Some significant issues affecting on teaching
A. Bottom-up & top-down processing
the reader must first recognize a
multiplicity of linguistic signals (letters, morpheme,
syllables, words…) & use their own linguistic data processing
to impose some sort of order on these signals (datadriven , field -independent)
we draw on our intelligence &
experience to understand a text.(conceptually -driven)
B. schema theory & background knowledge
The reader brings information ,knowledge, emotion
,experiences & culture to the printed word.
Content schemata :include what we know about people,the
world,the culture, the universe.
Formal schemata: consist of our knowledge about discourse
D. The power of extensive reading
Extensive reading :reading for getting the general idea
,reading for pleasure
Krashen ,Day , Bamford believe that extensive reading
is a key to students gains in reading ability
,linguistic competence, vocabulary, spelling.
E. The role of affect & culture
F. The role of cognition in reading
H. Effective techniques for activating schemata
Types of written language:
Nonfiction : reports, essays, articles
Fiction :novels, short stories ,jokes,
Characteristics of written language
spoken language is fleeting.
Written language is permanent.
In writing ,the writer has more processing time to write.
In spoken we have less time to speak.
The written word allows messages to be sent across
two dimensions :
The reader should interpret language that was
written in other place at other time & with only the
written words as contextual clues.
In spoken language
we have stress,rhythm, juncture,
intonation, pauses, voice quality & nonverbal cues as help
we have only graphemes & sometimes
pictures ,punctuation as help.
Most of irregularity in English manifests in high frequency words.
In English, there are many bases that are written the same .
Spoken language tends to have shorter clauses connected by more
while writing has longer clauses more subordination. (the shorter
clauses are often a factor of the redundancy we build into speech.)
In writing ,lower frequency words often appear than spoken
because more processing time that exist in written language.
Writing is quite frequently more formal than speech.
Strategies for reading comprehension
Identifying the purpose
By identifying he purpose in reading ,we know what
we are looking for & can weed out distracting information.
Use graphemic rules &patterns to aid in bottom _up
It is useful for beginners and children ,non _literate adults.
Use efficient silent reading for rapid comprehension
• we don't need to pronounce each word to our self
• Try to visually perceive more than one word time preferably
• Unless a word is absolutely to global understanding ,skip over it
and try to infer its meaning from I’s context
Skim the text for main ideas
Skimming consists of quickly running ones eyes across a whole text
for it’s gist.
Skimming gives readers the advantage of being able to predict the
purpose of the passage.
Scan the text for specific information
is quickly searching for some
particular piece of information in a text.
Use semantic mapping or clustering
Guess when you are not certain.
Not haphazard guessing
Use compensation strategy
Use contextual clues
Look for suffixes
Look for prefixes
Look for roots that are familiar.
Look for grammatical contexts that may have signal
Distinguish between literal & implied meaning
This requires the application of top down processing skills
Capitalize on discourse markers to process the relationship
Clear comprehension of discourse markers can enhance
learners reading efficiency
Reading classroom performance
a. Server as an evaluative check on bottom –up
b. Double as a pronunciation check ,
c. Serve to add some extra student participation if
you want to highlight a certain short segment of a
2. Silent reading(Intensive and extensive reading)
Intensive reading :a classroom-orinented activiy in
which students focus on the linguistic or semantic
details of a message
Extensive reading: is carried to out achieve a general
understanding of a longer text.
It is performed outside of class time
Principles for designing interactive reading techniques:
1. In an interactive curriculum ,make sure that you don't
overlook the importance of specific instruction in reading
ESL literate learners can use their own devices in learning
e.g. silent reading is excellent method to self instruction
2. Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating
We as teachers should pay attention to
students’intersts & their goals in learning to read
Language experience approach
Offering opportunities for learners to gauage their
progress through perodic instructor and self –
3. Balance between authencitiy and readability
Use authentic simple texts in the real world.
Nuttall offered 3 criteria for choosing texts for students:
4. Encourage the development of reading strategies
5. Include both bottom-up &top-down techniques
6. Subdivide your techniques into pre-reading,during
reading &post reading
Pre reading: spend some time introducing atopic
,encouraging skimming, scanning, predicting and activating
schemata and students’ curiosity.
During reading: we can give students some questions and
goals that the students should find them in the reading
We can ask students to do some tasks after reading
Follow the SQ3R
A. Survey: skim the text for an overview of main ideas.
B. Question: the reader asks questions about what he or
she wishes to get out of the text.
C. Read :Read the text while looking for answers to the previously
D. Recite: reprocess the salient points of the text through oral or written
E .Review: Assess the importance of what one has just read&
incorporate it into long term association
8. Build in some evaluative aspect to your techniques
Reading is totally unobservable.