In what ways was the AfricanAmerican freedom struggle, betterknown as the civil rights movement,part of a global movement forhuman rights in the 20th century?
• What is the difference between civil rights and human rights?
• Civil Disobedience pioneer• 1921 – led nationwide campaigns for: • easing poverty • expanding women’s rights • building religious and ethnic amity • ending untouchability • increasing economic self-reliance • achieving the independence of India from foreign domination.
“What difference does it make tothe dead, the orphans, and thehomeless, whether the maddestruction is wrought under thename of totalitarianism or theholy name of liberty anddemocracy?” Gandhi, 1921
“In the future days, which we seek to makesecure, we look forward to a world founded uponfour essential human freedoms. The first is freedomof speech and expression--everywhere in the world. “The second is freedom of every person toworship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. “The third is freedom from want--which,translated into universal terms, means economicunderstandings which will secure to every nation ahealthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere inthe world. “The fourth is freedom from fear--which,translated into world terms, means a world-widereduction of armaments to such a point and in sucha thorough fashion that no nation will be in aposition to commit an act of physical aggressionagainst any neighbor--anywhere in the world...”Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1941 (emphasis added).
1945 - President Truman appointed her as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly.1948 - Played an instrumental role in drafting the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.1949 - Served as the first chairperson of the UN Human Rights Commission.
• Anti-apartheid activist• Leader of the African National Congress’(ANC) armed faction• Tried and convicted of sabotage• Accused of being a communist and a terrorist• Sentenced to life in prison• Served 27 years in prison (1964-1990)
• First President of South Africa to be elected in a fully representative democratic election, serving in the office from 1994–1999
“It was during those long andlonely years that my hunger for thefreedom of my own people becamea hunger for the freedom of allpeople, white and black. I knew aswell as I knew anything that theoppressor must be liberated just assurely as the oppressed. A manwho takes away another man‟sfreedom is a prisoner of hatred, heis locked behind the bars ofprejudice and narrow-mindedness.” Nelson Mandela, 1993
“I did not want to be mistreated, I did notwant to be deprived of a seat that I had paidfor. It was just time... there was opportunityfor me to take a stand to express the way Ifelt about being treated in that manner. Ihad not planned to get arrested. I had plentyto do without having to end up in jail. Butwhen I had to face that decision, I didn‟thesitate to do so because I felt that we hadendured that too long. The more we gave in,the more we complied with that kind oftreatment, the more oppressive it became.” Parks, 2005
“He who passively acceptsevil is as much involved in itas he who helps to perpetrateit. He who accepts evilwithout protesting against itis really cooperating with it.” King, 1962“A right delayed is a rightdenied.” King, 1963
“How is a black man going toget „civil rights‟ before he firstwins his human rights? If theAmerican black man will startthinking about his humanrights, and then start thinkingof himself as part of one ofthe world‟s greatest people, hewill see he has a case for theUnited Nations.” Malcolm X, 1964
Malcolm X in an interview whileattending the Organization ofAfrican Unity in Cairo, Egypt. July1964.
• The term “civil rights” fails to encompass the cultural, social, and economic goals of the struggle.• Desegregation and voting rights were a means to achieve broader goals, such as overcoming social forces that limited freedom and opportunity.