Making Non-fiction Come Alive!MET Link K-8 Literacy Conference April 14, 2012 Wendy Grojean University of Nebraska at Omaha College of Education IDEAS Room Coordinator email@example.com
What was the last non-fiction book you read outside of the classroom? Why?http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-zY6x6UIjRTs/TkrvcPkWtxI/AAAAAAAAAO4/amPmx57Of0M/s1600/IMG_0737.JPG
Traditional Reading Strategic Reading Format Format Reading Pre-reading assignment strategies given Guided active, silent reading Independent reading Reflect on reading Discussion to see if reading was understood. Student completes fill-in- the-blank worksheets(Billmeyer, 2004, p. 27)
Reading Strategies Reading strategies engage the mind of the reader. Strategic reading is possible when: • Readers are taught how and when to strategies. • Instruction of strategy use gradually moves from teacher-directed to student initiated” (Billmeyer, 2004, p. 28).
Purpose of Pre-reading strategies• Activates prior knowledge• Builds background knowledge• Develops interest and motivation• Introduces key concepts and vocabulary• Previews the text• Sets purpose
Activities to Support PrereadingKWL charts Graphic organizersField trips Possible sentencesFilms and videos Text walk / OverviewingQuickwriting QuestioningTrade books Make predictionsAnticipation guides BrainstormingExclusion Dramatic role playConcept maps Word wallsRAN strategy
Conventions of Nonfiction“We must teach our students what nonfictionis. Teaching our students that expository texthas predictable characteristics and featuresthey can count on before they read allowsthem to construct meaning more easily as theyread” (Harvey, S. & Goudvis, 2007, p.117).Conventions of Non-fictionTypes of Non-fiction
RAN Strategy Reading and Analyzing Non-fiction• A “beefed-up” version of the infamousKWL.What I THINK Confirmed Misconceptions New Wonderings I know Information• Students are engaged and thinking throughout the reading process.• http://scrumblr.ca/
Anticipation GuidesAllow students to:• connect new information to prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic.Example templates:Simple formUpper-elementary-HAL
Strategies during reading:• Ensure fluent reading• Identify big ideas• Organize ideas and details• Construct meaning• Enhance meaning• Propel research efforts• Clarify confusion
Activities to Support ReadingListen before reading Coding textRead with buddy BookmarksSmall group read and share SketchingReciprocal teaching Double-entry journalsHighlighting It says / I sayGraphic organizers QuestioningPost-it response notes VisualizingRAN
FQR During reading students: • record factual information. • ask questions. • respond to merge their thinking with the content.Fact Question RespondPenguins can’t fly How do they get around? That stinks that they can’t fly!Not all penguins live in cold Which penguins live in They might get if they liveclimates warm climates? in a hot climate and are black.
Text Coding• During modeling: “Students need to hear the teacher’s inside thinking or self-talk” (Chapman, 2003, p. 85).• Adding novelty to note taking improves the students’ ability to remember important information.• When a unique reference mark is used, key points are easier to remember and retain.
Using INSERT• Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (Vaughn and Estes, 1986)• Develop your own “codes” with your class• Have the codes visible and accessible to students• Examples: -Simple -Detailed
Purpose of Responding Strategy• Clarify understanding• Reflect on big ideas• Summarize• Make connections
Response Questions• Prompt thinking• May have multiple answers• Cause students to ponder and wonder• Dispel or clarify confusion• Challenge students to rethink opinions• Are subject to discussion, debate, and conversation• May require further research
Response Questions• What makes you think that?• Why do you say that?• Can you elaborate on that?• Can you tell me more about your thinking?• How did you come up with that?
Activities to Support Responding• RAN-Wonderings column• FQR-The “R”• Coding Text- ?• Instructional conversations• Think-pair-square-share• Learning logs• Double-entry journals• Write summaries• Questioning• Exit slips and admit slips• Written conversation• Instructional and grand conversations
Exit and Entrance slips• Prompts that document learning, – Ex. Write one thing you learned today. – Ex. Discuss how todays lesson could be used in the real world.• Prompts that emphasize the process of learning, – Ex. I didnt understand… – Ex. Write one question you have about todays lesson.
Summarizing-Fun?!• The “gist” –Important information ONLY! – www.twitter.com or www.twiducate.com – To create 140 characters or less summary • Summary wheel-Billmeyer
Activities to Support Application• Compare/contrast – Venn Diagrams• Most Valuable President or Explorer• Read other books-Read-alikes• Conduct research• Write stories, reports, and poems• Cubing• Present oral reports• RAFT – Retelling in various perspectives and genres• Multi-genre topics
Most Valuable President Use a Venn diagram to compare the two presidents, explorers, John F. Kennedy animals, etc. Students present and the class votes on the Woodrow Wilson winner. Abraham Lincoln Andrew Jackson Benjamin Harrison MVP!! Zachary Taylor Franklin Roosevelt Ronald Reagan
Multi-Genre TopicsStudents create three or more items representing different genres. Examples to include are:• Reports• Stories• Poems• Create artifacts• Posters• Charts
ReferencesAdlit.org. (2009). Exit slips. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19805/Billmeyer, R. (2004).Strategic reading in the content areas. Omaha, NE: Dayspring Printing.Chapman, C., & King, R. (2003). Differentiated instructional strategies for reading in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2004). Strategic thinking: Reading and responding, grades 4-8. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Keene, E.O., & Zimmermann, S. (2007). Mosaic of thought: The power of comprehension strategy instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Kump, L. (2010). Determining importance of non-fiction. Retrieved from http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Determinging%20Importance%20h andout%20by%20Deb%20Smith.pdfMoss, B. (2005). Making a case and a place for effective content area literacy instruction in the elementary grade. Reading Teacher, 59, 46-55.Rasinski, T. & Padak, N. (2000). Effective reading strategies. (Second Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
References (cont’d)Readingrockets.org. (2012). Classroom strategies: Anticipation guide. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/antici pation_guide/Stead, T. (2006). Reality checks: Teaching reading comprehension with nonfiction K-5. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Tompkins, G.E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Vaughan, J.L. & Estes, T.H. (1986). Reading and Reasoning Beyond the Primary Grades. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc.