Toward a realization of psycholinguitic principles in the esl class
Prepared by: Younes TAIABased on an article which has the same titleas the presentation written by:Mark A. Clarke and Sandra Silberstein²English Language instituteUniversity of Michigan
Outlinecurrent psycholinguistic reading theory andsome goals for L2 teachers to develop reading.The implication of a psycholinguisticperspective the learning environment, teacherbehavior, the preparation and the use of L2materials (Achieving Goals).Lesson planning within a psycholinguisticframe work + a lesson plan sample whichemphasize a skills approach to reading.
What is reading?Reading is a selective process. It involves partialuse of available minimal language cuesselected from a perceptual input on the basisof the reader’s expectation. As this partialinformation is processed, tentative decisionsare made to be confirmed, rejected or refinedas reading progresses (260)
The proficient reader is viewed as an activeinformation-processing individual who uses aminimum number of clues to extract meaningfrom a written text.That is to say…
The optimum learning environment is viewed asone in which students and teachers worktogether: teacher intervention is minimized asstudents are encouraged to use theirdeveloping skills to solve reading problems ontheir own.And…
Material development is viewed as beingcomposed of the development of readingskills exercises (scanning, skimming, readingfor throughout comprehension, and criticalreading) and the development of languageskills exercises (vocabulary, structure, anddiscourse).And…
Important inferences in the preparation & use ofL2 Reading materialsTeachers should select the most productive and fewestcues necessary to confirm or reject expectations.Reading must be viewed as a two-fold phenomenoninvolving process-comprehending and product-comprehending.The reader brings to the task a certain amount ofinformation, ideas and attitudes; this knowledge iscoupled with his/her ability to make linguisticpredictions and determine expectations to bedeveloped as he/she reads.The psycholinguistic theory emphasize the importanceof providing semantically complete readings.
Achieving GoalsLearning environment.Role of the teachers.Materialsa). Evaluating reading selections.B). Preparing and Using Materials
Learning environmentThe ultimate goal is to foster independence inour students.Student and teachers involved in acooperative process of setting goals.Reading is done through steps ‘scanning,skimming and evaluating the usefulness of theinformation gathered.
Role of the TeacherAs a Teacher: attempting to resolve languageproblems.As a participant: during discussions.As a Facilitator.
MaterialsThere is only one main problem that teachersmay face; that would be trying to adapt a textbook to suit our needs or writing our ownreading materials to fill gaps in the curriculum.The are several ways to reach these objectivesthe most important ones are:
Evaluating Reading selections.Preparing and using materialsDeveloping reading and language skills.Reading Skills.Language skills.
Sample lesson planBecause our ultimate goal is to make studentsindependent of our guidance, we should allowfor consistently greater student participationin determining the appropriate strategies forparticular readings.
Sample lesson planThe plan represent a skills approach to theteaching of ESL reading. The students do morereading than merely read passages andanswer questions; the type of reading that thestudents are asked to perform varies from taskto task. They scan the train schedule andnewspaper, skim the longer reading and readit and several other selections carefully.
Global Summary:In the most adequate psycholinguistic model of thereading process the proficient silent reader decodesdirectly from graphic surface structure into deepstructure, with no decoding into oral surface structure.Three cue systems used by all proficient readersinclude:graphic cues (letters and words) syntactic cues (the grammatical arrangement ofwords).semantic cues (the meaning of the words and conceptsthat the reader brings to the reading process).
Reading is a four step process:sampling words and phrases,predicting other words and phrases that mightfollow,testing the predictions,confirming or correcting the predictions. Aids foranalyzing how well a reader uses cue systemsinclude the cloze procedure and miscue analysis;the latter tests the difference between text andthe readers oral response.