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Driving your BA Career: From Business Analyst to Business Architect

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In this presentation I look at the career path of a Business Analyst and how they can make the transition to a Business Architect. The primary subject areas discussed are:

-The goal of a good business model is to create coherence
-The Business Analyst and Business Architecture vocations
-What are the dominant skills across the mandate
-Strategies for moving up the curve to open the opportunities
-Enhance your Business Analysis role with Business Architecture thinking and tools

Published in: Business
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Driving your BA Career: From Business Analyst to Business Architect

  1. 1. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31 Driving your BA Career. From BA to BA Final–v2.0.0- August2014 CraigMartin ChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
  2. 2. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32 About e zero HOURS A DAY BACK OFFICE VENDOR ALIGNMENT MORE THAN 1600 PEOPLE TRAINED IN ARCHITECTURE PRACTICES (AND RISING) 12YEARS IN BUSINESS 8GLOBAL OFFICES 1600 MORE THAN 10,000 DAYS OF ARCHITECTURE SERVICES DELIVERED LAST YEAR 10,000 oneCOMMON METHOD 20 four sixOPERATING IN 6 CONTINENTS
  3. 3. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33 Our Services Servicing the Strategy and Architecture needs of Global Organisations STRATEGY CONSULTING • Business Architecture • Strategic Services & Operating Model Design: » Business Services & Capabilities » IT Services & Capabilities • Segment Strategies and Roadmaps: » Customer Experience & Digital » Enterprise Information Management » Big Data Analytics » Applications » Cloud & Infrastructure » Security, Risk & Resilience » Innovation Management PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT • Architecture Service Model Design • Architecture Operating Model Design • Service and Capability Readiness Assessment • Professional Training and Certification (Business Architecture, Information Management, TOGAF®, CDMP®, ArchiMate® and Design Thinking) • Project Architecture Resources • Architecture Talent Strategy and Professional Development • Architecture Back Office Services
  4. 4. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34 our clients
  5. 5. | DRIVING YOUR BA CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 46 K WHY
  6. 6. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37 Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages What's Business About? The Building Block Analogy Differentiation
  7. 7. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38 Finding the Right Business Mixes The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes Ultimately all innovative algorithms will become utility. * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
  8. 8. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39 The Right Business Mix Results in Cohesion Which Increases Performance Companies with a High Level of Cohesion affect EBIT Directly 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28% 32% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 EBITmargin,2003-2007 Capabilities coherence score Coca-Cola Wrigley PepsiCo Kimberly-Clark Sara Lee ConAgra Merck Unilever H.J. Heinz Kraft General Mills Clorox Campbell Soup Company P&G *Adapted from “The Coherence Premium” – Harvard Business Review, June 2010 A coherent organization is one that is thought of and executed as a whole
  9. 9. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310 The Goal of A Good Business Model is to Create Coherence • A Coherent Business Model is one that is synchronised around: » its market position, » its product and service portfolio; and » its most distinctive strategic capabilities • All of the above working together as a system • To bring coherence to these components requires a variety of business skills and disciplines Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of the components, and how to mix them in a manner that is innovative and differentiating THE ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS MODEL Markets Industries Customers Market Segment Channels Customer Relationships Value Proposition Offering: Services/Products Processes/ Value Chains Capabilities Business Service Functions Data Applications Technology MARKET MODEL OPERATING MODEL SERVICE MODEL
  10. 10. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311 * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Exploitation; Reliability Produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Exploration; Validity Produce outcomes that meet an objective Coherency requires a balance of goals and thinking types The Challenge is identifying the right skills in the organization that are able to traverse the domains of innovative intuitive thinking, and reliable analytical thinking . Unresolved Business Challenges Heuristics Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable processes A reliable system will produce the same test results every time A valid system will produce a result that is shown, through the passage of time, to be correct Who is best qualified to operate here?
  11. 11. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312 THE KNOWLEDGE FUNNEL Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Certain Business Disciplines Are Required to Reduce the time to codify Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes Source: Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Validity- Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives
  12. 12. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313 The Results of Disruption the commodity space is growing, making the differentiation space more competitive Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Opportunity or Threat?
  13. 13. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314 K WHO?
  14. 14. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315 What we have found in large accounts Cohesion Mandate Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership An ownership gap for business architecture exists - Lines of responsibility around coherency and business architecture, are often unclear EnterprisePerformance Capabilities X-FunctionalCapabilities FunctionalCapabilities CONTEXT Markets Industries Customers Market Segment Channels Customer Relationships Value Proposition Offering: Services/Products Processes/ Value Chains Capabilities Business Service Functions Data Applications Technology MARKET MODEL OPERATING MODEL SERVICE MODEL Strategic Architecture Mandate – Business Ownership IT Architecture Mandate – IT Ownership Business Architecture Mandate Undefined
  15. 15. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316 Getting Closer to Business Business Stakeholders are seeking more value, but are often receiving more complexity TOGAFBusiness Stakeholder Relationship Management Who is best qualified to own this space?
  16. 16. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317 Discipline Confusion Confusion reigns around which disciplines are used for what situations STRATEGIC PLAN MARKETING PLAN OPERATIONAL PLAN DELIVERY & EXECUTION OPERATIONS Planning Delivering Operating PORTFOLIO, PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREPRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN BUSINESS PLANNING SOLUTIONS ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE DESIGN BUSINESS ANALYSIS Environment analysis / SWOT, competitor / Business motivation / Product and portfolio analysis / Strategic Options Market analysis and forecasting Model the business / Evaluate and select strategy / Risk and funding analysis Project, portfolio and program management, solutions delivery Daily operations, run the business
  17. 17. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318 Discipline Confusion The confusion and lack of results is often a caused by the breakdown of inter-discipline relationships, and not necessarily internal discipline operating models BUSINESS PLANNING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO / PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE SOLUTION DEVELOPMENT Business Direction Runs the Enterprise Delivers Structured Direction ENTERPRISE PLANNING Project Management Governance Delivers *Adapted from TOGAF 9.1
  18. 18. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319 Business Architecture and Business Analysis Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the stakeholder? Context of Work UnderlyingCompetency Detail Focus Big Picture FoundationalAdvanced Entry level BA Junior BA Inter- mediate BA Senior BA Advanced Generalist BA Analyst BizArch Senior BizArch Principal BizArch Master BizArch Distinguished BizArch Business Analysis Business Architecture Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Business Architect
  19. 19. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320 Overlap in BA and BA type roles Adding Additional Business Domains provides a greater Insight into the different role types Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  20. 20. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321 Overlap in BA and BA type roles This is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves from this space Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  21. 21. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322 Lack of Opportunity The Current Business Analysis Career Path Dilutes the true Value The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and delivery type functions Time KnowledgeOfBusiness Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Principal Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Delivering Path Thought leadership in terms of the utility layer, standards, replicating, reliability etc. Managing Path Thought leadership in terms of management, delivery, change and politics Planning Path Thought leadership in terms of innovation, business models and mixes
  22. 22. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323 K WHAT
  23. 23. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324 Why is there Lack of Opportunity? • Risk driven » Activities that produce consistent, predicable outcomes are more likely to attract investment due to lack of risk • Utility Driven » Business Analysis as well as business architecture are often seen as utility disciplines that provide the building blocks for the “actual” business • Delivery Driven » The business is in a delivery phase and the focus is therefore on delivery of outcomes through projects and programs • Organization Driven » Due to organization structures, there is less room at the top and hence less opportunity for those types of individuals. • Performance Driven » It is easier to measure the reliability dimension • Politically Driven » “In Corporate settings, high level heuristics are generally in the hands of highly paid executives who, out of sheer self interest, are reluctant to share that space and skill” » There is strong ownership of the business outcomes and hence business is reluctant to relinquish control to what it sees as “outside” the business • Mandate Driven » Ultimately all of the above are driven by the mandate » If the mandate from the business is for improved business performance or market share then the opportunity will exist
  24. 24. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325 Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Responsibility Depends Upon The Mandate from Business The EA Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases. Business Architecture is seen as a positive progression away from IT Maximize Product Profitability Maximise Market Share Maximise Customer Lifetime Value …but in fact business architecture spans this entire curve. Therefore the higher the mandate, the higher the value *Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer
  25. 25. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326 How Does the Mandate Affect Business Roles? There are three areas that we can align to general BABOK language Lets Call this space the Enterprise Planning and Performance space Lets Call this space the Business Improvement space Lets Call this space the Business Transition space Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D
  26. 26. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327 What are the Dominant Skills Across the Mandate? The required Skills will therefore vary across the mandate Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Elicitation Business Analysis Performance Recommendation of Improvements Enterprise analysis Determine business processes Requirements analysis mngmnt and comms Addressed by SFIA Addressed by SFIA Lean thinking Six Sigma TQM TOC Planning and monitoring Solution assessment and validation Program and Portfolio mngmnt and Governance Risk mngmnt Change Mngmnt Benefit Realisation Gap in SFIA Shareholder Value Analysis Value Maps and Driver trees Strategic Planning Organisation Design Economics and Accounting Systems Thinking Corporate Governance Quantitative Analysis Product Strategy Design Thinking Enterprise Planning
  27. 27. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328 What might the roles look like across the Mandate? The true value of each role is reached when they operate within their “sweet spot” Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA Principal Business Architect BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Strategic BA Distinguished BizArch Master BizArch Business Architect Analyst BizArch BABOK does not recognise a hybrid overlap between the Business Analyst and the Business architect Senior BizArch
  28. 28. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Organizational Rhythms: Closer alignment to the planning cycle
  29. 29. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330 ‘Enterprise Lifecycle's 2014 © Enterprise Architects PTY LTD PERORMANCE TIME ENTERPRISE BRAND PLATFORM BUSINESS MODEL BUSINESS CAPABILITIES PRODUCT Constant change is moving upwards faster organizations…and architects need to be able to provide the means to enable this change
  30. 30. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Provide Structural insight into strategic scenarios • Strategic option analysis - for a more informed understanding of the potential impact of each scenario on the business. • This helps the business to compare investment choices and effort before executing
  31. 31. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines Change Manager Finance PMO Business Improvement Strategy Technology • Combination of People, Process & technology to drive out an outcome through projects
  32. 32. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 5 Initiative 6 STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 1 Initiative 2 STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 3 Initiative 4 Mandate: Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Initiatives straight from strategy often results in loss of cohesion
  33. 33. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Business Architecture Solution Architecture Solution Development Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map. PMO drives the architecture efforts Business Analysis
  34. 34. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Scenario 2: Business Transition - developing the unified business model STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 5 Capability 6 STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 1 Capability 2 STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 3 Capability 4 Mandate: Improve Business Performance Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Creating a single unified business model helps build cohesion across the enterprise
  35. 35. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Planning Business Architecture Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development As business architecture provides more value, its is being positioned above the delivery and execution space Business Analysis
  36. 36. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Injecting Business Architecture into the strategic scenarios will Improve the Strategic Decisions as well as the execution of that strategy Mandate: Improve market performance Scenario 3: Planning and Performance - defining the business model for candidate strategic scenarios Mission Vision VISIONARY StrategiesGoalsSTRATEGIC Tactics Objectives TACTICAL Semi Integrated Universal Bank Product Specialist Customer Owner Infrastructur e Provider
  37. 37. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Architecture Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development Facilitating Business Architecture as a strategic tool in the planning process is where the greatest value lies Business Analysis
  38. 38. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339 Enterprise Design Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Architecture Service Design Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development Combining business architecture with design thinking provides a much broader value proposition where customer experience and value is linked directly to the architected components of the business. In other words the entire enterprise is architected to improve the experience the end customer has with the organization. Outside in as opposed inside out. Business Analysis
  39. 39. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • High maturity organizations have a clear linkage between Business architecture, strategic goals, and performance management • These organizations also have a feedback loop which helps measure the progress towards objectives • This feedback loop will also inform the next iteration of business strategy and architecture. Piggy back off enterprise performance management as an onramp for business architecture
  40. 40. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Aligning to value What value is created? How is value created? How is value measured? Senior managers must have a solid analytical understanding of which performance variables drive the value of the company An important part of VBM is a deep understanding of the performance variables that will actually create the value of the business – the key value drivers. Such an understanding is essential because an organization cannot act directly on value. It has to act on things it can influence – customer satisfaction, cost, capital expenditures, and so on. The problem lies here
  41. 41. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Co-Design with your stakeholders C U S T O M E R P E R S O N A S S E R V I C E M O D E LE M PAT H Y M A P V P C A N V A S
  42. 42. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Provide executives with a cohesive, non-project based view of the investment spend • Address Capex and Opex conflicts • Address duplication of effort across the portfolio landscape • Maintain alignment of the ensuing programs • Allows business stakeholders to have a consistent business focussed view of the project investment and its status Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs Removed
  43. 43. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Choose your architecture sponsor carefully since it has a direct effect on the success of the architecture function. = significant improvement External consultants, or other individuals with recognized credibility, strengthen your business case. Highly placed business executives provide access to funding and help assert governance over business architecture. Executives with cross-functional responsibility will make the best allies for your architecture efforts Executive sponsors involved in change are more open to new initiatives and have access to discretionary funding. (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=43) 48% 50% 40% 60% 64% 94% 77% 76% 70% 69% 0% 50% 100% External consultant responsible for business architecture Most highly-placed executive Person responsible for change area Business architect employed by the company Person integrating multiple departments Involvement of business sponsors affects success of the Architecture function Not involved Involved in sponsorship If you have a choice of Architecture sponsors, look for external consultants, high-placed executives, or those in charge of change areas.
  44. 44. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Find the heuristic super powers and use the business architecture techniques to develop the algorithms. • Understanding the heuristics puts you in a position of strength, since rewards and status tends to go to those individuals with the best and most reliable heuristic. • Motivation Models, cohesion planning, cross functional capabilities, journey maps, learning maps and value maps are all techniques to help understand the heuristic recipe Improve the speed through the knowledge funnel using business architecture techniques * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes
  45. 45. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that is supported by both the business architects and business analysts Software Automation Projects Funds investment Widget assembly Credit card approval Inventory Management Outsourcing Projects Major re- design projects Six-sigma based process improvement analysts New Product design Deals with other companies International Delivery On-line purchasing ERP based process improvement Complex Processes, not part of company’s core competency: Outsource Complex, dynamic processes of high value: undertake business process improvement efforts that focus on people Straightforward, static commodity processes: use automated ERP-Type applications and / or outsource Straightforward, static, and valuable: automate to gain efficiency High High Low Low Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services Strategic Importance ProcessComplexityandDynamics Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Organization Heuristics Principal Business Architects Business Analysts Strategic Business Architect Senior Business Analysts *Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon
  46. 46. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Address concerns based architecture through standardisation and simplicity
  47. 47. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Mix up the architecture to show its true value
  48. 48. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Levelling, levelling, levelling Level A Value Chain Level B Capabilities Level C Core Processes in cross functional capabilities Level D Business Process Flows Level E Operational Process Flows Level F Detailed Process Flows Value Chain Objectives Scorecard Capability Groupings Ownership Services Core Processes Delivery Units Products Processes Delivery Teams Systems Sub Processes Roles System Functions Detailed Processes Detailed Roles Transactions x x x
  49. 49. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350 33% 61% 0% 50% 100% Did not use Did use Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Always tie models into existing strategic planning artifacts • Mould architecture to current artifacts. • Document to resonate, explain and communicate. • Get to the bottom line. The absence of metrics outlining the efficiency, effectiveness, and agility gains of the business analysis and architecture discipline will drive the business away. • Don’t think it’s your job to introduce business leaders to the practice of modeling - Business models may not look like EA models, but you have to find the link between the two paradigms to achieve business engagement in target state design Tie target state models into existing strategic planning materials. Usage of pre-existing business process diagrams drives business engagement %businessengaged (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=44)
  50. 50. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Value and differentiation still require the use of the utility • Its this utility that must be optimised through the creation of algorithms • You need the utility and the algorithms to help build reliability and repeatability • Capital investment is predominantly directed towards this reliability and utility area since it is predictable and manageable Developing a strong utility layer allows you to leverage reliability to support more innovative initiatives Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages
  51. 51. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352 TOGAF, BABOK and BIZBOK The Tools for the Business Disciplines are Complementary and tend to support the gaps that exist between them 0 1 2 3 4 5 Supporting Techniques for completing the outputs, workproducts and artefacts Defined list of outputs, workproducts and artefacts (Business Domain) Standardised technique for defining outputs A method to execute for the Business Domain A method to execute for the Enterprise An classification scheme Competency model for the Business Domain Practice development for the Business Domain BABOK v2 BIZBOK 3.0 TOGAF 9.1
  52. 52. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353 TOGAF and the Other Tools TOGAF is complemented by the other frameworks. In other words the other tools fill in the detail content where TOGAF is light BIZBOK Body of Knowledge Resources Framework “Glue” Complementary Methods and Frameworks
  53. 53. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354 Frameworks and standards TOGAF is a FRAMEWORK and focusses a lot on structural aspects. It can be seen as the “Glue” that interlinks all aspects of an enterprise A Method of Execution A Classification System Structure of Views and Models
  54. 54. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 355 K HOW
  55. 55. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356 “Architecture Thinking” MOTIVATION MODEL BUSINESS MODEL SERVICE MODEL CAPABILITY MODEL People ROADMAP GOVERNANCE * Closed feedback loop to Motivation Model Vision Strategy Blueprinting Roadmapping Governance Information Technolog y Process Design Thinking: Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype, Test MARKET MODEL MEANS ASSESSMENT INFLUENCERS ASSESSMENT MEANS ENDS MACRO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTR Y SCAN SWOT PERFORMANCE • Financial • Customer • Internal (current) • Internal (long-term)
  56. 56. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 357 A Method of Execution TOGAF provides a more sophisticated method of the integration of the disciplines but does not provide the detailed content and methods for the domains Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business “hat” is worn in these phases since it involves the innovate, mix and assemble activities • The strength of the business architect in this space is understanding the context and applying the right tools for that context • At this point it is advantageous to introduce the motivation model, with specific reference focus as to how the customer experience drives out the outcomes in the motivation model. • The capability model often does not resonate here - so the introduction of the underlying resource mix is more effective e.g.. People, Process and tools • A First iteration of these phases drives out the key enterprise differentiation resources required to reach the outcomes • A Second iteration drives out the products and services model (4P’s - Product, Place, Price & Promotion) and what cross functional resources we need to deliver these • Journey management is a crucial aspect of the business architect during this phase • Some limited BABOK and BIZBOK techniques support this area
  57. 57. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 358 A Method of Execution The Business Architect wears two hats when executing through this method Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business architect wears the architecture “hat” in these phases since they involve the reliability and utility activities • The business architect has to understand architecture in order to apply it and help the teams downstream • This space requires more of the traditional architecture models - the people, process and tools resources can now be assembled and clustered into capabilities • The architecture community is strong in this space but tends to be weak at requirements management across the whole process • Techniques and resources within the BizBok will support the business architect efforts within these phases • There are a number of techniques within the BABOK that the business analyst will use in supporting the business architect across these phases
  58. 58. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 359 A Method of Execution The Business Analyst already has a mature capability around requirements management Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business analyst primary focus is to seek to understand the business • The focus of this understanding is more often delivery and project based • The business analyst skill supports requirements elicitation across the whole lifecycle • This complements the weakness of the architecture community • There are a number of mature methods and techniques within the BABOK that support these activities
  59. 59. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 360 Components Train for Hard Skills, Coach for Soft Skills Business Architecture Skills Maturity Curve Illustrative Baseline Skills •Modeling Business Context •Modeling Business Process •Modeling Business Requirements •Modeling Business Information •Using a Business Capability Model •Use Case Modeling “Success Differentiators” •Application of Techniques •Soft Business Architecture Skills: oCraft and Implement Strategy oDrive Collaborative behavior oLeadership oDrive Innovation and Optimization Coach for Soft Skills Train for Hard Skills Value to Business Skills Maturity
  60. 60. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 361 Team Structure • Pragmatist and visionary » The pragmatist follows the money and works with what he sees » The visionary follows the vision and works with what he visualizes • The challenge for the business architect is to deal with both the analytical stakeholder as well as the intuitive stakeholder and try create synergy between these two • Team works well when there is a common vision and a common purpose • Mix the team on Myers Briggs scores
  61. 61. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 362 Team Profiles Creating the right mix is crucial for a successful business team Role Type Temperament & Personality Strengths Business Architect ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Journey Manager ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Project Manager ENTJ Rational Field Marshall Give structure and direction, visualize where the organization is going, communicate that vision to others. Organizational and coordinating skills Business Analyst INFJ Idealist Counsellor Understand and use human systems creatively, and are good at consulting and cooperating with others. vivid imaginations and poetic imagery and storytelling Customer Experience ESTP Artisan Promoter Men and women of action, excellent negotiators. Charming, confident, and popular, Promoters delight their friends and investors with their endless supply of stories and jokes IT Architect ISTP Artisan Crafter Masterful operation of tools, equipment, machines, and instruments of all kinds. Action oriented
  62. 62. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 364 Questions?

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