Remember – a goal of asthma therapy is to achieve maximum control of symptoms w/ minimum medications and side effects
recent advance aerosol by chetan
Recent AEROSOL Aerosol
M. Pharm -III
Mrs. Priya patel
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Saurashtra
University, Rajkot-360 005
• Airway is unique organ system of body and its structure
allowing air to come into direct contact with blood. so this
is a useful route of administration of drugs in the inhaled or
• The inhalation therapy provides fast acting treatment for
respiratory illness such as asthma and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD).
• Compare to oral delivery, the inhalation of
bronchodilator ,corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory
agent produce therapeutic level in the respiratory tract
while maintaining low systematic concentration and
minimum side effect.
To be acceptable for clinical use an inhalation
delivery system must meet certain criteria;
• It must generate an aerosol with most of the drug carrying particles
less than 10μm in size, and ideally in the range 0.5 to 5 μm, the
exact size depending on the intended application.
• It must produce reproducible drug dosing.
• It must protect the physical and chemical stability of the drug.
• It must be readily used by a patient with minimal training
Why inhalation therapy?
Slow onset of action
Rapid onset, Better tolerated
Large dosage used
Treatment of choice in acute
Greater side effects
Not useful in acute
What are the Inhalant drugs?
• Anti-allergic agents
Ventolin nebules (βagonist)
Bricanyl solution (βagonist)
AN IDEAL INHALER
• High dosing efficiency (> 10-20%)
• Small particle size < 5 microns
• Simple to use & handle
• Short treatment time
• Small size, easy to carry
• Multiple dose capability
• Resistance to bacterial contamination
• Cost effective
• Efficient for specific drug used
• Liked by patients!
Choice of device:
• Determined by –
• Drug to be delivered
• Age of patient
• Patient preference
Turn on the compressor and use for the prescribed a mount of
Carefully monitor the child’s vital signs for adverse signs of
When finished the treatment , remove the mask from the child
and turn of the compressor.
Assist the child to rinse the mouth with water .
Return child to safe position in bed, with side rails up.
Remove used equipments.
Write documentation accurately .
Drugs Available for Nebulization
• Inhaled beta-2 agonist bronchodilators
• Short-acting (3~6hr)
• Long-acting (>12hr) eg. Salmeterol
• Inhaled anti-cholinergic
• Inhaled corticosteroids
• Nebulized Solutions
• Albuterol (Proventil®)
• Ipratropium (Atrovent®)
• Inhaled medications delivered by an air compressor in the
form of a fine spray
• Use of passive breathing
• Good dosage form for a pediatric patient
• Anything in solution can be nebulized
• Time intensive
• Equipment and power source required
• Cleaning required
Overview of nebulizer designs:
• CONSTANT OUTPUT (“Traditional”)
• e.g. most disposable SVNs: MistyNeb, Salter, FanJet
• BREATH ENHANCED
• e.g. the PARI LC plusTM
• DOSIMETRIC (BREATH ACTUATED)
• e.g. Monaghan AeroEclipseTM
Pari LC Plus
Classification of Nebulizers
• Size of the reservoir
- small volume = approx. 6 ml
- large volume = ≥ 500 ml
• Power source-pneumatic
• Method of aerosol production-mechanical (jet)
Classification of Nebulizers
- orifice wick
- spinning disk
- metered dose
• Placement in patient’s breathing tube
TYPES OF NEBULIZERS
•Air jet nebulizer
•Spinning disk (centrifugal) nebulizer
• It requires an external gas supply which is the driving
force for liquid atomization
• The compressed gas is forced through the jet causing a
region of negative pressure to develop as the gas is
expelled at high velocity through the spray orifice.
• The separation between the spray nozzle and the baffle,
and the droplet exit velocity from the nozzle, are of
primary importance in defining the size of droplets that
• Solvent losses due to evaporation cause solution
remaining the reservoir to concentrate. This increase
in concentration leads to drug or excipients
crystallization within the reservoir.
• The major controllable operating variable associated
is airflow rate through the nebulizer which is
critically dependent on the driving pressure, except
when the spray orifice acts as critical orifice.
• Other variables , such as humidity, ambient
temperature, and inspiratory flow rate, influence the
nebulizer performance, but are difficult to standardize
under patient use condition.
• Nebulizer are subdivide into single use and multiuse.
• Air-jet nebulizer are capable of successfully delivering
• Aerosol is produced by ultrasonic sound waves
emitted from a vibrating transducer directed up
through a reservoir of liquid (Piezoelectric principle)
• Frequency (usually 1.35 MHz) determines the particle
size (1 - 10 µ)
• Amplitude control determines the volume of mist
• Output volume of 3 - 6 ml/min. (High!!!)
• Not used on infants d/t fluid overload
• external gas supply is not required
• Respiratory solution or suspension is atomized by means
of a piezoelectric transducer.
• Uses the principle of a jet stream of gas being
directed through a thin film of continually flowing
liquid spread across a rounded surface
• The gas penetrates the liquid surface causing
aerosol particles to be formed, which are then
baffled and sent to the patient
Spinning Disk (Centrifugal)
• Commonly called “room humidifiers”
• Uses principle of the Archimedean screw; a disk
rotates around a hollow shaft that is immersed into a
water reservoir; once the water reaches the spinning
disk, it is thrown outward through breaker combs and
aerosol particles are produced
• Can be a source of environmental contamination,
should be cleaned periodically