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  1. 1. Greek Scholarship in the 15th Century
  2. 2. Bassarion• Cardinal Bessarion (1403-72) born in Trebizond and educated in Constantinople• He became a monk in 1423• He studied to a freethinker George Gemistus Plethon.• Plethon introduced him to the emperors, then he is employed on government business.• In 1438 He became a cardinal and resided permanently in Italy• His house in Rome was a centre of literary activity.
  3. 3. Politian • Politian (1454-94) is a Greek bishop who settled in Italy and whose scholarly activity was devoted mainly to theology and philosophy. • He is famous as a poet in his vernacular language and in Latin, but was equally distinguished as a scholar. • Politian has an interesting analogy in the Hellenistic world • His works include several translations from the Greek.
  4. 4. The First Printed Greek Texts
  5. 5. Aldus Manutius• The new art of printing in 15th to 17th century are difficult to design a suitable founts.• Some of the early printers produce expensive and unsatisfactory in appearance.• The lack of demand for Greek texts in sufficient numbers makes a difficulty.• Aldus Manutius (1449- 1515) had the idea of setting up a publishing house primarily for the
  6. 6. Marcus • Cretan Marcus MusurusMusurus (c. 1470-1517) was a great scholar. • He helps Aldine in publishing many Greek books. • He corrects many mistakes and errors in old manuscripts. • He was very smart and had linguistic competence. • Unfortunately, his contributions to classical
  7. 7. Erasmus (c. 1469-1536)
  8. 8. • Erasmus was also a figure whoErasmus commands attention. • In 1506, He went to Italy to improve his knowledge. Then he made a contact with Aldus. • They collaborated together in publishing Adagia, a collection of proverbs with accompanying comments and the Enchiridion militis Christiani, in which the blunt expression of his view of piety had caused some offence to ecclesiastical authorities. • Much later in his career he wrote a pamphlet on the correct pronunciation of Greek, which led to the widespread