Is the bureaucracy doing a good job?<br />Trump’s success and the government’s “failure”<br />Economic goals are not the government’s only goals.<br />Social Goals<br />