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Bringing Architecture Thinking to the People - An introduction into the PEOPLE aspects of designing a business

The successful implementation of an architecture plan or blueprint is often challenged not in the efficacy of the design elements of the architecture, but in its implementation by people in business operations. Transformation programs will often struggle as a consequence of the failure to consider the issues impacting and the role of people in supporting the target operating state of the architecture once implemented, it is therefore imperative that when architects innovate, model and design to solve business problems, that they equally consider the people dimension. Capability based planning is incomplete unless we address the optimum mix of people, process and tools to drive out the target outcome of that capability. This presentation will look at a case study from within the Australian market in which Business Capability Based Planning was applied to assess people capabilities and organisation preparedness to support a target business model. It will also discuss some of the more effective people levers that can be applied to deliver more impactful and long lasting architectural change.

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| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31
FINALv1.0.1–October,2013
PRESENTED BY:
CraigMartin-ChiefArchitect,
Enterprise Architects
An introduction into the PEOPLE aspects of
designing a business
Customerand Employee
BRINGING ARCHITECTURE
THINKING TO THE PEOPLE
| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32
EA is a leading international provider of strategy
and architecture services and capabilities
Championing Practice Awareness in
the Community
• Chief Architect / CTO Round Tables
• Virtual Teaming & Practitioner
Collaboration
• Open Group Participation
• Industry Engagement
Lifetime Relationship with Practising
Architects
• Practitioner career lifecycle
management
• Architecture training and certification
• Professional development
• Community involvement
• PAYG payroll services
• Learning forums
Skills Uplift for Organisations &
Individuals
• TOGAF® 9.1 Certification
• ArchiMate® 2.0
• Advanced / Applied EA
• Business Architecture
• Information Governance
• Solution Architecture
• BPMN
Strategic Relationship With
Corporate Clients
• Strategy & Architecture Capability
Improvement
• The delivery of strategic architecture
outcomes
• Architecture delivery Accelerator
Frameworks
• Resourcing & Talent
• Managed Services
Learning
Services
Architect
Services
Thought
Leadership
Enterprise
Services
| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33
Consumers of Architecture, by Industry
BANKING & FINANCE
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IT VENDOR ORGANISATIONS
CONSULTING
HEALTHCARE
GOVERNMENT
& DEFENCE
ENERGY &
RESOURCES
LOGISITICSEDUCATION
1
3
2
4
5
6
7 8
9
The size of the image demonstrates the sum of spend on Architecture for each industry. Source: Enterprise Architects
| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34
Utility
(Foundation)
Innovate
Build Advantages
Assemble
Prolong
Advantages
Mix
Reduce
Disadvantages
What's business about?
DIFFERENTIATION
The Building Block Analogy
| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 35
The goal of a good business
model is to address the
advantages and disadvantages
in a coherent manner
The Environment
The Business Model
Market
Model
Products
and Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 36
Finding the Right Business Mixes
This entails having a clear understanding of the activities required to move from the mystery
space to the algorithm space
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Rules of thumb
Robust,
repeatable and
replicable
formulas &
processes
Ultimately all innovative
algorithms will become utility.
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business

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Bringing Architecture Thinking to the People - An introduction into the PEOPLE aspects of designing a business

  • 1. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31 FINALv1.0.1–October,2013 PRESENTED BY: CraigMartin-ChiefArchitect, Enterprise Architects An introduction into the PEOPLE aspects of designing a business Customerand Employee BRINGING ARCHITECTURE THINKING TO THE PEOPLE
  • 2. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32 EA is a leading international provider of strategy and architecture services and capabilities Championing Practice Awareness in the Community • Chief Architect / CTO Round Tables • Virtual Teaming & Practitioner Collaboration • Open Group Participation • Industry Engagement Lifetime Relationship with Practising Architects • Practitioner career lifecycle management • Architecture training and certification • Professional development • Community involvement • PAYG payroll services • Learning forums Skills Uplift for Organisations & Individuals • TOGAF® 9.1 Certification • ArchiMate® 2.0 • Advanced / Applied EA • Business Architecture • Information Governance • Solution Architecture • BPMN Strategic Relationship With Corporate Clients • Strategy & Architecture Capability Improvement • The delivery of strategic architecture outcomes • Architecture delivery Accelerator Frameworks • Resourcing & Talent • Managed Services Learning Services Architect Services Thought Leadership Enterprise Services
  • 3. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33 Consumers of Architecture, by Industry BANKING & FINANCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS IT VENDOR ORGANISATIONS CONSULTING HEALTHCARE GOVERNMENT & DEFENCE ENERGY & RESOURCES LOGISITICSEDUCATION 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 The size of the image demonstrates the sum of spend on Architecture for each industry. Source: Enterprise Architects
  • 4. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34 Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages What's business about? DIFFERENTIATION The Building Block Analogy
  • 5. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 35 The goal of a good business model is to address the advantages and disadvantages in a coherent manner The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 6. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 36 Finding the Right Business Mixes This entails having a clear understanding of the activities required to move from the mystery space to the algorithm space Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes Ultimately all innovative algorithms will become utility. * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
  • 7. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37 ANALYTICAL THINKING INTUITIVE THINKING * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives Coherency requires a balance of goals and thinking types The Challenge is identifying the right skills in the organization that are able to traverse the domains of innovative intuitive thinking, and reliable analytical thinking . INVESTMENT TYPICALLY GOES HERE NPV EVA Operation Management Quality Management Corporate Governance Enterprise Patterns Portfolio Analysis IT Governance Value Engineering PRINCE2 Six Sigma & Loan Business Intelligence Strategic Traceability Financial Modelling Innovation Management Business Analysis Data visualisation Talent Management System Thinking Mission Business Model Design Stakeholder Value TOGAF Cost Engineering Solution Architecture Knowledge Ecosystem Six Thinking Hats Collective Intelligence Gamification Crowdsourcing Change Management Perception Management Wicked Problems Environmental Scanning Brand Management Integrative ThinkingGoals Capability Five Forces Root Cause Analysis Product Management Search for “The EA Headspace”
  • 8. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38 Who is best qualified to operate here? ANALYTICAL THINKING INTUITIVE THINKING * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives Certain business disciplines are required to reduce the time to codify Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes SHOULD INVESTMENT GO HERE AND WHO IS QUALIFIED TO OPERATE HERE? Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable processes Search for “The EA Headspace”
  • 9. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39 D INTUITIVE THINKING ANALYTICAL THINKING RULES OF THUMB The speed of business change requires a discipline that is able to use the heuristics effectively in order to achieve the desired outcomes The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology Robust, repeatable and replicable processes Unresolved Business Challenges Mystery Mystery Mystery Innovation Heuristics Assembly Heuristics Mixing Heuristics Utility (Foundation)
  • 10. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310 The Focus is Moving Upwards What we are finding is that business challenges are moving further up the knowledge funnel. The lower levels are becoming commoditised rapidly and the challenge is for those who can find value in mixing the chunks further up the knowledge funnel * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business › Process Improvement › BPM › Automation. Modules. Components › Value Stream and Cross Functional Capabilities › Capability Based Planning › Optimal Mixes of Resources › Business Model Innovation › Business Model Disruption › M&A PROCEDURAL INSTRUCTION SETS (Fine grained & atomic problems) COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC (Coarse Grained Composite problems) Agility favours those who find the best heuristics
  • 11. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311 The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology What we have found in large accounts Lines of responsibility around cohesion and business architecture, are often unclear Functional Capabilities Cross-Functional Capabilities EnterpriseCoherency Capabilities Strategic Architecture Mandate – Business Ownership IT Architecture Mandate – IT Ownership Business Architecture Mandate Undefined Cohesion Mandate Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership
  • 12. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312 Capability driven › Capability driven architectures are designed to support the strategic objectives of an organisation › Capabilities consist of people, process and technology › To fully understand a capability the three components exists regardless of their maturity level One of the means to drive out coherency is through capability based planning Capability based planning is one of the tools that looks at the best “mix” of resources required to develop this cohesion Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives Outcome CAPABILITY People Process Tools
  • 13. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313 Capability Based Planning The focus of current capability based planning efforts is still heavily tilted towards technology and tools. This is often drive by the architecture mandate CAPABILITY People Process Tools Yes Maybe No Umm..?
  • 14. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314 Designing for People Business Behaviour Employee Behaviour Customer Behaviour People & behavioural capability required to deliver the motivation and experience Customer behaviour required to meet objectives Organizational “behaviour” required to address the business motivation Business Motivation Market Insight and strategic intention
  • 15. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315 Business Motivation The motivation aspects need to be identified in order to understand the people resource of the capability landscape *Adapted from business motivation model - OMG Levers TACTICAL STRATEGIC VISIONARYMission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives MEANS END Drivers
  • 16. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316 Business Motivation: The Business Motivation Model Brings Consistency The language of strategic planning is often inconsistent – The BMM provides a Consistent Language at the motivation level Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives A statement describing the aims, values and overall plan of an organisation. e.g. “To be the leading creator and protector of wealth.” A Course of Action that channels efforts towards objectives e.g. “Call first-time customers personally” The strategic plan. e.g. “Defend our current customer base to reduce churn and increase repeat business” A concise statement of a desired change. e.g. “To be the leading provider of wealth management services in our major target markets within the next 5 years.” The outcome of projects improving capabilities, process, assets, etc. e.g. “Develop an operational customer call centre by June 30, 2015. What the plan will achieve. e.g. “Improve customer satisfaction (over the next five years)” *Adapted from business motivation model - OMG “The BMM is a technique in which one determines an ultimate goal and determines the best strategy for attaining the goal in the current situation”
  • 17. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317 Business Motivation: From Values to Principles Cultural Aspects are identified through the business motivation model Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives VALUES PRINCIPLES CULTURE Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture. Principles are general rules and guidelines, intended to be enduring and seldom amended, that inform and support the way in which an organization sets about fulfilling its mission. The values and behaviours that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.
  • 18. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318 Business Motivation: Understanding Business Motivation & BehaviourThe architecture discipline seeks to ultimately align motivation with business behaviour BUSINESS MOTIVATION MODEL BUSINESS ANCHOR MODEL Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives VALUES PRINCIPLES CULTURE
  • 19. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319 Business Motivation: Model Example This is an example completed version of a business motivation model EA’s standard structure for a BMM
  • 20. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320 Business Behaviour Business behaviour is represented by the various aspects of the business model
  • 21. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321 Business Behaviour: Example › To transition the leadership culture from an operational delivery model based on loyalty and compliance to one of empowerment, excellence & innovation as a way of achieving excellence in customer service. › Dual challenges of standardization, productivity and conformity (supported by a command and control structure) and “employee –profit” chain (supported by an inspiring business leadership) › Relatively low level of skill required with high labour intensity at the bottom of the pyramid. › 60-70% of the employees have direct customer interface and there is no substitute to personalized service, relationship and loyalty increasing a differentiator › Repetitive nature of work leading to stress Hospitality
  • 22. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322 Business Behaviour: The Business Anchor Model The Anchor Model is the “Map of the City”
  • 23. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323 Business Behaviour: Capability drives out the outcomes of the motivation model CAPABILITY People Process Tools Outcome
  • 24. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324 Business Behaviour: Capability can be a complex business abstraction
  • 25. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325 Business Behaviour: Key Aspect of Capability is the PEOPLE Resource
  • 26. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326 Designing for People Employee Behaviour Customer Behaviour People & behavioural capability required to deliver the motivation and experience Customer behaviour required to meet objectives Addressing the PEOPLE aspects has two lenses: • Customer/Citizen Focus • Employee Focus
  • 27. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327 Customer Behaviour: Understand the Experience Know your customer: The customer personas considered in scope of the review were High Volume, Low Volume and Ad-hoc groups Customer interaction map : Customer Segment ABC Sanitised
  • 28. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328 Customer interaction map : Customer Segment ABC Customer Behaviour: Understand Touchpoints - Identify issues in the customer journey Map the Customer personas into a customer interaction map to come up with the journey through the customer value chain & look for issues Sanitised
  • 29. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329 Customer Behaviour: Customers Drivers Across their Journey 1. EPIC MEANING & CALLING - This is the Core Drive where a person believes that he is doing something greater than himself or he was “chosen” to be involved. 2. DEVELOPMENT & ACCOMPLISHMENT - This is the internal drive of making progress, developing skills, and eventually overcoming challenges. 3. EMPOWERMENT OF CREATIVITY & FEEDBACK - This is when users are addicted to a creative process where they have to repeatedly figure things out and try different combinations. 4. OWNERSHIP & POSSESSION - This is the drive to “want” something. 5. SOCIAL INFLUENCE & RELATEDNESS - This drive incorporates all the social elements that drive people – including: mentorship, acceptance, social responses, companionship, as well as competition and envy. 6. SCARCITY & IMPATIENCE - This is the drive of wanting something because you can’t have it. 7. CURIOSITY & UNPREDICTABILITY - Generally, this is a harmless drive of wanting to find out what actually happens. 8. LOSS & AVOIDANCE - This drive is based upon the avoidance of something negative happening. Measure Customer and Employee Drive across the journey 0 5 10 15 20 25 Meaning Empowerment Social Pressure Unpredictability Avoidance Scarcity Ownership Accomplisment Target Current *Octalysis
  • 30. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330 Customer Behaviour: The customer value chain & Emotional Drivers Customer Outcome Customer Expectations Set-up Integrate Order Track and Trace Receive Query Customer interaction map : Customer Segment ABC B C D E F G Establishing my account is quick and simple… Integration is quick and easy, with the right help available Efficient, with choices that make it convenient I know when the parcel will arrive I can find out whether my items were delivered; I get a meaningful resolution to my problem “I want to set-up my account” “I want to get ready to send parcels” “I want to send a shipment” “I need to know when my items will arrive” “I want confirmation that my items have arrived” “Something has gone wrong with my parcel delivery…” In light of the touchpoints understand the customer value chain and their emotional drivers across the value chain
  • 31. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331 Customer Behaviour: Understand the Emotional Roller Coaster of your customers Incremental, significant or transformation changes required to improve the experience
  • 32. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332 Business Behaviour meets Customer Behaviour What Value Maps are now required to address the sub-optimal customer experience What are the value maps required to deliver this outcome
  • 33. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333 Business Behaviour meets Customer Behaviour The use of the value stream or cross functional capability methods link the customer experience to the business model and business behaviour Standard functional capabilities can be aligned to a value chain Cross functional capabilities assemble and mix functional capabilities to achieve outcomes in the value map or driver tree Cross functional capabilities each drive out different outcomes. Underlying functional capabilities will have varying perspectives of capability maturity and capability uplift You can also use cross functional models as scenarios to test the capability anchor model validity
  • 34. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334 Business Behaviour meets Employee Behaviour What people process and tools are required to address the gap
  • 35. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335 Linking the Value Streams to the Performance Model Understanding value across the “value stream” helps focus Employee Behaviour Sanitised
  • 36. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336 Employee Behaviour: Focussing on the Capability Resources The Process Layer Plays a Strong Role in assembling capabilities for different outcomes PROCESS Sign Up & Integrate CAPABILITY 20. Information Services Management CAPABILITY 15. Sales Execution PROCESS A1. Explore and compare potential providers and services PROCESS B2. Sign up and activate account PROCESS C3. Integrate my store with Australia Post’s API’s precedes precedes precedes precedes BUSINESS SERVICE Customer Sales Management BUSINESS SERVICE Partner Collaboration PROCESS C1. Receive information on how the systems and processes will work PROCESS C2. Install the necessary hardware / software on my systems is realized by LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Customer Sales Management LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Enterprise Resource Planning LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Partner Collaboration Management LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Security Management communicates with communicates with communicates with implements is realized by implements ACTOR Post Staff DATA ENTITY Sales Order ACTOR Post Staff participates in participates in is processed by consumes SAP - CRM SAP - ERP auspost.com.a u IAM - OIM is processed by ACTOR Fiona participates in Customer CAPABILITY People Process Tools Connecting these to projects provides valuable insight into coherency o the capex investment across the enterprise Within each process flow, there are typically four to five capabilities that make up the process. These typically correspond to functional silos that complete each step. Within each capability, the model identifies systems or applications that are used to execute the capability. This is where the model forms the alignment between business and IT. Archimate Notation
  • 37. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337 Employee Behaviour Capability is a complex topic required to address complex relationships
  • 38. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338 Employee Behavior: Competency Hard Skills Soft Skills Behaviour Indicators Skilled Overused Un-Skilled Competency Performance Criteria Capability OutcomesThe definition of competency varies depending upon which framework you use. Lominger excludes hard skills from competency
  • 39. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339 1. Business Motivation & Behaviour: Business capability model aligned to value chain aspirations. 2. Capability description catalogue 3. Client Capability Model with Strategic Priorities Overlay 4. Client Practice Overlay 5. Client Organisation Scope Overlay and Competency Heatmap 6. Current assessment and observations on people competencies and recommendations Case Study Example Deliverables
  • 40. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340 Phase 2Phase 1 Phase 3 Phase 4 Case Study: Approach Establish Client Capability Model - Primary Reference Model 4 Client Strategy Documents - Vision 1 Stakeholder Interviews - Context & Behaviour descriptions 3 Interview Notes Industry Reference Models - Content 2 Capability Survey - Capability Gaps – People Focus7 Interpret Behaviour Descriptions to identify skilled, overused or unskilled competencies 5 Recommend Business, Operating and People Skills aligned to value chain 8 Developed Strategic Priorities & Practice Overlays 6 Develop Reference Security Services Catalogue & Functional Role Overlay 9 Client Capability Review Report Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised
  • 41. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341 Employee Behaviour › If factors for job evaluation can be commoditised across organisations, why not the competencies? › Total Suite of integrated Business/HR Tools including instruments for selection, Performance Management, Personal Development, Team Performance, Change Management and Succession Planning. › Process allows organizations to select a set of Competencies (success profiles) that can be directly linked to improved Organizational Capability and Results. › Competencies have been correlated and validated to Performance, Potential, Relationship Skills, Emotional Intelligence and Myers Briggs. › 5. Competencies are weighed by difficulty to learn which has implications for both selection and the effort required to develop individuals. › 6. Each competency has a set of practical remedies and assignments that can be included in a Personal Development Plan. Using the Lominger framework Dr Nisha Leena Sinharoy EA Consultant and Team Lead
  • 42. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342 Competency Mapping LOMINGER EXAMPLE: PROBLEM SOLVING COMPETENCY UNSKILLED › Not a disciplined problem solver; may be stuck in the past, wed to what worked before › Has to rework the problem a second time › May be a “fire-ready-aim” type › May get impatient and jump to conclusions too soon › May not stop to define and analyze the problem; doesn’t look under rocks › May have a set bag of tricks and pull unfit solutions from it › May miss the complexity of the issue and force-fit it to what he or she is most comfortable with › Unlikely to come up with the second and better solution, ask penetrating questions, or see hidden patterns SKILLED › Uses rigorous logic and methods to solve difficult problems with effective solutions › Probes all fruitful sources for answers › Sees hidden problems › Is excellent at honest analysis › Looks beyond the obvious and doesn’t stop at the first answers OVERUSED › May tend toward “analysis paralysis” › May wait too long to come to a conclusion › May not set analysis priorities › May get hung up in the process and miss the big picture › May make things overly complex › May do too much of the analysis personally.
  • 43. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343 Identifying competency uplifts includes understanding implications of both strengths and challenges/gaps …it is important to be mindful that the competency does not become an Overused Skilled*. In situations where a competency is identified as an Overused Skill, compensating competencies can support to balance the behaviours If a competency is a strength… If a competency is a challenge or a gap… …the key call out is that Unskilled* behaviours are being demonstrated. Identifying substitute competencies will assist in bridging the gap as work is undertaken to develop the gap * Overused skill & Unskilled are terms used in the Lominger Framework Skilled behaviours • Has the functional and technical knowledge and skills to do the job at a high level of accomplishment • Is the ‘go-to’ person when problem solving functional/technical challenges • Is considered the subject matter expert Functional/ Technical Skills The ability to explore new applications or enhancements to assist staff and to provide better customer service through technology while understanding the impact of technological changes on the organisation Overused Skill • May overdevelop or depend upon technical and functional knowledge • May use deep technical knowledge and skills to avoid ambiguity and risk • May be seen as too narrow in approach when problem solving Unskilled • Not up to functional or technical proficiency • May be stuck in past skills and technologies • Lack of detail orientation to go deep • May not make the time to learn Compensators: Creativity, Innovation Management, Intellectual Horsepower, Learning on the Fly, Personal Learning. Perspective, Problem Solving, Stranding Alone, Strategic Agility Substitutes: Business Acumen, Delegation, Directing Others, Intellectual Horsepower, Learning on the Fly, Listening, Perspective, Priority Setting, Technical Learning For example: Using this approach, we identified compensators (Competencies that counter balance overused skills) and substitutes for the strengths, challenges and gaps identified as a baseline of competency considerations. We also then identified competency requirements in alignment with the regional aspirations and functional requirements to propose the following framework The Lominger Framework recommends that no more than 3 compensators or substitutes are identified for development
  • 44. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344 Employee Behaviour: Case Study The more mature part of the industry views capability as people focussed Sanitised
  • 45. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345 Client Capability Model Q1 Does your area have this capability today? Q2 Will your area require this capability to meet growth aspirations? Q3 How would you rate people competency currently? Capability Survey Team Scope Overlays & scope analysis Team Competency Overlay & hotspot analysis The scope of each team’s capability and the major gaps and overlaps Capabilities with people competency hotspots We asked… To understand… Strategic Priority Overlay & priority analysisClient Plan-on-a-Page SUPPORTING CAPABILITIES PRODUCT &SERVICE STRATEGY SERVICE DESIGN SALES SERVICE TRANSITION SERVICE OPERATIONS CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT We mapped the 15 strategic priorities to capabilities… Client Strategic Priorities Overlay Baseline & People Assessment Employee Behavior: Case Study. Mixing Views to Address Competency 1 2 3 Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised Sanitised
  • 46. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346 0 1 2 3 ProductStrategyManagement ProductInnovationManagement ProductPortfolioManagement CustomerInsightManagement ServiceStrategyManagement ServiceInnovationManagement ServicePortfolioManagement ServiceDemandCreation SolutionStrategy Designcoordination SolutionDesign SolutionIntegration SolutionRequirementsManagement ServiceLevelDesign OfferDevelopment MarketingAnalysis MarketingStrategy MarketingExecution SalesPlanning SalesRelationshipManagement SalesExecution PricingandContractManagement ChannelStrategy&Planning ChannelDevelopment ChannelExecution DemandManagement ResourceManagement Program&ProjectManagement RequirementsManagement ServiceDesignandBuildManagement Changeevaluation ChangeManagement Release&deploymentmanagement Serviceasset&configurationmanagement Servicevalidation&testing ResourceProvisioning ResourceTroubleManagement ResourcePerformanceManagement ResourceDataCollection&Distribution InventoryManagement WarehouseManagement DistributionManagement Accessmanagement Eventmanagement Incidentmanagement Problemmanagement Requestfulfilment ITServiceSecurityManagement ITServiceContinuityManagement ServiceLevelManagement CapacityManagement AvailabilityManagement CustomerRelationshipManagement CustomerExperienceManagement CustomerContractManagement CustomerReportingManagement CustomerAccountingManagement CustomerInformationManagement PartnerStrategyManagement PartnerEngagementManagement PartnerReadinessManagement PartnerRequisitionManagement PartnerProblemManagement PartnerPerformanceManagement PracticeStrategy BusinessDevelopment TechnologyInsight PracticeKnowledgeManagement Consulting&Advisory BusinessManagement&Optimisation ServiceImprovement ProcessImprovement GovernanceManagement ProcessControlManagement BenefitsManagement RiskManagement QualityManagement MeasuresandReportingManagement aC ENABLING CAPABILITIES PRODUCT & SERVICE STRATEGY SERVICE DESIGN SALES SERVICE TRANSITION SERVICE OPERATIONS CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT Case Study: For most areas, people were challenged due to process and resource constraints but still able to perform Pain point level by capability Service strategy and offer creation operating almost in pilot stage – Client has intent to take leadership and grow through Service Creation team and Practices 1 Demand management for solutioning and delivery is responsive but tactical – increased transparency and visibility of the sales pipeline would allow for proactive planning 2 Many pain points raised across project, change, release and configuration management – the PM competency underpins these other capabilities and work is being done to improve 3 A lack of organization around supporting capabilities has lead to teams employing their own processes, introduces inefficiency and varying levels of quality 4 Observations and Insights A review process and tool impacts and uplifts underway on capability will support a refined and focused view of competency only hotspots Mapping to capability model * CDU not available at time of print 3 4 3 2 1 Good Average Poor Sanitised
  • 47. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347 Case Study: Competencies to support a business adapting to high volume of change and growth are recommended as a focus • Business Acumen • Perspective • Priority Setting • Global Business Knowledge • Cross-Cultural Resourcefulness • Non-Strategic • Lack of Composure • Customer Focus • Drive for Results • Learning on the Fly • Dealing with Ambiguity • Cross Cultural Agility • Assignment Hardiness • Humility • Overdependence on a Single Skill • Performance Problems • Poor Administrator • Informing • Interpersonally Savvy • Managing Diversity • Cross Cultural Sensitivity • Organizational Positioning Skills • Blocked Personal Learner • Unable to Adapt to Differences Business Skills Operating Skills People Skills Individual Management Career Blockers
  • 48. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348 Case Study: Outcome › The outcome for Client was a competency framework to move from a product centric organization to a service centric, customer intimate organization. › We gave them the behaviour descriptions on what to aspire to in order to address their business motivations › A people roadmap and change program was not delivered and would be the next phase › Behaviour change aspects and design are also needed for the next phase ie. how do we AFFECT the behaviours of the staff to move towards the future state ? › What types of employee drivers do you want to address in moving from current to future capability improvement? - Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivators
  • 49. | ARCHITECTING THE PEOPLE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349 Q&A