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Active Engagement Strategies  for Whole Group Instruction Sarah Sayko, M. Ed. National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance RMC Research Corp.  Sheryl Turner, M.A. Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Active Engagement
What is Active Engagement? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Active Engagement and Motivation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Factors affecting the development of intrinsic motivation in a school setting: ,[object Object]
Active Engagement and Conceptual Knowledge ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Active Engagement and Cognitive Strategies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Active Engagement and Social Interaction ,[object Object]
Multiple Student-Teacher  Interactions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Model of Instructional Contexts for Reading Engagement Active  Engagement Social Interaction Motivation Conceptual Knowledge Cognitive Strategies Learning and Knowledge Goals Formative  Assessment Collaboration Support Direct Instruction Teacher  Involvement
Impact of Active Engagement High levels of active engagement during lessons are associated with higher levels of achievement and student motivation.  Ryan and Deci, 2000 Research studies have repeated shown that reading in  many classrooms is not designed to provide students with sufficient engaged reading opportunities to promote reading growth. Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes & Hodge, 1995
Study Results on  Active Engagement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Processing Strategy: Look-Lean-Whisper ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Look-Lean-Whisper Activity ,[object Object],[object Object]
Avoid Recitation “ Who can tell me…?”
Processing Strategy:  10:2 Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
Teacher Effectiveness Studies
Characteristics of Effective Classrooms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Characteristics of Effective Teachers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
Classroom Management
[object Object]
Active Engagement and Classroom Management Studies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Classroom Management ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Direct Teaching ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Direct Teaching ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Think-Pair-Share Activity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
Instructional Planning
[object Object]
Deep Knowledge of Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Knowledge of Student Assessment Results ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Consistent Instructional Routines ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Focus on Instructional Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],3. How will I, and they, know when they are  successful? 4. What learning  experiences will facilitate their success? 6.  Based on data, how do I refine the learning experiences? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],5. What resources will I  Use?
Task Analysis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Given a task to be accomplished, how do we get there? What kinds of lessons and practices are needed if  key performances are to be mastered?
Anticipating Instructional Difficulties for Struggling Readers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Examples of Anticipating Instructional Difficulties ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Group Alertness ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Examples of Group Alertness ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Work Smarter, Not Harder ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
[object Object]
[object Object]
Active Engagement and Direct Instruction Explicit and systematic teaching does not preclude the use  of active engagement strategies. In fact, one of the most prominent features of  well delivered direct instruction is high levels of active engagement on the part of all students.
Primary Components of  Interactive Direct Instruction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Interactive Direct Instruction: Pattern of Teaching ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Zone of Proximal Development ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Zone of Proximal Development: Teacher’s Role ,[object Object]
Scaffolding ,[object Object],[object Object]
Scaffolding Learning Gradual Release of Responsibility Model ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Teacher Responsibility Student Responsibility
Tips for Effective Scaffolding ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Scaffolding ,[object Object],[object Object]
Processing Strategy: Tell-Help-Check ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tell-Help-Check Activity ,[object Object]
Wait Time ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Corrective Feedback Activity Share a time with your partner  when you received feedback. What was the feedback?
Corrective Feedback is Crucial ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Feedback Link ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conceptual Framework for Corrective Feedback Explicit Instruction -Skill taught in a direct manner -“I do, we do, you do” procedure -Corrective feedback “ I do, we do, you do” Procedure -Teacher models skill -Teacher responds with student  -Student responds on own Student Demonstrates Understanding Student Does Not Demonstrate Understanding Application -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding item and then item to provide repeated practice  -Delayed check:  teacher checks group/student understanding on item at later time in lesson Corrective Feedback -Directed toward group of students -Repeat “I do, we do, you do” procedure -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice  -Delayed check:  teacher checks group/student understanding on error item at later time in lesson Student Error on Delayed Check -Teacher corrects error again -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice  -Teacher keeps track of student errors for reteaching and practice the next day -Several delayed checks may be given during a lesson for repeated practice
Time on Task ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Perky Pace ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some Interesting Facts ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
Active Engagement Strategies
Examples of Active Engagement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Student Responses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Responses   con’t ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Response Strategy: Signal Cards ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Processing Strategy: Clock Buddies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Phonemic Awareness  Cognitive Strategy: Bead Counting ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
m, s, e, d, t Letter cards ee s d Phonics Cognitive Strategy:   Word Pockets   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fluency Cognitive Strategy:  Choral Reading ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Alternatives to Choral Reading ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Vocabulary Cognitive Strategy:  List-Group-Label ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Comprehension Cognitive Strategy: Anticipation Guide ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sample Anticipation Guide Evidence Page Number Were you correct? Yes/No Agree/ Disagree Statement
Review Strategy: I Have the Question, Who Has the Answer? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Active Engagement Teaching Strategies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
10:2 Reflection Activity ,[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],In Summary
Bibliography ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bibliography ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bibliography Rosenshine, B. and Meister, C. (1995).  Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Order Cognitive Strategies. In A.C.  Ornstein (ed.)  Teaching: Theory into Practice.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Rosenshine, B. and Meister, C. (1992). The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive  Strategies.  Educational Leadership,  April: 26-33 Rosenshine, B.  (1997 ).  Advances in research on instruction .  Chap. 10 in J.W. Lloyd, E. J.  Kamannui & D. Chard  (Eds.)  Issues in educating students with disabilities.  Mahwah,  NJ.:  Lavrence Erlbaum:  pp.  197-221. Simmons, D. C., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Mathes, P., & Hodge, J. P. (1995).  Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of  learning-disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms.  Elementary  School Journal, 95  (5), 387-408. Tableman, B. (2004).  Characteristics of effective elementary schools in poverty areas.  Best Practices Briefs.  No. 29.  Taylor, B., Pearson, P., Clark, K. & Walpole, S.  (1999).  Effective schools/accomplished teachers.  Article #99-01.  Retrieved on  from CIERA. Taylor, B., Pearson, P., Clark, K. & Walpole, S.  (1999).  Beating the odds in teaching all children  to read.  CIERA Report #2-006.  Retrieved on  from CIERA. Taylor, B., Peterson, D., Pearson, P. & Rodriguez, M.  (2002).  Looking inside classrooms:  Reflecting on the “how” as well as the “what” in effective reading instruction.  The Reading Teacher,  Vol. 56, No. 3, p. 270-279. Torgensen, J.  (2007).  Research related to strengthening instruction in reading comprehension:  Part 2.  National Reading First Comprehension Conference. Vaughn, S., Hughes, M., Moody, S. & Elbaum, B.  (2005).  Grouping students who struggle with  reading.  Retrieved on  from readingrockets.org. Vygotsky, L. (1978).  Mind in Society: The Development of High Psychological Processes.   (trans. and edited by M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner and E. Souberman).  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
[object Object],[email_address] [email_address]

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Georgia active engagement_strategies

  • 1. Active Engagement Strategies for Whole Group Instruction Sarah Sayko, M. Ed. National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance RMC Research Corp. Sheryl Turner, M.A. Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center
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  • 10. Model of Instructional Contexts for Reading Engagement Active Engagement Social Interaction Motivation Conceptual Knowledge Cognitive Strategies Learning and Knowledge Goals Formative Assessment Collaboration Support Direct Instruction Teacher Involvement
  • 11. Impact of Active Engagement High levels of active engagement during lessons are associated with higher levels of achievement and student motivation. Ryan and Deci, 2000 Research studies have repeated shown that reading in many classrooms is not designed to provide students with sufficient engaged reading opportunities to promote reading growth. Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes & Hodge, 1995
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  • 15. Avoid Recitation “ Who can tell me…?”
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  • 45. Active Engagement and Direct Instruction Explicit and systematic teaching does not preclude the use of active engagement strategies. In fact, one of the most prominent features of well delivered direct instruction is high levels of active engagement on the part of all students.
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  • 57. Corrective Feedback Activity Share a time with your partner when you received feedback. What was the feedback?
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  • 60. Conceptual Framework for Corrective Feedback Explicit Instruction -Skill taught in a direct manner -“I do, we do, you do” procedure -Corrective feedback “ I do, we do, you do” Procedure -Teacher models skill -Teacher responds with student -Student responds on own Student Demonstrates Understanding Student Does Not Demonstrate Understanding Application -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding item and then item to provide repeated practice -Delayed check: teacher checks group/student understanding on item at later time in lesson Corrective Feedback -Directed toward group of students -Repeat “I do, we do, you do” procedure -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice -Delayed check: teacher checks group/student understanding on error item at later time in lesson Student Error on Delayed Check -Teacher corrects error again -Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice -Teacher keeps track of student errors for reteaching and practice the next day -Several delayed checks may be given during a lesson for repeated practice
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  • 77. Sample Anticipation Guide Evidence Page Number Were you correct? Yes/No Agree/ Disagree Statement
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  • 84. Bibliography Rosenshine, B. and Meister, C. (1995). Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Order Cognitive Strategies. In A.C. Ornstein (ed.) Teaching: Theory into Practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Rosenshine, B. and Meister, C. (1992). The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive Strategies. Educational Leadership, April: 26-33 Rosenshine, B. (1997 ). Advances in research on instruction . Chap. 10 in J.W. Lloyd, E. J. Kamannui & D. Chard (Eds.) Issues in educating students with disabilities. Mahwah, NJ.: Lavrence Erlbaum: pp. 197-221. Simmons, D. C., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Mathes, P., & Hodge, J. P. (1995). Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning-disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 95 (5), 387-408. Tableman, B. (2004). Characteristics of effective elementary schools in poverty areas. Best Practices Briefs. No. 29. Taylor, B., Pearson, P., Clark, K. & Walpole, S. (1999). Effective schools/accomplished teachers. Article #99-01. Retrieved on from CIERA. Taylor, B., Pearson, P., Clark, K. & Walpole, S. (1999). Beating the odds in teaching all children to read. CIERA Report #2-006. Retrieved on from CIERA. Taylor, B., Peterson, D., Pearson, P. & Rodriguez, M. (2002). Looking inside classrooms: Reflecting on the “how” as well as the “what” in effective reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 56, No. 3, p. 270-279. Torgensen, J. (2007). Research related to strengthening instruction in reading comprehension: Part 2. National Reading First Comprehension Conference. Vaughn, S., Hughes, M., Moody, S. & Elbaum, B. (2005). Grouping students who struggle with reading. Retrieved on from readingrockets.org. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of High Psychological Processes. (trans. and edited by M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner and E. Souberman). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Editor's Notes

  1. Extrinsic factors include compliance, recognition, and grades.
  2. In self-explanation, students can orally or through writing explain and reflect on the text they are reading to improve comprehension. They can do this with a teacher or with peers. Students who can self-explain also are better at reaching conceptually higher levels of knowledge, answering more complex questions, and monitoring their comprehension. In concept mapping, students are required to integrate information from the text into existing knowledge in their minds. They are visual representations of a student’s knowledge and organize concepts and represent the relationships among concepts.
  3. Few methodologically rigorous studies examine the direct link between active student engagement and achievement. Rather, most studies investigate the link between specific strategies (e.g., cooperative learning) that incorporate active engagement instead of the overall impact of student engagement. Some studies have, however, examined the overall impact of student engagement, and these studies link active student engagement with higher achievement.
  4. “Who can tell me…?” also know as recitation, is used so frequently it is important to ask ourselves just how effective it is. The bad news about this strategy is that the teacher is really to only one in the classroom actively engaged with all the questions and answers; many students may be simply putting in seat time while a few students answer the questions. Tell how meaningful engagement is different for each task. Use the difference between airplane safety and an advanced chemistry class
  5. This may look familiar-you have been engaging in 10:2 throughout this presentation.
  6. Students need to be involved with the task presented before them and the overall difficulty level of the material being presented should allow for students to complete about 75% of the assignment successfully. When the teacher is not available to give support or feedback, a success rate of 95% is necessary.
  7. A team of CIERA researchers led by Barbara Taylor and David Pearson examined which school and teacher factors were characteristic of the schools that were most effective in terms of student reading growth and achievement in the primary grades K-3. This was a qualitative study with 14 schools from four states participating.
  8. Academic task lie on a continuum from well-structured (having a fixed sequence of sub-tasks leading to a single answer) to less-structured tasks requiring combined knowledge an applying strategies.
  9. Collaborate with your grade level colleagues to share ideas, strategies, and resources. Plan lessons together keeping in mind the your own students needs.
  10. Effective teachers anticipate common errors that students might make and spent time discussing these errors before the students make them. We want to foresee and prevent potential difficulties rather than provide intervention later. That includes a conscience effort to regulate the difficulty of the material being presented. For example, when Palincsar (1987) taught students to generate questions, the teacher first modeled how to generate questions about a single sentence. This was followed by class practice. Next, the teacher modeled and provided practice on asking questions after reading a paragraph. Finally, the teacher modeled and then the class practiced generating questions after reading an entire passage.
  11. Think-Pair-Share: Review teaching scenario and discuss with left hand shoulder partner how the teachers were proactive rather than reactive in their instruction.
  12. Think-Pair-Share: Read teaching scenarios and discuss with partner what the qualities of group alertness are.
  13. Pre-lesson planning worksheet
  14. With less-structured, higher –order tasks, cognitive strategies can be taught to students. Cognitive strategies are supports, prompts, and guides that a student can use when faced with higher-order cognitive tasks. They serve to support students as they develop internal procedures that enable them to perform higher-level operations. They are designed to bridge that gap-the zone of proximal development-between the current knowledge that students bring to a new task and the students’ need to acquire new knowledge that will enable their problem-solving capacity and move them from novice to expert. Cognitive strategies do not, in and of themselves, provide a direct route to the solution. What they do is facilitate reaching a successful conclusion to the task. Therefore, to assist students in moving through the zone effectively, the teacher needs to be available to scaffold students’ learning.
  15. Scaffolding includes providing simplified problems, modeling of procedures, and thinking aloud by the teacher as he/she solves the problem. They may also include tools, or prompts, such as cue cards or checklists.
  16. Conduct teacher guided practice: vary the context and difficulty of the task within the assignment. Provide feedback: in various means-directly from the teacher, through peer consultations or expert model checklists. Fading scaffolds: or withdraw prompts as students internalize the strategy. Teachers may also have students refer to prompts as needed, reducing the frequency of prompts or direct support.
  17. Teachers’ guided practice should include use of the prompt itself, as well as guiding students in the use of the overall cognitive strategy.
  18. Think-Pair-Share
  19. That’s what feedback is. No praise, no blame. It just describes what you did and did not do in terms of your goal. Harvard Assessment Seminar-chief finding about the most effective courses at Harvard, as judged by the students and alums, was the importance of quick and detailed feedback. Students overwhelming reported that the single most important ingredient for making a course effective is getting a rapid response. A second major finding is that an overwhelming majority of students were convinced that their best learning takes place when they have a chance to submit an early version, get detailed feedback and then hand in a final revised version. Many students observed that their most memorable learning came from courses where such opportunities were routine policy.
  20. Handout 5
  21. Post-Lesson Plan Analysis
  22. Pacing is an important factor influencing student learning. Pacing refers to the speed with which teachers move students through material to be learned. Effective teachers move students briskly from step to step, keeping the steps small and easily attainable. However, be sure to allow appropriate wait time when eliciting student responses. Effective teachers more often ask a question before calling for responses and lengthen wait time to 3 seconds.
  23. Therefore, we need to make sure to engage students in active participation.
  24. Think-Pair-Share: Read teaching scenarios and discuss with partner what the qualities of group alertness are.
  25. Whatever meanings you assign the cards, the possibilities are endless.
  26. Fill in strategy matrix.
  27. Guthrie’s study of active engagement concluded that engaged readers from less educated families had higher achievement rates than disengaged readers from higher educated families. The results prove that active student engagement in reading needs to be a priority and key feature in reading instruction for all students.
  28. Evaluation form.