According to Gough (1972) reading is unidirectional process from letters to sound to meaning reading is a complex process in which cognitive and psychological function of different level interact with each other in making sense of the meaning of the text.
five important components1. a large quantity of reading;2. appropriate materials that encourage students to read;3. direct teaching of reading strategies;4.teachers skilled in matching materials5.reading strategies to students’ level of interest and language proficiency(Devine 1988, Eskey and Grabe 1988)
Teacher strategies toadvance students readingability: assess prior knowledge as well as1) activate and teacher necessary background knowledge,2) teach students how texts are organized and how use the text structure in increase comprehension,3) teach reading strategies that will help students bring meaning to the text
In order for reading assessment to become usefulin students evaluation, teacher should consider thefollowing (Routman, 1994): Be thoroughly familiar with developmental learning process and curriculum. Articulate a philosophy of assessment and evaluation Know about and have experience collecting, recording, interpreting, and analyzing multiple source data. Be flexible and willing to try out multiple assessment procedures.
some major purposes for classroom-based assessment of reading (Johns 1982):Studying, evaluating, or diagnosing reading behaviorMonitoring student’s progress.Supplementing and confirming information gainedfrom standardized and criterion referenced tests.Obtaining information not available from other sources.Placement of students in need of language-basedprogram or grade-level classroom.Graduating from certain school.
Reading Assessment: Matching Purpose to TaskWhat Do I Want to Know? How Will I Find Out?Reading Comprehension Retellings Literature response journals Anecdotal records Literature discussion groups Text with comprehension questionsReading Strategies Reading strategies Reciprocal teaching Think-aloud Anecdotal records Miscue analysis Running recordsReading Skills Cloze passages Miscue analysis Running recordsReading Attitudes Reading logs Interviews Literature discussion groups Anecdotal recordsSelf-Assessment Interviews Rubrics/Rating scales Portfolio selections
Self assessment help both teacher and students become aware of students attitudes, strength, and weaknesses in reading. It is also encourages students to become independence learners. This assessment can take various formats, such are: checklist, question/answer, rating scale, scoring rubrics, sentences completion, learning logs and reflection logs. In keeping reflection logs, students are asked to express in writing what they fell they have or have not learned.
Set StandardsStandards for reading comprehension can be set by establishing cut-off scores on a scoring rubric or rating scale.For example, at least three levels of reading performance could be described as novice, intermediate, and advance.
Select AssessmentActivitiesRetellings,Cloze tests,Texts with comprehension questions,Reciprocal teaching
Retelling Retellinghelps develop oral language proficiency as well as reading comprehension.
Cloze TestsCloze tests are filled in reading passages with blanks representing words that have been deleted from the original text; the blanks are to be by the reader
There are several types of cloze tests.1. fixed ratio,Cloze words are deleted systematically by counting off, regardless of the part of speech. Every fifth, seventh, or ninth word may be deleted.2. rational/purposive deletion,Words are deleted by part of speech or content area vocabulary rather than in a set of numbering pattern.3. maze technique,Three words choices are provided at each missing word interval.4. limited,
Texts with ComprehensionQuestion Theteacher makes a copy of one page from a short reading passage or story student have been asked to read. The student responds independently to several comprehension questions posed by the teacher. Students can also create their own questions if teachers have prepared them to do so. After checking students’ responses, the teacher has a record of each student’s comprehension level with a known text.
Reciprocal Teaching (The reading strategies used in this approach are including summarizing, questioning, and predicting.)Record Teacher Observations (asking students opinion related the story)Think-Alouds, Probes, and InterviewsStrategies Checklists or Rating Scales Anecdotal RecordsMiscue Analysis and Running Records
Conclusion Activities for assessing reading should be based on activities for teaching reading. Assessment of reading, like instruction, takes planning, time, and experience. Assessment of reading should include both decoding skills and reading comprehension strategies. Assessment of reading should include student’s attitude and feeling toward reading. Assessment of reading should hold students accountable for how they use time in class for reading. Assessment of reading should be conducted regularly and be ongoing. Students should be actively involved in their own assessment, whether it be in setting criteria, engaging in self-assessment, or, evaluating peers.