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Principles of high quality assessment
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Principles of high quality assessment

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high quality assessment topic is surely essential to the future educators.. hope this file could help somebody. :)

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Principles of high quality assessment

  1. 1. A. Recall the taxonomy of educational objectives. B. State the benefits of specifying clear and appropriate learning targets. C. Discuss the kinds of achievement target as indices of learning. D. Write illustrative learning targets from a lesson in elementary or high school subject. E. Distinguish desirable qualities of good test instruments as bases for judging the quality of classroom assessment.
  2. 2. F. Characterize types of non-test instruments. G. Explain test standardization H. Classify types of validity evidence. I. Establish relationship between validity and reliability. J. Techniques in establishing validity and reliability.
  3. 3. Most of the test students take are teacher- made tests.
  4. 4. a. Short answer/paragraph answer b. Words/pictures/maps/diagrams/e tc. c. Easy/difficult questions d. Factual knowledge/application of knowledge e. Knowledge skills
  5. 5. As much as possible, test questions should be given with a meaningful context. Poor: Name the continents and ocean. Better: Name the continents and oceans as shown on the map. (Provide a clear map with continents and oceans numbered). Poor: Mark the following if true or false. Better: Mark the following if true or false. For the false statements, rewrite them to make them true. Poor: Answer the following questions: Better: Write 2 questions that you have about the following topics: (or) Describe how you have improved in a skill while doing these unit. (or) List 3 things you have learned, what you enjoyed most, and the like.
  6. 6. 2. Students should not be penalized with a low mark because they are weak in reading or writing. These students may be assisted in one of several ways. A. The teacher might go over the test beforehand and read and explain each question. B. Tests could be done in small groups or with a partner. C. The teacher might form a small group during the test and quietly read each question with the group, allowing time for students to write their answers or give them orally. D. In some cases it may be appropriate for some students to have a tutor coach them beforehand.
  7. 7. 3. The teacher might choose to use a format different from a conventional test. For example: a. Make up a test that has as many questions (or groups of questions) as there are students in the class. (Students should be reminded during the test to double check the numbers of their questions.) b. A variation of this is the use of testing questions where a variety of materials are set up, and a group of students would answer a set of questions or respond to some directions.
  8. 8. This type of test has a number of advantages: a. It allows a teacher to use pictures, news articles, special maps, artifacts, library books, among others. b. The students can finish the test all at the same time. c. If the answers are straight forward, it could be mark by the students immediately after the test. Answers could then be discussed along with the maps, or artifacts that were used. d. It may be advantageous when testing for students’ attainment (e.g., using an index, locating a book in a drawer from the card catalogue, assessing on-line information, or interpreting a legend on a map)
  9. 9. There should be no surprises when it comes to students evaluation: (1) students should always be aware of evaluation criteria and procedures; (2)they should have a role of evaluation process; and (3) they should receive regular feedback as to “how they are doing.”
  10. 10. Teachers would be most interested in the content validity of their tests and how well their test items represent the curriculum to be assessed, which is essential to make accurate inferences on students’ cognitive or affective status. There should be no obvious content gaps, and the number and weighting of items of items on a test should be representative of the importance of the content standards being measured. Test items can be classified as selected-response (e.g., multiple-choice or true-false) or constructed response (e.g., essay or short-answer).
  11. 11. When constructing either type, Popham (2003) offers five pitfalls to avoid, all of which interfere with making accurate inferences of students’ status. They are: 1. Unclear directions; 2. Ambiguous statements; 3. Unintentional clues; 4. Complex phrasing; and 5. Difficult vocabulary
  12. 12. Popham (2000), suggested the following sequence of instruction: 1. Determine the specific learning targets and their sequence for instruction 2. A standard may be composed of one learning target 3. Each learning target typically is a sub- unit which includes :
  13. 13. a. the CONTENTS (what students must know) connected with the learning target b. the SKILLS (what students must be able to do) connected with the learning target c. The assessment for learning that will be used to keep students informed of their progress and to design next steps for instruction d. The assessment of learning should cover the content for the entire unit e. The lessons designed to teach students the learning targets.
  14. 14. Setting clear and achievable targets is the starting point for creating assessments. In other words, you need to determine what exactly your students should know or be able to do. There are many areas and types of achievement that are targeted in schools, including knowledge, reasoning, performance, product development, and attitudes.
  15. 15. Clarity in learning targets means that the learning targets (such as knowledge, skills, and products) need to be stated in behavioural terms and or terms that denote something which can be observed through the behaviour of students.
  16. 16. Target Area Example Target Behaviour Possible Assessment s Knowledge Spell word correctly Quizzes, essays, questions Reasoning Solve math problems Essays observations Performance Speak foreign language Observations, rubrics Product Development Create a web Rubrics Attitudes Positive attitudes Surveys, observations
  17. 17. The Conditions define the materials that will be available (or unavailable) when the objective is assessed. It generally states what the student will be given or not given. Example conditions for objectives might include:  Without the use of a calculator…  Given a map of Europe…  Given twelve double-digit numbers…
  18. 18. The Behaviour is a verb that describes an observable activity-what the students will do. The behaviour is generally stated as an action verb, such as : solve, compare, list, explain, evaluate, identify, define.
  19. 19. The Criterion (also referred to as Degree) is the standard that is used to measure whether or not the objective has been achieved. The criteria might be stated as a percentage (80% correct), a time limit (within five minutes), or another measure of mastery. For example, an objective might be “ Given a list of twenty states (condition), the students will identify (behaviour) at least fifteen of the corresponding state capitals (criteria).”
  20. 20. It is easy for teachers to construct appropriate assessment if they use observable and directly measurable objectives and learning outcomes. For example, one of the benchmarks for national standards (grades 3-5, social studies) is: “ Know significant people and their contributions in the field of communication and technology”.
  21. 21. To target this benchmark, the following objectives could be developed: 1. Given the name of six inventors, students will be able to correctly match them to a specific contribution in communication and technology. 2. Students will be able to compare the contributions of Thomas Edison with those of Bill Gates, listing at least two similarities and two differences.
  22. 22. The new paradigm of assessing student learning includes the four criteria of knowledge, skills, behaviour and attitude, and emphasizes multiple measurement. High quality assessment plays a very important role in improving teaching and learning, it provides useful measures of student performance.
  23. 23. 1. Students are the key assessment users a. They look to their teachers for evidence for their success. b. They look to their teachers for evidence for their success
  24. 24. 2. Clear and appropriate targets are essential A teacher cannot accurately assess academic achievement targets that he/she has not precisely defined. He/She must ask: Do I know what it means to do it (the assignment) well? For students to become better writers: a. Start with a highly refined vision of what good writing looks like b. Need a sense of how to help your students meet that standard
  25. 25. 1. High quality assessment is essential in all assessments 2. Sound assessments arise from clear achievement targets 3. Valid assessments reflect clear achievement targets 4. Begin any assessment design with a clear sense of WHY you are conducting the assessment
  26. 26. High quality assessments can be achieved if: 1. Evaluation is based on clearly stated objectives. 2. Evaluation procedures and techniques should be selected in terms of clearly stated objectives. 3. Evaluation should be comprehensive. 4. Evaluation should be continuous and an integral part of the teaching-learning process 5. Evaluation should be diagnostic. 6. Evaluation should be cooperative. 7. Evaluation should be used judiciously.
  27. 27. In achieving clarity of learning targets, teachers must offer international teaching. International teaching means that all instruction and classroom activities are aimed at specific learning targets. Hence, teachers need to begin with well defined targets to be able to develop assessments that: 1. Reflect exactly what is taught; and 2. What students are expected to learn.
  28. 28. There are many benefits based on the existence of learning's that are CLEAR and USABLE in order to build clear learning targets . 1. Knowledge targets begin with words like: know, list, name, identify, recall. Procedural knowledge targets call for knowing how to do something.
  29. 29. Example: Use scientific notation to represent very large and very small numbers. Beyond knowing things outright, one may know things via reference. There isn’t enough time to each everything students need to know. Thus, teachers need to determine which knowledge students will be required to know outright and which they will be required to learn via conference.
  30. 30. 2. Reasoning targets deal with the skillful use or application of knowledge. These target start out with mental processes like: predict, infer, classify, hypothesize, compare, conclude, summarize, analyze, evaluate, generalize.
  31. 31. a. Inductive reasoning uses specific facts or evidence to infer general conclusions. b. Deductive reasoning begins with a general rule or principle to infer specific conclusions or solutions. c. Analytical reasoning requires examining components or structure of something. d. Comparative reasoning describes similarities and differences between two or more items.
  32. 32. 3. Performance skills targets require the students to demonstrate their mastery of a learning target and to be observed. 4. Product targets are not used as frequently as other types but are highly valued, calling for creation of a product. 5. Dispositional targets rarely show up on state standards but are important because they reflect students’ attitudes about school and learning.
  33. 33. Educational Goals These are very general statements of what students will know and be able to do.
  34. 34. Mathematics Example 1. Students will learn to use mathematics to define and solve problems 2. Students will develop number sense 3. Students will develop geometric sense 4. Students will learn the fundamental concepts of measurement
  35. 35. Science Examples 1. Students will learn to apply scientific research methods to investigate research questions 2. Students will develop the abilities to do scientific inquiry. 3. Students will learn to recognize the interconnections within and among systems
  36. 36. Language Arts Example 1. Students will learn to think critically about the effectiveness of written text 2. Students will learn to use diff. skills and strategies for reading 3. Students will learn to use different skills and strategies for reading.
  37. 37. Learning Objectives are not: 1. Activities that students will engage in (these are teaching objectives. 2. Materials students will see or use
  38. 38. Mathematics Example: Goal 1: Students will learn to use mathematics to define and solve problems Objective1: Students will learn to identify questions to be answered in real-world situations. Objective 2: Students will learn to apply a variety of strategies to investigate problems Objective 3: Students will learn to identify relevant information in a problem situation Objective 4: Students will learn to recognize the need to abandon or modify an unproductive approach to a solution.
  39. 39. Goal 2: Students will develop number sense Objective 1: Students will learn to compute (add, subtract, multiply, and divide) using whole numbers Objective 2 : Students will learn when estimation is a better approach than computation. Objective 3: Students will learn to use estimation to check the reasonableness of their answer Objective 4: Students will learn the meaning of basic operations and how to apply basic operations to situations involving whole numbers
  40. 40. Goal 1: Students will learn to write in a variety of forms for different audiences and purposes. Objective 1: Students will learn to write for distant audiences Objective 2: Students will learn to write to persuade others Objective 3: Students will learn to write to express themselves Objective 4: Students will learn to write to inform others
  41. 41. Two inappropriate learning objectives are: 1. Students will conduct chemistry experiments. 2. Students will write in their mathematics journal every day. Learning targets emphasize the link between instruction and assessment since writing these objectives, you should always be thinking about assessment. How will you determine if students have learned what you have taught? What observable behaviours (either verbally or in writing) will demonstrate that students have met the objectives? If you find these questions difficult to answer then you probably have not written a very good learning objectives.
  42. 42. Marzano and Kendall (1996) identified five types of learning targets: 1. Knowledge and Simple Understanding 2. Deep Understanding and Reasoning 3. Skills 4. Products 5. Affective
  43. 43. 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy 2. National, Regional, and District Standards 3. Textbooks Bloom’s Taxonomy The three types of learning: 1. Cognitive- mental skills (Knowledge) 2. Affective- growth in feelings (Attitude) 3. Psychomotor- manual or physical skills (Skills)
  44. 44. Learning outcomes in the cognitive domain are divided into two major classes: 1. Knowledge a. Remembering previews learned material b. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics c. knowledge of universals and abstractions in a field 2. Intellectual abilities and skills a. Comprehension b. Application c. Synthesis d. Evaluation
  45. 45. The learning outcomes to be measured are useful in test construction when they are stated as terminal performance which are observable. It means that they should clearly indicate the student performance to be demonstrated at the end of the learning experience. Quellmalz (1987 presented list of learning outcomes which are to defined in terms of specific learning outcomes:
  46. 46. At the end of this unit in achievement test planning, the student will demonstrate that he or she: 1. Knows the meaning of common terms; 2. knows specific facts about test planning; 3. knows the basic procedures for planning an achievement test; 4. comprehends the relevant principles of testing; and 5. applies the principles in test planning.
  47. 47. The next tasks for teacher is to list specific types of specific performance that are to be accepted as evidence that the outcomes have been achieved. The teacher has to ask himself what specific types of performance will show that a student knows the meaning of common terms.
  48. 48. 1. knows the meaning of common terms a. identifies the correct definition of terms b. Identifies the meaning of terms when used in context c. Distinguishes between terms on the basis of meaning d. Selects the most appropriate terms when describing testing procedures
  49. 49. 2. Comprehends the relevant principles of testing a. describes each principle in his or her own words b. matches a specific example to each principle c. explains the relevance of each principle to the major steps in test planning. d. predicts the most probable effect of violating each principles e. formulates a test plan that is in harmony with the principles
  50. 50. The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
  51. 51. 1. Knowledge. Recall data or information. 2. Comprehension. Understand the meaning, translation, etc. 3. Application. Use a concept in a new situation… 4. Analysis. Separates material or concepts into component parts… 5. Synthesis. Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. 6. Evaluation. Make judgements about the value of ideas or materials
  52. 52. This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex.
  53. 53. 1. Receiving Phenomena. Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention. 2. Responding to Phenomena. Active participation on the part of the learners. 3. Valuing. The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon or behavior. 4. Organization. Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating unique value system. 5. Internalizing Values (characterization). Has a value system that controls their behavior.
  54. 54. The psychomotor domain includes physical involvement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex.
  55. 55. 1. Perception. The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. 2. Set. Readiness to act. 3. Guided Response. The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. 4. Mechanism. This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. 5. Complex Overt Response. The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. 6. Adaptation. Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements 7. Origination. Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.
  56. 56. Learning Targets for Performance Assessment Therearethree types of standards: 1. Subject Area 2. Thinking and Reasoning 3. Lifelong Learning
  57. 57. How toSelect Assessment Target Subject area standards focus on the content to be taught and mastered. For example, some standards for earth and space content in science include: 1. Understand basic features of the earth. 2. Understand basic Earth processes. 3. Understand essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe and the Earth’s place in it.
  58. 58. Thinking and reasoning standards are often embedded in con tent standards, but focus on how students demonstrate their thinking processes and reasoning strategies. Examples of thinking and reasoning standards include: 1. Understands and applies basic principles of presenting an argument. 2. Understands and applies basic principle of hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry.
  59. 59. Lifelong learning standards focus on interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. Interpersonal skills address how well learners communicate and work with others. Intrapersonal standards address how one regulates one’s own attitudes, such as self-control.
  60. 60. LearningTarget for reading By the end of Second Grade…  Use skills and strategies  Understand what is read  Read Fluently  Show Effort to Become a Life-Long Reader  Spelling
  61. 61. LearningTargets for Math By the end of Second Grade… Content Standards: Number Sense- Explore and use numbers (especially 0-100) through varied and multiple experience, including:  Number and Numeration  Computation  Estimation  Measurement  Attributes and Dimensions
  62. 62. Whatis A Test Test is a deliberate attempt by people to acquire information about themselves or others (Aanastasi 1998).
  63. 63. Test serve three functions: 1. They provide information that are useful for improvement of instruction; 2. in making administrative decisions; and 3. for guidance purposes The word “test” is usually used to describe a systematic procedure for obtaining a sample of student behaviour. A Test is a Sample of Behaviour, Products, Answers, or Performances from the Domain.
  64. 64. There are 3 basic concepts in understanding what is a test is: 1. A Test Focuses on a Particular Domain What is Domain?? A test is designed to measure a particular body of knowledge, skills, abilities, or performances which are of interest to the test user. A test domain can represent something as simple as 4th Grade Mathematics, or a more abstract construct such as “intelligence”.
  65. 65. A construct is a theoretical idea developed to describe and to organize some aspect of existing knowledge. Construct allows teachers to describe and organize observed differences in behaviour among people. The name of a domain carries powerful cultural meanings. When people use a test, they often interpret performance in terms of the context, meanings, and cultural sensibilities they associate with a test’s name- and a name doesn’t mean the same thing to al people
  66. 66. 2. A Test is a Sample of Behaviour, Products, Answers, or Performance from the Domain. What is Sampling?? A test is a sample of behaviour, products or performances from a larger domain of interest. Teachers could never ask students all of the possible test questions about fourth-grade arithmetic. So, they select a sample of problems represent the important parts of the domain
  67. 67. 3. A Test is Made up of Items Items sampled from a domain represent the basic building blocks of a test. There are two main types of items: (1) Selection Types of items require the students to select the correct or the best answer from the given options. Examples: multiple, choice, matching type, true or false (2) Supply Types of test items are fill-in- the blanks, or essay types.
  68. 68. A test serve as a vehicle to observe an attribute, such as a written test, an observation or an oral question. The test score refers to an indication of what was observed through the test and can be qualitative in nature. To a teacher, a test gathers important information- does the student really get what the teacher is trying to teach him for the past few weeks? Standardized test are certainly not the only kind of test teachers use, and tests are not the only way teachers can assess what students have learned.
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high quality assessment topic is surely essential to the future educators.. hope this file could help somebody. :)

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