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  1. 1. Humanities 1: Week 2 The Creative Dynamics of Play: Types, Frames, and Theories Dr. Dylan Eret
  2. 3. What is “play”?
  3. 4. not serious?
  4. 5. enjoyable activity
  5. 14. Attunement Play
  6. 15. Body Play & Movement
  7. 16. Object Play
  8. 17. Social Play
  9. 18. Imaginative or Pretend Play (“Role Play”)
  10. 19. Storytelling Play
  11. 20. Transformative Play
  12. 21. Identifying Play What are the central features of play?
  13. 22. Identifying Play Why is play central to human creativity?
  14. 23. Identifying Play What are some different types of play?
  15. 24. <ul><li>Identifying Play* </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully functional </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatedly performed </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated when in a “relaxed field” </li></ul>*Gordon M. Burghardt, The Genesis of Animal Play (2005)
  16. 25. Play Processes: Gordon Burghardt (2005)
  17. 26. Play Processes
  18. 73. Erving Goffman Academic Prankster (Sociologist)
  19. 74. Erving Goffman Frame Analysis (1986)
  20. 81. <ul><li>Theories of Play </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Fate </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Power </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Imaginary </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Self </li></ul><ul><li>Play as Frivolity </li></ul>
  21. 82. Brian Sutton-Smith The Ambiguity of Play (2001)
  22. 83. Brian Sutton-Smith (1978): “ Play is a form of adaptive potentiation .”
  23. 84. Brian Sutton-Smith “ Seven Rhetorics of Play”
  24. 85. Play as Progress a way of turning children into adults (cognitive/emotional development)
  25. 86. Play as Fate Humans are “controlled” by fate, destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck .
  26. 87. Play as Power a form of conflict, a means of maintaining status and control (e.g., sports heroes)
  27. 88. Play as Identity traditional and community celebrations (enhance, confirm group identity)
  28. 89. Play as Imaginary world-making, fiction, creativity, innovation, improvisation, art, literature
  29. 90. Play as Self Provides intrinsic experiences of pleasure, enjoyment, relaxation, and escape; the evolution and growth of the self
  30. 91. Play as Frivolity Play is a “useless” activity with no “purpose.” (“Work ethic” view of play.) Moral judgments: Play is “idle,” “foolish,” or “lazy.”
  31. 92. *Play as Resistance It is oppositional, empowering, and parodic. It reverses roles, resists authority, speaks “truth to power.”
  32. 93. *Play as Resistance? Examples: jokes, satire, protest songs, improv shows, “ underground” movements, emerging art forms (viral videos, flash mobs, etc.)
  33. 94. <ul><li>Interpreting Play </li></ul><ul><li>Describe at least three forms of play </li></ul><ul><li>you use in your everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Apply the theories of play to each. </li></ul>
  34. 95. Pizza-Pizza Daddy-O (Bess Lomax Hawes ),73
  35. 96. <ul><li>What types of play did you notice? Describe. </li></ul><ul><li>What forms of metacommunication were used? Describe. </li></ul>Pizza-Pizza Daddy-O (Bess Lomax Hawes )