Public Policy Formulation and Analysis


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Defines the policy,lists the main features of a policy , the step by step process of policy formulation and implementation,describes the criteria to judge the efficacy and chances of success of policy and lastly the weaknesses of policy formulation in a developing country like Pakistan

Public Policy Formulation and Analysis

  1. 1. Shahid Hussain Raja Independent Consultant-Public Policy 05/10/2015 1
  2. 2.  Introduction  What is policy  Sources of policy formulation  Policy formulation process  Features of a good policy  Policy formulation in developing countries-Pakistan’s Experience  Conclusion 05/10/2015 2
  3. 3.  Quality of governance in a country is dependent on its capacity to effectively formulate and implement sound socioeconomic policies.  Although policy formulation is the responsibility of the elected members, its implementation rests with the public servants.  However civil servants also play a pivotal role in policy formulation as they prepare/vet the draft policy.  This presentation explains the way policies are formulated, the steps involved and the activities to be performed in the various steps  Its EBook version is available at Amazon at the following URL  Hussain-ebook/dp/B01672SU10/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8  05/10/2015 3
  4. 4.  Formal documented statement of intentions and actions of an organization/authority either to remove certain deficiencies or to improve the conditions in any particular area  “whatever governments choose to do or not to do” Thomas Dye (1987)  “Purposive course of action or inaction undertaken by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern” Anderson (1994) 05/10/2015 4
  5. 5.  Not a random act, rather a deliberate action  Approved by public representatives, applicable by state apparatus  Not a piece of legislation but has its own sanctity  Distinct from strategy to implement it  It could be a part of an overall development policy i.e. National Development Strategy or it could be a specific departmental policy i.e. Food Security Policy 05/10/2015 5
  6. 6.  Statement of Facts-why need for this policy  General Clauses- definitions of terms used  Policy Directions-broad outlines of what to do  Policy Measures-specific actions by whom  Institutional Mechanism-responsible authorities  Repeal Clauses-redundant clauses 05/10/2015 6
  7. 7.  Societal structural changes-demographic transition, economic transformation,  Regime change- new political elite may have new vision, mission and agenda for which  Donors/world institutions-their aid may be contingent upon certain policy changes, structural changes  Global commitments-state enters into international conventions which normally need local policy formulation  Pressure groups-industrial ,agricultural lobbies, social causes advocacy groups can force state for this  Court Orders-Superior courts orders for formulating clear policies or review an existing policy while hearing any case 05/10/2015 7
  8. 8.  Initiation of policy process  Policy formulation  Policy implementation  Policy monitoring and evaluation 05/10/2015 8
  9. 9.  PHASE- 1 Establishment of a task force  PHASE -2 Diagnosis of the situation  PHASE-3 Production of a first/second draft of the policy  PHASE- 4 Presented for endorsement. 05/10/2015 9
  10. 10.  The concerned ministry gets its approval from the competent authority, usually the minister in charge  In case of multisectoral policy- the cabinet  If it affects the provinces-Council of Common Interests (CCI)  Once approved ,it is formally notified 05/10/2015 10
  11. 11.  Once approved ,the civil servants execute it  Prepare strategy to implement it-procedures or programmes or both  Correct interpretation is the essence of ethics  Go for positives, empathy while interpreting it  Remember every precedent is not to be followed 05/10/2015 11
  12. 12.  Essential element of policy cycle  Effective in achieving the objective ?  Take mid-term corrections where needed  Periodic revision of the policy 05/10/2015 12
  13. 13.  Legal/Constitutional Validity-no action against law  Internal Consistency- comprehensive, no contradiction  External Consistency-no clash with other policies  Technical Feasibility-proposed projects are practicable  Resources Availability-adequate recourses ensured  Financial Viability- proposed projects self financing  Economic Benefits-if not self financing, then externalities  Social Acceptance-not against social norms and values  Political Commitment- fit within political culture  Environmental Compliance-climate change etc 05/10/2015 13
  14. 14.  Mixed Bag-good policies also bad policies  Procedural mismatch-mostly made by bureaucrats  Institutional overstepping-foreign policy by army  Structural flaws-contradictions, inconsistencies  Evaluation failure-monitoring mid term or final  Personality imprints-die with the champion person  Global influences-too much influence of WB/IMF  Implementation inadequacies-bureaucratic failure 05/10/2015 14
  15. 15.  Thank you for viewing the presentation  If you liked it, kindly do express your opinion in the column below.  Its detailed EBook version is available at Amazon  Please download it at the following URL@US$ 2.99,  Formulation-Analysis-Hussain- ebook/dp/B01672SU10/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 05/10/2015 15
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