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Accountability in Developing Student Learning


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This slide emphasizes on the role of instructional leaders to support instruction that would eventually lead to student learning. Different strategies on instructional leadership is tackled in order to achieve student progress overtime.

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Accountability in Developing Student Learning

  1. 1. Dr. Carlo Magno Center for Learning andAssessment Development - Asia
  2. 2.  Quality of instructional leadership facilitates quality instruction in schools.  Quality instruction contributes to student learning
  3. 3.  Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS)  NationalAchievementTest  Dropout rates in public schools
  4. 4.  Prioritizing  Decades of research confirm that those principals who place academics as a priority experience increased student achievement (Bartell, 1990; Cotton, 2000; Johnson & Asera, 1999; Short & Spencer, 1990).  With instructional improvement at the top of that prioritized list, principals have the power to organize so that those main concerns (i. e., improved primary grade reading instruction, are addressed).  Principals can arrange instructional schedules  Set aside time for grade-level teams to meet  Provide released time for teachers to attend professional development  Monitor progress and implementation to ensure that scientifically based instruction implemented schoolwide.
  5. 5.  Aligning  Principals must impart upon teachers the importance of aligning curriculum, instruction, and assessment to the standards.  The principal must also guide teachers in effective alignment practices.  Study groups or departmental meetings can be established with the expectation that teachers will work together: ▪ to interpret the standards, ▪ study the scope and sequence of the curriculum, ▪ share effective instructional strategies, ▪ examine released assessment items, ▪ analyze student work to determine instructional effectiveness.
  6. 6.  Align the kind of items you write based on given standards.
  7. 7.  Classify materials based on its ability to absorb water, float, sink, undergo decay  Item:  Which of the following materials will float in water?  A. Styrofoam  B. foam  C. metal  D. glass
  8. 8.  Demonstrate proper disposal of waste according to the properties of its materials  Performance task  Final Output: A slide show with illustrations showing proper disposal of materials.  Task: Take a photo on how to properly dispose the following materials: plastic bottles, food scrap, papers. Present the picture in class and explain the procedure.  Criteria: Accuracy of disposal procedure, ability to explain, clarity of illustrations
  9. 9.  Instruction: Indicate whether the matching of the objective and item is suitable.  1. Objective: Given a performance of an instrumental or vocal melody containing a melodic or rhythmic error, and given the score for the melody, be able to point out the error.  Criterion item: The instructor will play the melody of the attached musical score on the piano and will make an error either in rhythm or melody. Raise your hand when the error occurs.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  10. 10.  2. Objective: Given mathematical equations containing one unknown, be able to solve for the unknown.  Criterion Item: Sam weighs 97 kilos. He weighs 3.5 kilos more than Barrey. How much does Barry weigh?  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  11. 11.  3. Objective: Be able to demonstrate familiarity with sexual anatomy and physiology  Criterion Item: Draw and label a sketch of the male and female reproductive systems.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  12. 12.  4. Objective: Given any one of the computers in our product line, in its original carton, be able to install and adjust the machine, preparing it for use. Criteria: The machine shows normal indication, and the area is free of debris and cartons  Criterion item: Select one of the cartons containing one of our model XX computers, and install it for the secretary in Room 45. Make sure it is ready for use and the area is left clean.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  13. 13.  5. Objective: When given a set of paragraphs (that use words within your vocabulary), some of which are missing topic sentences, be able to identify the paragraph without topic sentences.  Criterion Item: Turn to page 29 in your copy of Silas Marner. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph on that page.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  14. 14.  Assessing  The principal plays a key role in selection of schoolwide assessment instruments.  The administration, scoring, reporting, and appropriate use of assessment data should be stressed by the school leader as a critical element of increased student achievement.  Principals should regularly analyze student achievement data to inform decisions regarding policy, programs, and professional development.  Teachers may need guidance to effectively administer, score, interpret, and analyze the data and also to utilize the data in making instructional changes.  The principal is responsible for ensuring that the teachers receive the guidance they require.
  15. 15.  Assessment needs to be based on specific competencies in order to help teachers and students work on the skill  What skill is the student weak at?  What skills can be done?  What will be the implication of weak and poor skills on teachers planning
  16. 16. Learning Competencies of Grade 3 in English Score Percent correct for the level 1. Note details regarding character, setting and plot 1 70.97 2. Note details regarding character, setting and plot 0 22.58 3. Sequence 3 events 0 6.45 4. Distinguish fact from opinion 0 16.13 9. Identify cause and effect 0 25.81 10. Distinguish sentences from non-sentences 0 35.48 11. Distinguish declarative from an interrogative sentence 0 32.26 13. Use proper punctuation for declarative and interrogative sentences 1 29.03 14. Use proper punctuation for declarative and interrogative sentences 1 41.94 15. Identify an exclamatory sentence 0 25.81 16. Identify an imperative sentence 0 22.58 17. Use nouns (e.g. people, animals, places,, things events) in simple sentences 0 45.16 18. Use common and proper nouns 1 58.06
  17. 17.  How do we use assessment results to help students learn better?  Assessment is used to determine:  What students can do and cannot do..  What students know and do not know..  Misconceptions of students  Confusion  Provide teachers information on what to do next to bring students forward in their learning
  18. 18.  Using assessment results to make decisions about:  Individual student  Planning for instruction  Planning the curriculum  School improvement
  19. 19.  Results are made public with greater accountability  Performance are based on national and international standards  Ascertain that the assessment task is aligned with the needed standards
  20. 20.  Looking at the school result  Looking at the level result per per subject  Looking at the class result per subject  Looking at individual total scores per subject area  Looking at the competencies of a subject for each class  Looking at the competencies of a subject for each student  We can think of more intervention, the more specific the results are
  21. 21.  Monitoring  Monitoring will ensure that the school’s curriculum is implemented with fidelity and that any instructional changes actually occur driven by data.  Once data are analyzed and the school staff understands what implications the data have for instruction, instructional decisions are made.  The principal follows up by asking questions, visiting classrooms, and reviewing subsequent data to guarantee instructional changes are occurring and progress is being made.  Principals should follow the advice of the old adage, “Don’t expect what you don’t inspect.”  If instructional changes are not inspected, leaders should not expect improvements.
  22. 22.  Align the competencies in the test to the competencies in the syllabus  Competencies in the test and not present in the syllabus needs to be added  Indicate the percent of students with correct answer.  Plan the time for competencies with low percentage
  23. 23. Listening Comprehension Days Viewing Comprehe nsion Vocabualry Development Day s Literatu re Writing and Compositio n Oral Language Day s note important details pertaining to (66%) 4i X X X a. character b. setting c. events Use/Respond appropriately to polite expressions 3i x Use words that are related to self, family, school, community, and concepts such as the names for colors, shapes, and numbers 4x x
  24. 24. Listening Comprehen sion Days Viewing Comprehen sion Vocabualry Developme nt Days Literature Writing and Compositio n Oral Language Days 2. Give the correct sequence of three events 5i X x x 3. Infer the character feelings and traits (80%) 5i x x Use/Respo nd appropriate ly to polite expressions5i x x Talk about oneself and one's family 2i 4. Identify cause and/or effect of events (49%) 7i x x x
  25. 25.  How do I improve the quality of instruction in my school?  How much time do teachers need for students to attain mastery?  Did my teachers prepare assessment tasks tapping directly the needed competencies?  Did the teachers look at the national curriculum to guide then in formulating the learning plans?
  26. 26.  IntentionalTeaching – teach directly the competencies needed for the future assessment  Assessment for learning – use assessment results to help students  Use formative assessment  Feedback  Create similar assessment tasks in the classroom  Supervising curriculum and assessment
  27. 27.  Devote time on essential skills that are indicated in the standards (teaching is aligned with standards)  Established success criteria  Use a subject-matter budget to see how many standards can be mastered within a quarter
  28. 28.  Start with student friendly targets  Models of strong and weak work  Continous descriptive feedback  Teach self-assessment and goal setting  Teach one facet at a time  Teach focused revision  Teach self-reflection to track growth
  29. 29. Make learners aware of the learning goal Determine current status of students Move students closer to the goals
  30. 30.  Understanding and articulating targets in advance of teaching/learning (formative Assessment)  Informing students about learning goals in terms that students understand, from the very beginning of the teaching and learning process (Formative Assessment)  Becoming assessment literate and able to transform expectations into assessment exercises and scoring procedures that accurately reflect student achievement
  31. 31.  Using classroom assessment to build students’ confidence in themselves as learners and help them take responsibility for their own learning  Translating classroom assessment results into frequent descriptive feedback, providing students with specific insights as to how to improve  Continuously adjusting instruction based on the results of classroom assessment
  32. 32. Given after students complete a task • After seat works, exercises, drill, board work, demonstration Given while students are conducting the task • While students are writing, reminders, giving cues, rechecking, point out the error, retell the criteria
  33. 33. 1. Relates Student Performance to learning goals. 2. Help students with the strategies needed to meet the learning goals. 3.Tells Student Progress (i.e. beginning, developing, advanced) 4. Given Frequently and Immediately 5. Is Specific and Descriptive 6. Focuses on Key Errors (i.e. what when wrong) 7. Acknowledges Student Efforts
  34. 34.  Praise can be helpful to students if it draws attention to student progress and performance in relation to standards.  “Praise + Feedback Formula”  Praise is most effective when it is delivered as a spontaneous but accurate message.  No more biting around the bush, praise them directly!
  35. 35.  Prepare assessment tasks in advance  Diagnostic  Formative  Summative  Assessment tasks are directly aligned with the competencies and standards.  Formative and summative assessment needs to be parallel
  36. 36.  School leaders are accountable on quality of instruction in the school  Ensures that competencies are delivered and developed  Observes and monitors instuction
  37. 37.  Learning  As the school leader works to improve student achievement, the principal collaborates with teachers on alignment, instruction, and assessment issues;  Offers constructive feedback and support to teachers.  Principals have an obligation to be well informed about the professional development teachers are receiving.  Providing teachers time for professional growth and personally attending those professional development sessions reinforces the principal’s conviction in the positive aspects of a continuous learning environment.
  38. 38.  Driving the initiative, followed by inevitable implementation problems, the conclusion that the reform has failed to bring about the desired results, abandonment of the reform, and the launch of a new search for the next promising initiative.  Big Idea 1: Ensure that students learn  Big idea 2: A culture of collaboration  Big Idea 3: Focus on Results
  39. 39.  What do I need to commit to ensure student learning in my school?  What should I do to promote better student achievement in my school?