As part of the Interaction Design Programme, CIID ran a four week service design course in collaboration with Copenhagen Airport (CPH).
The goal was to envision new experiences for the different kinds of people that use CPH. Visiting faculty from leading service design and innovation companies - IDEO and Live Work - were invited to teach the course.
This book highlights the processes the students went through over the 4 weeks and the final concepts they developed.
Beyond Boarding Passes: Service Innovation for Copenhagen Airport
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKBEYOND BOARDING PAGE 1 INFO@CIID.DKPASSESEnvisioning new services for Copenhagen Airport 01-26 AUGUST 2011 SERVICE DESIGN COURSE from end user experience to systemic innovation COPENHAGEN INSTITUTE O F INTERACTION DESIGN
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 2 INFO@CIID.DK
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 3 INFO@CIID.DKCIID would like to give a specialthanks to Copenhagen Airport fortheir collaboration and supportthroughout this project.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 5 INFO@CIID.DKEXPERIENCES FORCOPENHAGENAIRPORT 2011
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 7 INFO@CIID.DKPREFACEThe aim of the Interaction The following projects wereDesign Programme is developed during a four-weekfor students, faculty and course in Service Design.staff to work together Students focused on thein a multicultural, designing new services formultidisciplinary studio Copenhagen Internationalenvironment to co-create a Airport. Their goal wasnew kind of education that to understand better theis relevant for academia and needs and desires of systemindustry. stakeholders and to design an entirely new offering.We believe in a hands-on anduser-centered approach to The Interaction Designinteraction design and this Programme 2011 is sponsoredone-year programme teaches by Novo Nordisk, Velux andstudents to apply technology Maersk. The programme isto everyday life – through the hosted by Kolding School ofdesign of software, products, Design.and services.Students are taught theprogramming and electronicsskills needed to work withtechnology as a designmedium and frequent workin multidisciplinary teamsencourages peer-to-peerlearning. User-researchand experience prototypingprovides real-worldgrounding to concepts andideas.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 9 INFO@CIID.DKCONTENTINTRODUCTION 12AIRPORT EXPERIENCES 16THE 4 WEEK PROCESS 24PROJECTS 37
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 11 INFO@CIID.DK SERVICE DESIGN “A set of functions offered to a user by an organisation. The results are generated by activities at the interface between the supplier and the customer”. (Bill Hollins, 2001)
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 12 INFO@CIID.DKINTRODUCTIONService design is a hot Netflix is a successfultopic in the design world, service innovation thatboth in terms teaching it facilitates the distributionand applying it to industry of entertainment media. It’sprojects. There also seems awareness of the experienceto be a growing tendency for of use (frustrations withpeople to talk about what it browsing and late fees)is. At CIID we want to develop led to innovations on thenew thinking and opinions system’s front-of-house (userabout service design, to be interface, selection queues)a place where this thinking and backstage (distributionbecomes tangible. by mail from regional centres).It is important to rememberthat service design is Opening a direct, morenot a discipline, nor is it intimate channel toformulated. It is the process consumers was an exampleof designing (a service) in the of disruptive innovationsame way product design is that signalled the decline ofthe design of a product. The neighbourhood video shops.more important question is It has also allowed Netflixwhat are services-and how do to transition seamlesslythey bring value to people? to digital on-demand distribution.As consumers, ourexperience of products and The development of serviceenvironments is influenced design innovations can beheavily by the quality of a complex undertaking.the services that govern Services mediate ourour interactions with them. experience of complexApple’s iPod or iPhone, for systems and the startingexample, has limited utility points for end-users tend towithout the delivery of vary widely based on manyservices through iTunes. factors (technical knowledge, experience with the system, awareness, attitudes toward privacy, etc.).
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 13 INFO@CIID.DKSuccessful service design beyond the assumedsolutions require support for wisdom of a system’scustomisation, adaptation current structure and drawover time – even systemic inspiration from a widerresponses to intentional set of potential solutionworkarounds and rule components, includingbreaking. product, environment, communications andIn service design, the distribution innovations.end-user often adopts therole of designer for his or Service designers alsoherself. Successful solutions benefit from understandingprovide a range of potential the experience of end-usersexperience outcomes and seeing the system from(the “platform”) with the their perspectives. Servicessupport and guidance that often mediate the userallow end-users to craft experience of systems atthe best possible service multiple stages and throughexperience. Failure to provide multiple delivery channels.the experiential tools andcues to navigate a system But not all consumer touchsuccessfully will engender points are created equally.frustration and push end- When Marriott sought tousers to find alternative attract more young businesssolutions. travellers to its flagship hotel chain, it identified theService design is ideally particular service deliverysuited for the systems thinker moments that influenceand design integrator. The brand selection amongfirst step is to understand this customer group. Byan existing system (the “As considering the range ofIs” state) and to build a clear service touch points andpicture of the stakeholder elevating those that wereand system dependencies most meaningful to its targetthat underlay the current customers, Marriott was abledelivery model. to establish new expectations and attract new customers.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 16 INFO@CIID.DKAIRPORTEXPERIENCESThe course proposed to Relatively speaking it canexplore service design be said that Copenhageninnovation opportunities Airport already providesfor users of Copenhagen a very efficient service.Airport. The project gave Therefore the course was athe possibility to look at the rare opportunity to rethink‘users’ not only as travellers the role of the airport and thebut as each individual or experience it facilities.group of people that passthrough the doors of the The evolution of airports isairport. This could be anyone influenced by various factors.from employees to taxi From advances in technology,drivers, people greeting to security restrictions andfamilies, emergency service airlines wanting to haveworkers to plane spotters and competitive advantage.even people who got on thewrong train and ended up Taking the check-in processthere by mistake! as an example; Twenty years ago it would haveThe students were asked to been common procedurethink about the ecosystem to arrive at an airport andthat surrounds the airport check your bags in ‘curb side’both in terms of the people, thus allowing you to travelinterlinked services and the through a busy terminal withinfrastructure needed to minimal baggage. Howeversupport the complexity of now, due to increasedsuch a place. security, logistically this service is far less efficient and economical to provide for every passenger.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 17 INFO@CIID.DKThe act of checking-in at This example illustratesan airport is increasingly how services are made upinvolving more active of a complex ecology ofparticipation from the touch-points that potentiallytraveller, whether it being influence each other and thechecking in online, printing user experience they provide.your own luggage tags orscanning your passport. The check-in process at airports is an exampleThe level of person to person that shows many serviceinteraction is decreasing and innovations being graduallyservices are moving towards introduced. This graduala higher level of automation. approach allows time for people to adjust theirWhat used to be a very perceptions and ease thepassive service where airline adoption process of thesestaff would essentially ‘take interventions.care of you’ is turning intoa self service platform that This course was anrequires passengers to adjust opportunity to challenge thistheir mental model and approach; create new ideasexpectations of the check-in that are radical but will stillprocess. be accepted by the people using them.This is just one point ofinteraction in the customer Essentially, how do youjourney that not only effects create new experiences thatthat moment in time but also are thought provoking andinfluences the bigger airport have potentially never beenand travelling experience seen before, but still enablepeople have. people to feel empowered to use them and see value in the idea?
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 20 INFO@CIID.DKDuring the project students were asked to consider thefollowing guidelines throughout their process.1. ‘Zoom-in zoom-out’ approachThroughout the process students should understand theservice they are designing from a macro and micro level.They should be able to zoom-out of the service to a systemicview point and see how the service is a product of multiplestakeholders and interactions over time. On the other handbeing able to zoom-in to specific design details allows you tounderstand how people will interact with a certain touch-pointand how these can have a ripple effect on entire system.2. Iterative experience prototypingThe students had time to explore many critical points beforegoing into depth with one - this allowed them to understandthe complexity in which their solution lived and also theopportunity to explore a particular part of their suggestedsolution in detail.3. A platform for actionServices should incorporate the correct blend of active andpassive participation from the user. The students were askedto try and create a feeling of empowerment towards using theservice they designed. People should feel comfortable withtheir level of engagement with the service and know that theyare doing the right thing at the right time. Services require giveand take between the user and the system.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 21 INFO@CIID.DK4. Provide a sense of ownershipAllow the user of the service to feel a sense of desirability andvalue when using the service. Strive to create the same senseof ownership people have when they buy or use a tangibleproduct.5. Use strong visual communication techniquesThough most people can relate to airports, it is important tonot assume preconceived knowledge from all participants. Theteams were pushed to use their visual communication skillsas an advantage to clearly demonstrate each element of theirservice.6. Keep it simpleAlthough it is important to have a holistic overview of the end-to-end service, it was okay for the teams to narrow their focusto a few crucial points of interaction to develop in more detailand prototype.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DK PAGE 22 INFO@CIID.DK OUR 4 WEEK PROCESSCONTINUOUS LEARNING ON SERVICE DESIGN W1 UNDERSTANDING W2 GENERATING THE CONTEXT & CONCEPTS GATHERING USER INSIGHT
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DK PAGE 23 INFO@CIID.DKW3EXPLORING W4 REFININGTHE USER THE CONCEPTEXPERIENCE
Throughout the service design course, CIID faculty wanted the stu-dents to build their own knowledge around service design, discoverit for themselves and develop new thinking around the topic. It wasaimed to not narrow their opinions by overloading them with pastdefinitions, examples and interpretations of service design.At the begining of the course faculty provided ‘just enough’ ofan introduction to service design and systemic innovation so thestudents were aware of important considerations when desiging aservice, such as a zoom-out zoom-in approach.This initial knowledge immersion was done through a concise, pro-vocative and visually strong presentation. After this, all new knowl-edge provided was through ‘hands-on’ exercises. Open discussionswere often facilitated for the students to reflect on their learningand how their thinking around service design was developing.The initial introductory exercises for the students focused on beingaware of the complexity of intertwining services that infiltrate ourlives and looking at how to map these across variables such as thelevel of innovation (incremental v’s radical) and the extent of userparticipation involved in the service (passive v’s active).Throughout these exercises the students were introduced to variousvisualisation techniques commom to service design such as userjourneys, scenarios, blueprints and stakeholder maps. These wereall crucial tools they would go on to use throughout their projectswhile developing and communicating their ideas.
The focus of Week 1 was on defining an area of concentration fordesign – a specific part of the end-user experience or currentservice delivery model – where innovation could be applied.The group’s primary goal was to generate quickly a broadunderstanding of the existing system. Who are the primarystakeholders? What shifts in technology are having an impact onthe delivery of services? What new touch-points are emerging?Early in the week, local experts and informants from CopenhagenAirport briefed the class on the current state of service delivery,key social, economic and technological trends, and current plansfor innovation. Students participated in initial mind-mappingexercises as a way to find potential themes and areas of interest tofocus on for their in-context research.For the remainder of the week, the project teams conducted fieldresearch to gather inspiration and refine their understandingof the chosen area of interest. Teams captured their researchaccording to their own requirements (video, still image, voicerecorder, etc.).The focus was on distilling insights from the research as rapidlyas possible. Teams were encouraged to conduct research“storytelling” sessions at the end of each day, capturingobservations and initial insights on post-its. Some teams organisedtheir research initially by user, capturing key narrative points,quotes and user needs (met and unmet).
In Week 2, student teams moved from problem definition toconcept development. Initially, the teams brainstormed a widearray of potential service solutions. As work progressed, however,teams refined their design criteria in order to gain greater clarityand specificity.Once brainstorming was completed, each team defined a smallnumber of potential service concepts for review with faculty.
W3 EXPLORING THE USER EXPERIENCEIn week 3 the class then shifted from design thinking toaction as students built experience prototypes of theirteam’s new service offering. The goal of experienceprototyping is to sharpen the designer’s understandingof his or her design intent – How does the prototypehelp to inform the team’s thinking about and iterativedevelopment of the service solution?Each team tested their proposed service solutions in thereal world with real people. The design teams sought tounderstand if and how these ideas bring value to potentialusers. Real people were asked to test service prototypesas part of their everyday practice. The student designersreviewed the results of the experience prototyping forclues on how to enhance their service solutions in waysthat optimise the activities, needs and expectations of allthe people.
Week 4 was intended to bring theexperience of the Service Designcourse together – a final look atthe proposed service solutionsand the process used to developit. Teams incorporated userfeedback into the final iterativeexpression of their designconcepts, tracking the changesto reflect user input. In a finalpresentation to colleagues andfaculty, teams were evaluated onboth the design solution and theprocess by which it was achieved.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 35 INFO@CIID.DKPROJECTSCPH CLOUDAli Seçkin Karayol, Marthinus Oosthuizen, Yufan (Wei) WangCPH WITH YOUDaim Yoon, John Lynch, Mette LyckegaardWORK CPHChris Bierbower, Joshua Noble, Harikrishnan GopalakrishnanA FAMILY ON THE WINGSMarco Triverio, Helle Rohde Andersen, Hao-Ting ChangSWAP HUBAlix Gillet-Kirt, Kristjana Guðjónsdóttir, Wan-Ting LiaoWELCOME CPHHarsha Vardhan Ramesh Babu, Martin Jensen, Hyeona Yang
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 37 INFO@CIID.DKCPH CLOUDAli Seçkin KarayolMarthinus OosthuizenYufan (Wei) Wang
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 39 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICECPH Cloud is a networked serviceplatform that gives support and newopportunities to passengers, staffand retailers by connecting themtogether, prompting them with usefulinformation at opportune momentsthroughout the airport (space & time)and providing a key platform forexpansion of the travelling experiencein the future.FlashTicket is part of the CPHCloud platform service that allowspassengers to credit a boardingpass with money and spend it at theairport, both during their journeyand on future journeys. The serviceprovides incentives in the form ofrounding-up spare change andspecial offers and discounts fromretailers.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 40 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?For CPH Cloud, the main user For both passengers andis the airport and all entities staff, the CPH Cloud is thethat operate within it. It exists key to providing a flow ofto facilitate the connection information that is deliveredbetween stakeholders; throughout the airport topassenger, staff, airline and the right people, at theretailers. right times. This core value provides the foundationIn the case of our example for platform services suchplatform service, FlashTicket, as FlashTicket, to createthe target user group a comfortable travelare is casual to relatively experience for passengersfrequent leisure travellers. and an efficient workFlashTicket can of course environment for staff.be useful in many specialcases, from depositing For airlines and retailersmoney on a boarding pass CPH Cloud opens up newfor unaccompanied minors to channels to provide usefulbusiness travellers collecting and meaningful informationleftover change on their services to passengers andonline FlashTicket account. staff, and empowers them to develop new passenger/ service interactions that improve the brand of Copenhagen as a flight destination. For the airport alone the power of collecting this information as passengers use the system will improve understanding of people’s use of the airport, enabling them to use this knowledge to improve experience in the future.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 41 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN?CPH Cloud is essentially Our main insights deriveda network infrastructure from research phase werethat connecting people & based around passengerplaces within the context of mindset. Many people findCPH airport. A passenger the moments in which theytravelling to Milan, for have to wait a stressfulexample, can opt in to the aspect of their journeyFlashTicket service when through the airport and partthey book their ticket online of our research insight wasat their preferred carrier. that passengers accept thatThey can plan their time this is part of the airportthrough the airport, adding experience.any offers or facilities thatCPH may be offering at We learnt that this wasthat moment in time and mainly due to a majorpreparing themselves for the lack of information at keyairport experience. moments which if provided in a sensible, subtle wayAt the airport, the passenger, would benefit a passengerschecking in, can view and “internal schedule”; the waychange their journey before in which they see themselvesreceiving their FlashTicket. spending their time at theThe ticket itself is used to airport.redeem offers, pay for typicalitems and identify themselvesand their progress to CPHusing ticket readers atlocations such as coffeeshops and conveniencestores eventually using it asa regular boarding pass totravel to their destination.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT An inspirational shadowing exercise conducted with a budget travellerW1 early in our process showed that for almost 50% of the time you are doing nothing in an airport; you are waiting. We expanded this to investigate passenger mindset and communication of information in order to better understand the reasons for this and opportunities in waiting.
FIRST CONCEPTS First run concepts explored providing a learning experience in the formW2 of an airport library,a universal ticketing system incorporating wider infrastructure of Copenhagen to give passengers an opportunity to plan their journey and a local network infrastructure based on communicating the right information at the right time to both passengers and staff.
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING After we chose the concept that we wanted to move forward with, weW3 started to develop the touch points within the service concept to better understand its main value proposition. From there we developed and executed, with help from real passengers and airport staff, a series of iterative experience prototypes connected to 2-3
inter-linked touch points that we identified as questionable and wantedto gain more user insight from. This helped us greatly in developing theconcepts quickly and identifying the key value for the passengers. A biginsight that came out of the prototyping was that our service conceptwas also relevant to the staff of the airport; an example of somethingwe would have never thought of outside of the experience prototypingprocess.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION Diving straight into experience prototyping during our conceptW4 development phase allowed us to quickly make decisions at both a ‘zoomed-in’ and ‘zoomed-out’ level about how our service operates and what touch points to develop at its core. It became increasingly apparent that varying locations in the airport worked better with
different concept prototypes and that their value was in informing thedevelopment of connected touch points that were on a conceptual level.We found more and more that people were opinionated about theseconceptual designs because we weren’t letting them experience them atthat point in time.
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 49 INFO@CIID.DKCPH WITH YOUDaim YoonJohn LynchMette Lyckegaard
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 51 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICECPH With You is a new approach tocommunication and passenger guid-ance within Copenhagen Airport.The service provides personalised,location specific information to eachpassenger as they move through theairport.CPH With You filters out unnecessarydata and provides contextual guid-ance. The service hosts and takescare of passengers as individuals,leaving them free to relax, shop andenjoy the airport.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 52 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?CPH With You is for all By communicating directlypassengers departing through with passengers, it is possibleCPH airport. At airports to take greater care ofaround the world, the task of individuals, putting people atmaking sure everyone gets to ease as they pass through thetheir specific gate on time is shopping areas and towardsmanaged using large displays, their gates.communicating en masseto passengers as they pass Because each informationthrough the airport. point in the system is location sensitive, gate informationThis new service will work and walking times can bein parallel with, but may one related in a simpler, context-day replace the displays as aware mode.passengers become awareof the benefits of personal The relationship betweenguidance. Using CPH With airport and passenger isYou, passengers no longer enhanced by this directhave to filter an airport full channel of communicationof information to find what is and opportunities arevaluable to them, instead they opened for direct marketing,receive just the information language specific options orthey need, when they need it. simple personalised niceties designed to enhance the overall experience of each passenger at Copenhagen. The service presents a win-win arrangement for the airport and travelers by putting passengers at ease while allowing them to browse, eat and shop in complete assurance that they will make their gate on time.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 53 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN?Every passenger who boards The service concept emergeda plane at CPH does so by from a statement of intent,means of a boarding pass. to personalise the experienceThat pass may be a card, of each passenger hostedpaper printed at home or by CPH airport. In-contexteven mobile phone based but research and interviewsall forms share the same 2D showed that even expertbarcode technology. users of the airport check, and double check theCurrently, the information information they need as theystored in that barcode is used pass through the airport. Thisfor access to the aircraft and often involves return visitsas proof of destination when to airport screens on manymaking tax-free purchases. occasions during the journey.CPH With You‚ makes use ofthe personal information on We learned that there arethe boarding pass to identify critical moments in thethe passenger at multiple journey where a passengertouchpoints around the asks ‘am I doing this right?’ asairport. they try to keep track of flight departure time, boardingBy cross-referencing with calls, distance to gate anddatabases containing make shopping decisions. Itcurrent gate assignments is an essential quality of thisand flight times as well service that the touchpointsas location specific data can be tuned by management;about the airport buildings, moved around the airportuseful, naturally relevant space, customised andinformation can be delivered optimised for each specificdirectly to the passenger. location.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT From the beginning we chose to focus on passenger mobility throughW1 the airport, the journey from entrance to gate and for arrivals, from gate to exit. We felt this to be an area where passenger experience is changing due to modern automation and also a context within which even a small intervention might scale to affect great improvement. .
FIRST CONCEPTS The airport experience is one where the passenger is becomingW2 responsible for more and more logistics. We hope to provide personalised information at multiple points where passengers might ask ‘Am I doing this right?’ This information should make wayfinding, timekeeping and even shopping and dining easier and more enjoyable.
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING We worked on individual touchpoints, using printed tickets to deliverW3 information to passengers. Passengers felt it was assistance overkill. As people we may have changed the dynamic by over-assisting‚ to the point of creating a stigma. A scanner with an embedded screen but no functionality drew people in and enabled conversations around expectations and positioning.
Other prototypes included gate side shopping and receiving informationon shopping receipts. A full service blueprint helped move the ideaforward. The next step was to prototype using multiple touchpointswhich gave the impression that they really worked. One willingpassenger experienced 5 touchpoints on her journey. Feedback waspositive and helpful, freeing us to spend our final week thinking aboutdesign expression and more charming, incidental possibilities.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION It was apparent that there is a fine line between assisting passengers and over-assisting, which can be extremely frustrating. While providingW4 take away tickets seemed like a sound concept in the studio, during experience prototyping passengers expressed dismay at having more pieces of paper to carry and keep organised. Advanced concepts around the boarding pass were also explored, including a gate shopping facility which allowed for purchases to be delivered before boarding.
Within the controlled airport environment this was deemed likely tohave been either too disruptive to existing business models or simplynot profitable enough to justify implementation. During our finalexperience prototype, with multiple touchpoints we felt we founda sweet spot‚ chaining together interactions with the service andproviding information in natural language, addressing the passenger byname.
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 63 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICEThe WorkCPH service communicatesvia mobile app or SMS to guidebusiness travelers through their trip.It anticipates their needs and providesuseful offers and information, whilethe WorkCPH offices provide aprivate and comfortable personalisedworking space in the city and in theairport.The WorkCPH service provides asecretary you can access with yourphone and an office you can usein the city or the airport to makeworking while travelling less stressfuland more productive.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 64 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?WorkCPH aids budget WorkCPH provides travelersbusiness travelers who with real-time informationtravel frequently for work whether they’re bookingthrough CPH but do not office spaces or not, as anhave access a flagship airline incentive to use the WorkCPHrewards private lounge. office spaces, and as a rewardThese travellers fly up to 20 to the traveler for using CPHdays a month but are rarely Airport.rewarded by their airlines fortheir patronage. If a traveler decides to book the WorkCPH space theyWorkCPH is a way for the have a quiet location to getairport to intervene and online, make calls, and work,provide a service and rich while receiving notificationsdata to these travelers, and data that they may needmaking CPH a better place to through the mobile service.work.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 65 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN?After signing-up with the The statement of intent weWorkCPH service, customers formulated was aimed atare asked to submit their helping budget businesspreferences: how they travel, travelers plan their daytheir privacy settings, what around an upcoming journeysort of beverages they would to allow them to be morelike with an office space when productive. From several ofthey book one, and their the interview sessions and in-contact info. context research, we learned that our target user groupForwarding an airline would benefit from enhancedconfirmation to the service communication with theregisters a flight with the airport and airlines, and alsoWorkCPH service and the workspaces in and aroundapplication allows you to the airport.book transport to CPH and anoffice space as soon as the This service concept aimsflight is confirmed. On the at communicating certainday of the flight WorkCPH important events directlyprovides a wake-up call, with the budget businessarranges transportation and travelers such as changeif you’ve booked an office in flight timings; while alsospace, provides a quiet place providing easy access toto work with a beverage of various services such as localyour choice. transportation and enhanced service touch points such asIn the case of delays, physical workspaces withinyour stay at the WorkCPH the airport.office can be extendedautomatically andinformation from the airlineand airport can be routedthrough the application.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT Our team explored the experience of business airline passengers andW1 how we might improve the time they spend in the airport. Travel is often a significant part of their lives. We designed for their unique travel philosophy in the hopes of improving their journeys.
FIRST CONCEPTS After the brainstorming session, ideas were clustered around differentW2 themes and contexts that included emtotional and physical well being of business travllers and services for ‘non-priveledged’ business travelers.
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING After further planning, WorkCPH was ready for introduction to ourW3 target audience. We created simple flyers that we handed out in the F Pier of Copenhagen Airport to prompt discussion with business travelers around the possibility of a service designed to make business travel in the airport better.
We then took the information from the interviewees andrefined the service for a run through. He walked through the interactionof the service as she travelled to the airport and documented thejourney and her responses.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION We realised quite quickly that we would need to have office spacesW4 located in several locations throughout the airport and would need to provide location based directions to the office space that the user would utilise. Our service prototyping focused on the messaging and structuring of the communication between the customer and the service.
Sunday 15/08 WorkCPH See Noti cations Work Check My Points Add a Trip He simply forwards his Add Services Check a Visit travel itinerary to set up Check CPH Now the event in Checking his WorkCPH account Air Berlin the WorkCPH system he can access the information for ABAB317317 his ight and set up services 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 around his ight. 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30Lars is at home, preparing for 0 9 : 4 0 Departs WorkCPH O cea business trip to Milan on the 1 0 : 5 0 Arrives 0 7 : 0 0 From Tuesday. Meeting 0 7 : 0 0 From 0 9 : 0 0 Until WorkCPH sets up 0 9 : 0 0 Until Add Services his departure and Cab Service Lars Jensen Con rm arrival and preferred 0 6 : 4 0 At James Smith He requests an o ce services. Con rm Add Attendees for 2 hours to work with a WorkCPH suggests Con rm colleague before his ight. Tuesday 17/08 a cab pickup for each Lars sets up a meeting with James of them and Lars before their ight so they can talk accepts it. to their colleagues in Tokyo. Cab Serivce 0 6 : 3 0 At Con rm Monday 16/08 Hotel Special The day of the ight, the routes Marriott to the airport are particularly busy. Learn More WorkCPH suggests taking an extra Cab Service 10 minutes Using one of the WorkCPH 0 6 : 5 5 At promotional partners he reserves a Con rm hotel for the night. James then uses WorkCPH to arrange a wake-up and a cab James arrives in CPH and heads into at 6:55. the city for a meeting. He then works forseveral hours at the Copenhagen WorkCPH in the central city. In the taxi on the way to the airport the cab noti es Lars that James will be a few moments late and also tells him what the weather will be At the meeting room they convene When James arrives, they swipe into their like in Milan.in privacy behind frosted glass, working reserved WorkCPH workspace for several hours uninterrupted. where their co ees are waiting for them. Air Berlin AB317 Air Berlin 317 Hotel Special 10 Minutes Delay Hotel Berna Internet Available They catch their ight Learn More Purchase and work productively James and Lars receive noti cations Before boarding their ight Lars checks while they y. that their ight is 10 minutes late the o ers for Milan and sees that a hotel but that it will have internet access. is o ering a discount to WorkCPH users. As we refined our messaging we eliminated certain elements of the communication and focused on how an attendant could welcome the customer to the office space and provide a human touchpoint at the point where the service becomes physical.
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 73 INFO@CIID.DKA FAMILY ONTHE WINGSMarco TriverioHelle Rohde AndersenHao-Ting Chang
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 75 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICE‘Family On The Wings’ is a communityservice connecting a child travellingalone with a different family on thesame route in order to create apersonal, playful and safe travellingexperience.The service facilitates a network oftrust by connecting families and theirchildren with other families fromtheir local environment.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 76 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?The user group is children The value lies in the personaltravelling alone. By and trustful relationshipconnecting these children that the families build usingwith a ‘host’ family, they the full service system fromwill travel with the same initiating the first contact withpeople, who speak their own another family in the onlinelanguage, throughout the community to sending a childentire journey. travelling with this family, to sharing this travellingThe service also targets experience for other users tothe parents of the children read and benefit from in thetravelling alone and the community.families who will accompanythe child on the journey. The The value is created by theservice facilitates meetings users, who connect and sharebetween families via an online their experiences through thecommunity, where the users community site.can create family profiles andget in touch with each other Moreover, tangible andby shared reference points. intangible benefits are provided for the guestThe service improves the child and the host familytravelling experience for both throughout the journey inchildren and the host family the form of access to theby creating a playful, personal fast track security check, aand smooth journey from map of all playgrounds in thecheck-in at the airport to the airport, a camera and toysarrival at the destination. for the children, coffee for the parents and a ride in an airport car to their gate. All touch-points offered ease the experience of travelling with children. Furthermore the host family has the chance to earn bonus miles when accompanying a child.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DK PAGE 77 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? up the child, if plans should WHAT DID YOU LEARN? change change. The host‘Family On The Wings’ is a family and the children also An overall learning workingservice platform facilitating receive a ‘Family On The with children travellinga trustful network of Wings’ welcome bag at this alone has been that thetravelling families. Users point to ease their journey service as it currently existscreate family profiles in through the airport. is very impersonal. Roughlythe online community and speaking, the children arestart building up a complete Before the host family and handled as human luggageand trustworthy profile the guest child arrive, the being passed from oneby providing pictures, relative picking up the child employee to another.information and sharing at the arrival destinationstories of their previous checks in to the airline The service is convenienttravelling experiences with company in order to confirm for the parents, but not‘Family On The Wings’. her or his identity. The necessarily from the relative receives two ‘Family viewpoint of a child. ParentsFurthermore, users can find On The Wings’-badges to trust the current service andshared points of reference by pass to the child and the host perceive it as safe becauseproviding information about family when they meet. they consider the airlines astheir local networks and by professional entities, evenconnecting their profile to The badge works as a though they are not alwaysFacebook and LinkedIn. symbol of the completion fully aware of the journey‘Family On The Wings’ of their journey together their child goes through.collaborates with the major and will over time become The main learning has beenairline companies and a collectors item for the that there is a discrepancyprovides several touch points children to feel proud of their between the parents’throughout the airport. accomplishment. As soon as perception of the service both families have shared and the children’s actualThe two families travelling their stories of their journeys experience. The children wetogether can either choose back to the community, the met immediately formedto check in together on badge will also appear on the attachments, especially whenthe website or meet in the family profile as a symbol of meeting people speakingairport to do it. At check-in the experience. the same language. Thatthe host family is provided showed us that the value ofwith a contact list. This list familiarity and consistencycontains information about is important for childrenwho is picking up the guest when travelling. This is notchild on arrival and additional currently considered byinformation of other people either parents or the servicewho are also allowed to pick as it is.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT We were interested in the myriad of meetings between people that CPHW1 facilitates everyday. “Unaccompanied Minors” is an example of a service that is currently being offered by the airlines, but is handled in a very impersonal way. Our research focused on the journey that these children go through and how we might enrich that experience.
FIRST CONCEPTS To accommodate our design challenge, we developed four concepts.W2 Two of these we chose to develop further were: “V.I.Parent” a service that enables parents to escort their children all the way to and from the airplane. “A Family on The Wings”, a community service that connects children traveling alone with other families traveling the same route.
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING Prototyping Trust: To prototype experiences around trust-building, weW3 mocked up a post-it mobile interface and created a simple community website. We took these experiences to people in the airport and home to two parents and asked them to sign up and search for a family. We assumed they would call each other via Skype, but instead they used the chat and decided to meet in one of their homes.
We learned that it’s easier for parents to trust other parents because of theirobvious experience with children and that it’s important for people to meet inperson before deciding to travel together. The second experience we wantedto prototype was around the incentives for host families to accompany a child.We created an upgraded experience through the airport consisting of thefamily being escorted by us through the fast track security, a camera and toysfor the kids, coffee for the parents and a ride in an airport car to their gate.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION The focus in the experience prototypes was to learn about how peopleW4 who do not know each other initiate contact and build trust. The main learning has been that trust building is a process that takes place over time. Initially we assumed that the service should also provide a formalised way for people to set meetings and places to meet.
Through the experience prototyping it became clearer that theservice should rather be a facilitator of trustful networks, providinga well-designed platform for people to get in contact. All the familieswe prototyped with preferred to arrange their own meetings. A youngmother said: “If my child is travelling with another family I would like tomeet them in a personal and informal setting like their home or mine.”
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 87 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICESwapHub is a service provided byCopenhagen Airport for passengerswho wish to experience air travel in adifferent way.It relies on values of trust, civismand reciprocity – highly prized inScandinavia– to offer passengers theopportunity to exchange personalitems on their way to, or from, aflight.SwapHub is also an onlinecommunity allowing travellers fromaround the world to share tips abouttheir trip.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 88 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?Rather than applying a By building on theproblem-solving approach to scandinavian tradition ofthe Service Design course, we mutual trust, such as theidentified an opportunity in danish “gårdbutik”, andCopenhagen Airport: there is bleeding-edge consumera category of individuals we activity, Swap Hub bringsbelieve is under-serviced. more of the spirit of Copenhagen and DenmarkThis group of travellers into the airport –whichpassing through CPH do not may spark an interest inwish to shop and are willing transferring passengers toto open to new experiences come back.and innovative behaviours.They have to spend time It is a service that is uniqueinside the airport terminals to CPH airport, setting itwhile waiting for their flight’s apart from other airportstake-off and are often subject in northern Europe andto boredom. improving the journey of a group of passengers that haveIt is a heterogeneous group so far been under-serviced.consisting of families withchildren, young couples, The hub also provideselderly, singles... of all networking possibilities tonationalities, who all feel they passengers as up-and-comingare not taken into account in creatives leave their workthe airport’s design. at the hub with the aim of getting their name out there.SwapHub offers thema friendly, collaborative Swap Hub’s value thereforeplatform to get in touch lies in increasing thewith fellow-travellers and reputation and traffic for CPHoptimise their cabin luggage airport, potentially bringingby exchanging items they no in a new customer group andlonger have a use for, as well making it a preferred transferas sharing insider’s tips on airport.their respective destinations.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 89 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN?The SwapHub community We apprehended manyis both present online and different aspects of servicephysically in one of the design, and how everyairport terminals. touchpoint can influence a user’s journey dramatically.It consists of a table where alldonated items are displayed, In an environment weafter having been labelled by thought lacked well-designedtheir last owners. experiences‚ we observed that minor tweaks greatlyUsing the hub is as easy impact the user’s perceptionas browsing the deposited of a service.items, evaluating which ofyour possessions you’re An intricate collection ofwilling to exchange, print delicate interactions makesout a stick-on label, write a for a seamless, fulfillingshort description and tear experience, and demandsoff the stub – which contains numerous competences. Thusa reference number to the the crucial importance of ourobject. team‚ fortunately composed of a graphic designer, aOnce away from the computer scientist and anSwapHub, you can consult economist/product designer‚the website, browse the that catered for all the facetsobjects you previously of a service while keepingswapped and get in touch the right balance betweenwith the other “Swappers” – objective analysis andand feel part of a community empathy.of travellers.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT Our initial observation phase had us watching how passengers and staffW1 interact. As we identified different behaviours during waiting times, we began thinking about how to improve and enrich the experience of being in transfer.
FIRST CONCEPTS During the second phase of our investigation, we focused on the needsW2 of transfer passengers. Beyond the practical aspects, we envisioned ideas including the Smart Chair and the Transfer Hall Maître D’, we also came up with the idea of a Swap Hub that targets an open-minded, under-serviced group of passengers.
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING The third week of the project led us to conduct extensive testing andW3 prototyping of the SwapHub concept. Every day of that week, we went on location and set up different versions of the Hub: first in the Transfer Centre in the form of an SAS counter, and then displayed on a simple table and later in the CPH Go, the low-cost Terminal.
We also diversified our approach to staff and tried to evaluate people’sreaction to a hostess wearing a uniform vs. an unmanned environment.Additionaly, we created a blog, swaphub.wordpress.com, to keep track ofthe project’s progress and gather people’s feedback.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION Through the four weeks of the Service Design course, we tried to rootW4 every one of our assumptions in real-life testing. We brought mock-ups to the airport and presented passengers with a believable experience very early on, constantly developing low fidelity versions of the final service – by putting together cheap props, modifying branding and communication strategy, changing location, or presenting the concept
in a different way – grounding the final solution in the users’ feedback,every step of the creative process. Future development was alsogiven careful thought, as one of our goals was to create an easilyimplementable solution for today’s Copenhagen airport but suitable forincremental growth in other transportation hubs and cities.
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 97 INFO@CIID.DKWELCOME CPHHarsha Vardhan Ramesh BabuMartin JensenHyeona Yang
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 99 INFO@CIID.DKTHE SERVICECPH Welcome is a service offeringarrivial passengers at CopenhagenAirport to plan for a warmer personalwelcome experience.Through a simple website interfacearrival passengers can choose tohave a personal guide/escort towelcome them upon arrival and alsoget the chance to customise a deckof information cards to support, guideand inspire their onward journey inthe city of Copenhagen.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 100 INFO@CIID.DKWHO IS IT FOR? WHY IS IT VALUABLE?CPH Welcome is targeted at CPH Welcome is bridgingpassengers booking online the gap between the level ofinterested in spending a little service passengers expecttime pre-planning their arrival onboard and what theyin Copenhagen for a less experience on the groundtroublesome more inspiring while finding and reclaimingwelcome experience at the luggage as well as figuringairport and onward journey in out how to take the rightthe city of Copenhagen. transportation with the right ticket at the right time.
SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 101 INFO@CIID.DKHOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN?A website allows travelers Service Design is aboutto plan for a nicer welcome zooming in and out, allexperience at Copenhagen the time. It’s about oneAirport. system blending into the next. In a team, it’s aboutBesides a free metro framing things the sameticket and refreshment way yet experiencing themwhile waiting for their differently.luggage, arriving travelerscan also choose to have a Thinking in systems of realitypersonal guide welcome and layers of interpretationthem and customize a deck can be good in analysis, butof information cards to prototyping experiencessupport and inspire their means that thinking withonward journey in the city of your head is often notCopenhagen. enough. Sometimes you need to let your body do the thinking for you. Ask yourself, are you treating the system or the symptoms of the system? Are you over-interpreting or missing out on something? Are you even heading the right direction? You never know unless you experience it yourself and share that experience effectively and inspiringly. Experience prototyping helped us test our hypotheses and quickly experiment with behaviors. Mapping observations and giving them new expression helped us define our ideas and get inspired.
CONTEXT & USER INSIGHT We decided to focus on the ‘Rituals and Rites of passage’ people undergoW1 at airports. We tried to identify and list all the emotional and practical nodes that people passing in an airport experience. One of our key insights was that of the ‘Service crash’ observed when people disembark and arrive at CPH, where the level of services offered to them decrease dramatically in quality, compared to the early travel experience.
FIRST CONCEPTS Four concepts were developed during week 2, one of which wasW2 developed further. ‘I’m your friend’ : A welcome service where you have a person waiting to greet you after you disembark and come through the arrivals gate. Other ideas generated included ‘CPH Broadcast’, ‘Info- Security’ and ‘Your Interactive Avatar’
EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING The overall aim was to explore how to facilitate a positive welcomeW3 experience for arriving passengers beginning when they enter the luggage area. We experimented with information delivered through direct human contact versus printed information and analysed how that made people feel welcomed to CPH. The experience prototype activities included a personal welcome and guided walk-through from the luggage
reclaim area all the way to the metro or train platform. As a part of thisservice experiment, the group also tested printed physical informationcards for the passengers to keep as a part of the welcoming experience.
PROTOTYPE TO SOLUTION Our final solution builds on small symbolic gestures that help provideW4 a warm welcome to arriving passengers. The potential energy in these seemingly small exchanges comes to life through experience prototyping rather than staring at one’s Post-Its. During the prototyping experience we came across people of many different backgrounds, but
through testing we learned that their information needs are actuallyquite similar. Meeting these needs can be a challenge for individuals,who often have to rediscover solutions at each new airport. Firstimpressions are important, and people appreciate small gestures. Ourservice is here to provide solutions from the airport to the city.
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SERVICE DESIGN COURSE WWW.CIID.DKPAGE 109 INFO@CIID.DKWith thanks to our Found-ing Partners: Novo Nordisk,Velux & Maersk who havemade the Interaction DesignProgramme 2011 possible.
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