Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining factors


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A brief but concise presentation on development management and bureaucracy's restraining and constraining factors.

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Development Management and Bureaucracy restraining and constraining factors

  1. 1. Bureaucracy and Development Management in South Asian Context: Driving and Restraining Forces<br />Presented by<br />Prajwal Mani Pradhan<br />Mahbuba Khatoon Minu<br />Sk. Belayet Houssain<br />Nusrat Fedrousi<br />
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation<br />Bureaucracy and Development management Relationship<br />Restraining and Driving Forces for Bureaucracy<br />Insights from Nepal<br />Insights form Bangladesh<br />
  3. 3. Bureaucracy<br />A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarch bureaus and offices, each of which has a specified mission.<br />Public agencies that translate the intent of democratic institutions into actions.<br />
  4. 4. Advantages ?<br />Ability to organize large tasks<br />Concentration of specialized talent<br />
  5. 5. Disadvantages ?<br />Efficiency vs. responsiveness<br />Responsiveness<br />Efficiency<br />
  6. 6. Analysis adapted from Hirschmann’s article<br />
  7. 7. A brief history of conflicting Interests<br />Riggs argued that too much attention was being given to the civil services of the Third World. <br />He was concerned that this would encourage an overdeveloped and unaccountable bureaucracy which would lead in turn to negative development (Riggs, 1960).<br />
  8. 8. Other scholars in the movement continued to believe that it was essential to persevere with a reform agenda for bureaucracies (Raphaeli, 1967; Waterston, 1965). <br />Ageneral loss of momentum in the second half of the 1960s, Schaffer concluded that the movement had reached a `deadlock'.<br />
  9. 9. Meanings into bureaucracy and Development Mgmt.<br />Subject<br />Object<br />Medium of development & development mgmt<br />(For implementation)<br />Bureaucrats<br />Programme<br />
  10. 10. Conceptual diagram <br />Driving Factors<br />Bureaucracy<br />Bureaucracy<br />Driving Factors<br /> Bureaucracy<br />Restraining Factors<br />Present Situation <br />Future Situation<br />Past Situation<br />
  11. 11. Driving Forces for Bureaucracy<br />Debureaucratization<br />Localization and training<br />Circumvention<br />Reorientation<br />Decentralization<br />Privatization and pressure<br />Restraining Forces<br />
  12. 12. Debureaucratization<br />Earliest attempt to transform bureaucracy-1950s and 1960s<br />Came through “Development administration movement” [American-dominated but primarily Asian-focused collection of comparative concepts and suggestions for reform.]<br />Stripped of conceptual content, it called for radically different kind of civil service.<br />
  13. 13. Debureaucratization<br />Weberian model was inappropriate for poor<br />Context(unstable and challenging)<br />Resources(far less manpower and money)<br />Challenge or task(not only to provide services but to initiate change in public behavior and act as a catalyst for development)<br />These all were different from western countries.<br />
  14. 14. Debureaucratization<br />Proposed: <br />drastic flattening, <br />different relationship with public, <br />flexible task force approach, <br />field offices than head quarters<br />Simply put proponents of this approach wanted to turn bureaucracy on its head.<br />THIS DID NOT HAPPEN!!!<br />
  15. 15. Debureaucratization<br />The bureaucrats seemed <br />Neither the will,<br />The capacity,<br />Nor the political freedom to undertake large scale structural and attitudinal changes.<br />The movement failed to make effective linkages with its most important potential partner, the third world bureaucrat. Therefore lost its relevance.<br />
  16. 16. Debureaucratization<br />A prime reason for this failure was lack of understanding of the bureaucracy as stakeholder and actor. <br />Outsider scholar saw as challenges( the outcomes of which they would not have to face)<br />The bureaucrats saw as problems.<br />Instead of considering development fad of moment, they gave attention to their own perceptions and interest and acted accordingly.<br />
  17. 17. Localization and training<br />Promotions recruitment, training, technical assistance, new job descriptions, the use of super numerous posts and development projects were all focused.<br />When asked for their opinions they asked for:<br />Localization<br />Training<br />Professionalization<br />Justified in terms of developmental needs and nation-building.<br />But also expanded status and employment opportunities of the bureaucrats themselves.<br />
  18. 18. Localization and training<br />A central contradiction<br />Organization objective was often, to use the training to increase his her options and mobility.<br />In many cases individual motivations won out over organizational objectives.<br />
  19. 19. Circumvention<br />Attention was given to build semi-autonomous public enterprises or parastatalslocated outside the conventional ministries.<br />Growing feeling of frustration with the bureaucracy:<br />Inefficient<br />Corrupt<br />
  20. 20. Circumvention<br />Public enterprises(state-owned enterprises) seemed to be solution.<br />Could be effective mechanism for reducing foreign control making up lack of an effective private sector.<br />Bureaucracy didn’t simply stand by and watch this(reducing of its sphere of control and opportunities for employment.<br />
  21. 21. Circumvention<br />Bureaucrats moved quickly and effectively either to take up these(better paid and resourced jobs) or in alliance with politicians to spin a web of bureaucratic and political controls over the new enterprises.<br />Bureaucracy might have been bypassed but not the bureaucrats.<br />
  22. 22. Reorientation<br />Unable reform bureaucracy or to bypass it-an attempt to re-orient it.<br />The problems of this approach were threefold<br />Positive public response needed<br />Tasks of preparing job descriptions for and monitoring the performance of reoriented people-focused civil service would be very difficult.<br />The whole exercise would be time-consuming and demonstrable results would take longer to emerge<br />Very little in this for the bureaucrats<br />
  23. 23. Decentralization <br />Kiggundu’s (1989) “an ideal rather than a reality”<br />Takes a very politically secure government to parcel out political power.<br />Takes more resources than most local councils have, allowed to keep.<br />
  24. 24. Decentralization<br />Numerous obstacles to bureaucratic support for devolution in poor countries.<br />Lack of financial and incentive systems at the local level.<br />To make decentralization work therefore require an affordable means of attracting able administrators away from the capital, especially since politicians show little sustained interest (Silverman, 1990).<br />
  25. 25. Privatization and pressure<br />1980s and 1990s dominated by Policy-based lending called Structural Adjustment Program.<br />SAP required:<br />Reduction in size of government<br />Reduced govt. controls<br />Regulations<br />Subsidies and protection of various forms<br />Markedly increased emphasis on free market <br />Liberalization of trade<br />
  26. 26. Privatization and pressure<br />Having failed to turn the bureaucracy on its head, or to bypass it, decentralize or reorient it the new answer was to privatize it or least part of it.<br />Nelson(1989) identified essential problem as anti-state nature of many reform<br />It actually takes a more effective government to privatize.<br />
  27. 27. Privatization and pressure<br />Issues related with Pay:<br />Mozambique by early 1990s a driver working for a donor organization was earning more than the most senior agricultural officer in government.<br />In Kenya the disparity between public and private wages grew by 3 per cent a year during the period 1982-92.<br />
  28. 28. Privatization and pressure<br />The World Bank and the bilateral donors should decide what they want; <br />The Bank keeps telling us to reduce the size of government; <br />The other are now telling us to add all of these new democratic agencies<br />
  29. 29. Becoming accountable and responsive<br />Governance has become latest concern of development management.<br />It means different things to different people.<br />The World Bank(1992) “manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country economic and social resources for development.” <br />
  30. 30. Becoming accountable and responsive<br />To make bureaucracy accountable , transparent and even responsive the objective is to achieve this outcome by supply but by demand(civil societies)<br />It should conduct more like the private sector through reforms such as those suggested by new public management.<br />
  31. 31. Becoming accountable and responsive<br />Over-large state(one that employs too many people, absorbs too much revenue and intervenes in areas where it does not belong)<br />Over powerful state(one with too many powers of regulation and control) <br />Poor countries where??? First one<br />
  32. 32. Four Corners of Bureaucratic Decline<br />Incentives<br />Public service<br />Resources<br />Legitimacy<br />
  33. 33. Becoming accountable and responsive<br />How can governments raise the revenue necessary to pay salaries that will motivate bureaucrats to provide quality services that will re-establish legitimacy?<br />
  34. 34. Learning from Nepal<br />Adapted from: SapkotaB.N., Building partnerships for reforms in the Nepalese bureaucracy,Asian Review of Public Administration<br />
  35. 35. Nepal perspective<br />Nepal had blend of civil and military systems before the advent of democracy 1951 A.D.<br />Since then Nepalese bureaucracy has travelled a long way from centralized and discretionary regime to a more decentralized, liberal and rule of law regime.<br />The civil service act of 1956 was enacted.<br />1960 multi party system replaced by party less panchayat system(lasted for 30 years)<br />During this period also various reform commission were constituted at various level.<br />
  36. 36. In 1975 another commission made recommendation to promote institutional dev of govt agencies especially capacity building in planning in project dev and its supervision and in designing and implementing corresponding M&E systems.<br />
  37. 37. Factors affecting Nepalese bureaucracy<br />Political milieu<br />Dec 16 1960, partylesspanchayat system<br />1990 multi party democracy<br />People participation through decentralization and empowering local bodies emphasized in constitution.<br />Right to information granted by constitution<br />
  38. 38. Economic trend<br />Has implemented eleven development plan(including one-3 year interim plan, others are 5 year plan)<br />31% of population below poverty<br />Economic liberation was introduced with implementation of SAP.<br />
  39. 39. Social changes<br />After multiparty democracy society started to get organized by creating trade union, consumer unions and cooperatives.<br />Human rights gender equality and social welfare have become major concerns of people<br />
  40. 40. Administrative reforms<br />The role of civil service has changed.<br />Facilitation, regulation, promotion and service delivery are regarded as the main tasks of bureaucracy in lieu of control mechanisms <br />Transparency is being sought in decision making<br />Bureaucracy is held responsible for its omissions and commissions<br />
  41. 41. Restraining factors<br />Traditionally Rigid because they are tied to procedural red tapism.<br />Lack of commitment to public interest<br />Traditional attitude of bureaucracy(power holders don’t want to necessarily share authority with other partners, fear of over shadow)<br />
  42. 42. Current practice <br />Empowerment of local governments(4000 VDC, 36 MC, 75 DDC)<br />Devolution and Decentralization<br />Privatization and liberalization<br />Sharing development functions with NGOs<br />Debureaucratising measures(simplification of working procedures, bundling of administrative services, deregulation and competitions, contracting out)<br />Welcoming women as development partners<br />
  43. 43. Constitution making process<br />The interim constitution of Nepal is observed throughout the world as the most comprehensive interim constitution. <br />The constitutional assembly itself is a track record of its own because of its pronounced inclusiveness.<br />Many development project are waiting for the constitution to be formulated.<br />The Government has also announced full devolution program for selected 14 districts to be effective from fiscal year 2006.<br />
  44. 44. How did Nepal's economy survive during 10 years armed conflict?<br />increased level of social mobilization, <br />decentralization, <br />increased resources to rural areas, <br />stronger peoples' ownership of the programs and <br />increasing remittances have helped not only to prevent large scale humanitarian crisis but also to accomplish some progress in human development indicators in the country.<br />Shankar Prasad Sharma<br />Vice chairman <br />National Planning Commission<br />
  45. 45. Recent Development<br />April 16 2011, (YESTERDAY) Nepal signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA).<br />2 major objective for Nepal<br />Increased market access<br />Promote investment<br />Actions from Nepal government<br />Will form a council<br />Make action plan and act on it<br />
  46. 46. Recent Development<br />Since 2010 service sector has been opened to 11 service sector, 65 sub sector like banking financial sector, education, accounting, auditing.<br />Government identified 19 products to be exported, most match with GSP(Generalized System of Preference) Facility.<br />Proposing Nepali product to be duty free as Nepal is also a post conflict country (Caribbean, African and Afghanistan are already enjoying it).<br />Shankar Sharma<br />Nepali Ambassador to US<br />
  47. 47. Learning from Bangladesh<br />
  48. 48. Driving and Restraining Forces of Bureaucracy in Bangladesh Context<br />
  49. 49. Driving Forces<br />Civil Service Conduct Rules<br />Civil Service Discipline & Appeal Rules<br />Pension, gratuity and other allowances<br />Different cadres for different professional groups- scope for development of professionalism<br />
  50. 50. Driving Forces<br /><ul><li>Developing country- to enter in civil service is a pride and status
  51. 51. Policy formulation, implement and monitoring activities
  52. 52. Scope to engage in Development activities of the country</li></li></ul><li>Restraining Forces:<br /><ul><li>Loss of elitism/values
  53. 53. Rules and regulations
  54. 54. Derailment of commitment of ruling party after election
  55. 55. Politicization
  56. 56. Legalize black money</li></li></ul><li>Restraining Forces:<br />Inclusion of military personnel into civil service<br />Low salary<br />Force Retirement or Dumping Posting<br />Arbitrary termination & reinstate in service<br />
  57. 57. Some notable progress: <br />The Parliament started off very well including formation of the committees in the first session.<br /> Committees are active in many cases, though conflict of interest of committee members remains a predicament against effectiveness.<br />
  58. 58. Among many important laws adopted was the Right to Information Act and human rights commission . <br />Information Commission has an unenviable task of steering a process of transition from the culture of secrecy to openness. <br />
  59. 59. Government's firmness to push ahead with the implementation of the DAP of Dhaka was encouraging. <br />But this has been outshined by the report of tender-related violence, forcible grabbing of land, water bodies, forest and khas land by the leaders, agents and activists of the ruling party. <br />
  60. 60. Discussion in Bangladesh perspective<br />Can bureaucracy be successful in providing the critical support to a successful “statecraft”?<br />
  61. 61. Discussion in Bangladesh perspective<br />A strong, neutral civil service supports the growth and sustainability of better governance. <br />The political institutions too are strengthened in the process. <br />Viewed in this perspective politicization of services destroys institutional governance.<br />Trapped in a politics of zero-sum game, optimism is drawn from the Bangladeshi penchant for democratic rights. <br />
  62. 62. Discussion in Bangladesh perspective<br />We remain hopeful in spite of the contrasting picture depicted above.<br />Our people have never failed to take the correct decision.<br />
  63. 63. Thank you<br />