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| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31
Driving your BA Career.
From BA to BA
Final–v2.0.0- August2014
CraigMartin
ChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32
About e
zero HOURS A DAY
BACK OFFICE
VENDOR ALIGNMENT
MORE THAN 1600 PEOPLE
TRAINED IN ARCHITECTURE
PRACTICES (AND RISING)
12YEARS IN BUSINESS
8GLOBAL OFFICES
1600
MORE THAN 10,000 DAYS OF
ARCHITECTURE SERVICES
DELIVERED LAST YEAR
10,000
oneCOMMON METHOD
20
four
sixOPERATING IN
6 CONTINENTS
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33
Our Services
Servicing the
Strategy and Architecture
needs of
Global Organisations
STRATEGY CONSULTING
• Business Architecture
• Strategic Services & Operating
Model Design:
» Business Services & Capabilities
» IT Services & Capabilities
• Segment Strategies and Roadmaps:
» Customer Experience & Digital
» Enterprise Information
Management
» Big Data Analytics
» Applications
» Cloud & Infrastructure
» Security, Risk & Resilience
» Innovation Management
PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT
• Architecture Service Model Design
• Architecture Operating Model
Design
• Service and Capability Readiness
Assessment
• Professional Training and
Certification (Business Architecture,
Information Management, TOGAF®,
CDMP®, ArchiMate® and Design
Thinking)
• Project Architecture Resources
• Architecture Talent Strategy and
Professional Development
• Architecture Back Office Services
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34
our clients
| DRIVING YOUR BA CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 46
K
WHY
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37
Utility
(Foundation)
Innovate
Build
Advantages
Assemble
Prolong
Advantages
Mix
Reduce
Disadvantages
What's Business About?
The Building Block Analogy
Differentiation
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38
Finding the Right Business Mixes
The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Rules of thumb
Robust,
repeatable
and replicable
formulas &
processes
Ultimately all innovative algorithms
will become utility.
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39
The Right Business Mix Results in Cohesion Which Increases Performance
Companies with a High Level of Cohesion affect EBIT Directly
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
24%
28%
32%
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
EBITmargin,2003-2007
Capabilities coherence score
Coca-Cola
Wrigley
PepsiCo
Kimberly-Clark
Sara Lee
ConAgra Merck
Unilever
H.J. Heinz
Kraft
General Mills
Clorox
Campbell Soup Company
P&G
*Adapted from “The Coherence Premium” –
Harvard Business Review, June 2010
A coherent organization is one that is
thought of and executed as a whole
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310
The Goal of A Good Business Model is to Create Coherence
• A Coherent Business Model
is one that is synchronised
around:
» its market position,
» its product and service portfolio; and
» its most distinctive strategic capabilities
• All of the above working
together as a system
• To bring coherence to
these components requires
a variety of business skills
and disciplines
Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of the components, and how to mix them in a manner that is innovative and differentiating
THE ENVIRONMENT
BUSINESS MODEL
Markets
Industries
Customers
Market Segment
Channels
Customer Relationships
Value Proposition
Offering:
Services/Products
Processes/ Value Chains
Capabilities
Business Service
Functions
Data
Applications
Technology
MARKET
MODEL
OPERATING
MODEL
SERVICE
MODEL
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
GOAL: Exploitation;
Reliability
Produce consistent,
predictable outcomes
GOAL: Exploration; Validity
Produce outcomes that
meet an objective
Coherency requires a balance of goals and thinking types
The Challenge is identifying the right skills in the organization that are able to traverse the domains of innovative intuitive
thinking, and reliable analytical thinking .
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Heuristics
Rules of
thumb
Robust, repeatable
and replicable
processes
A reliable system will
produce the same test
results every time
A valid system will
produce a result that is
shown, through the
passage of time, to be
correct
Who is best qualified to operate here?
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312
THE KNOWLEDGE
FUNNEL
Non-core but complex -
Outsource
Innovation, chaos &
unresolved mysteries
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
LOW
Must be done but adds little value
to product or services
Very important to success, high value added
to products and services
STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE
COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS
Complex negotiation,
design, or decision process
Many business rules;
expertise involved
Some business rules
Procedure or simple
algorithm
Non -Core
Competencies
Core Differentiating
Competencies
Everyday, highly
repeatable and
automated
Make repeatable and
reliable to gain
efficiency
Core Competitive
Competencies
Certain Business Disciplines Are Required to Reduce the time to codify
Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes
Source: Adapted from “Business Process
Change” by Paul Harmon
GOAL: Reliably produce
consistent, predictable
outcomes
GOAL: Validity- Produce
outcomes
that meet desired
objectives
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313
The Results of Disruption
the commodity space is growing, making the differentiation space more competitive
Non-core but complex
- Outsource
Innovation, chaos &
unresolved mysteries
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
LOW
Must be done but adds little value to
product or services
Very important to success, high value added to
products and services
STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE
COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS
Complex negotiation, design,
or decision process
Many business rules; expertise
involved
Some business rules
Procedure or simple algorithm
Non -Core
Competencies
Core Differentiating
Competencies
Everyday, highly
repeatable and
automated
Make repeatable and
reliable to gain
efficiency
Core Competitive
Competencies
Non-core but complex -
Outsource
Innovation, chaos
& unresolved
mysteries
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
LOW
Must be done but adds little value to
product or services
Very important to success, high value added to
products and services
STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE
COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS
Complex negotiation, design,
or decision process
Many business rules; expertise
involved
Some business rules
Procedure or simple algorithm
Non -Core Competencies
Core Differentiating
Competencies
Everyday, highly repeatable
and automated
Make repeatable
and reliable to
gain efficiency
Core Competitive
Competencies
Opportunity
or Threat?
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314
K
WHO?
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315
What we have found in large accounts
Cohesion Mandate
Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership
An ownership gap for business architecture exists - Lines of responsibility around coherency
and business architecture, are often unclear
EnterprisePerformance
Capabilities
X-FunctionalCapabilities
FunctionalCapabilities
CONTEXT
Markets
Industries
Customers
Market Segment
Channels
Customer Relationships
Value Proposition
Offering:
Services/Products
Processes/ Value Chains
Capabilities
Business Service
Functions
Data
Applications
Technology
MARKET
MODEL
OPERATING
MODEL
SERVICE
MODEL
Strategic
Architecture
Mandate –
Business
Ownership
IT
Architecture
Mandate –
IT Ownership
Business
Architecture
Mandate
Undefined
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316
Getting Closer to Business
Business Stakeholders are seeking more value, but are often receiving more complexity
TOGAFBusiness Stakeholder
Relationship Management
Who is best
qualified to own
this space?
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317
Discipline Confusion
Confusion reigns around which disciplines are used for what situations
STRATEGIC
PLAN
MARKETING
PLAN
OPERATIONAL
PLAN
DELIVERY &
EXECUTION
OPERATIONS
Planning Delivering Operating
PORTFOLIO, PROGRAM AND PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREPRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN
BUSINESS PLANNING SOLUTIONS ARCHITECTURE
SOLUTIONS DEVELOPMENT
ENTERPRISE DESIGN
BUSINESS ANALYSIS
Environment analysis / SWOT,
competitor / Business motivation /
Product and portfolio analysis /
Strategic Options
Market analysis and forecasting Model the business / Evaluate and
select strategy / Risk and funding
analysis
Project, portfolio and program
management, solutions delivery
Daily operations, run the business
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318
Discipline Confusion
The confusion and lack of results is often a caused by the breakdown of inter-discipline relationships, and not necessarily internal discipline operating
models
BUSINESS
PLANNING
OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE
ARCHITECTURE
PORTFOLIO /
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
SOLUTION
ARCHITECTURE
SOLUTION
DEVELOPMENT
Business Direction
Runs the
Enterprise
Delivers
Structured
Direction
ENTERPRISE
PLANNING
Project Management Governance
Delivers
*Adapted from TOGAF 9.1
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319
Business Architecture and Business Analysis
Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the stakeholder?
Context of Work
UnderlyingCompetency
Detail Focus Big Picture
FoundationalAdvanced
Entry
level
BA
Junior
BA
Inter-
mediate
BA
Senior
BA
Advanced
Generalist
BA
Analyst
BizArch
Senior
BizArch
Principal
BizArch
Master
BizArch
Distinguished
BizArch
Business
Analysis
Business
Architecture
Strategic Business
Architect
Principal Business
Architect
Business
Architect
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320
Overlap in BA and BA type roles
Adding Additional Business Domains provides a greater Insight into the different role types
Environ.
Models,
Competitor
Analysis,
Strategic
Diagnosis
Segmentation
Positioning,
Strategy Map,
Decision Trees
Perceptual
mapping,
distribution
channels and
models
Customer
Experience,
Journey Maps,
Learning Maps
Campaign
Models,
Advertising
Messages, Key
Messages
Competitor
Strategy,
Expansion
Strategy,
Innovation
Strategy
Marketing Mix,
Product
Lifecycle
Model, Pricing
and Cash Flow
analysis
Regression
Analysis and
forecasting,
Platform and
Expansion
Plans
Design models,
Value Maps,
Product and
Offering Maps,
Design Models
Product Line
plans
Motivation
Model, Driver
Trees, Systems
Theory
Org. Model
and Structures,
Org. Culture,
Partner and
supplier
models
Change
Models,
Organization
Unit model,
Org. learning
models
Resource
Management
and Scheduling
procedures
Contracts, Time
and Expense
Procedures
Performance,
Business
Structures,
Value Maps
Risk Models,
Growth
Models, Capital
Structure
Models
Performance
Alignment
model, Root
Cause Model
Balanced
Scorecard,
Financial
reporting
Financial
Reporting
Procedures,
EPM
Value Chain,
Value Streams,
Decisions &
Events
Capability
Models
Process Maps
Function
Models
Use Cases
Process Models
Workflows &
Activities
Operating
procedures
Info Mgt
Principles
Info Use
Policies
Meta-Data
Definition
Subject
Classification
Information
Classification
Enterprise Info
Model, Info
Lifecycle
Model, Human
Interface
Model
Custodian
Model,
Integration
View,
Presentation
Models
Security Rules,
BI Reports,
User Interface,
Warehouse
and datamarts
Health
Assessment
Application
Principles
Application
Framework
Current State
Target State
Services
Definitions
Function
Models
Wiring
Diagrams
Activity Views
Patterns
Deployment
Model
Application
Standards
Resource
Estimates?
Class/Module
View
Configuration
Models
Data Principles
Reference Data
Stds
Data
Dictionary,
Data quality
processes
Data Directory
Field Level
Views
Technology
Watch
Health
Assessment
Asset Lifecycle
Technology
Principles
Tech Reference
Model
Current State
Target State
Service
Catalogue
Service
Definition
Mud Maps
(N/W, etc.)
Technology
Standards
CMDB
Management
Contextual
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Implementation
Market Application Data Technology
Enterprise Architect
Solution Architect
Products &
Services Organizational Performance
Process &
Function Info
Business
Architect
Strategic
Business Architect
Principal
Business Architect
Senior Business Analyst /
Senior Business Architect
Analyst Business Architect
Business Analyst
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321
Overlap in BA and BA type roles
This is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves from this space
Environ.
Models,
Competitor
Analysis,
Strategic
Diagnosis
Segmentation
Positioning,
Strategy Map,
Decision Trees
Perceptual
mapping,
distribution
channels and
models
Customer
Experience,
Journey Maps,
Learning Maps
Campaign
Models,
Advertising
Messages, Key
Messages
Competitor
Strategy,
Expansion
Strategy,
Innovation
Strategy
Marketing Mix,
Product
Lifecycle
Model, Pricing
and Cash Flow
analysis
Regression
Analysis and
forecasting,
Platform and
Expansion
Plans
Design models,
Value Maps,
Product and
Offering Maps,
Design Models
Product Line
plans
Motivation
Model, Driver
Trees, Systems
Theory
Org. Model
and Structures,
Org. Culture,
Partner and
supplier
models
Change
Models,
Organization
Unit model,
Org. learning
models
Resource
Management
and Scheduling
procedures
Contracts, Time
and Expense
Procedures
Performance,
Business
Structures,
Value Maps
Risk Models,
Growth
Models, Capital
Structure
Models
Performance
Alignment
model, Root
Cause Model
Balanced
Scorecard,
Financial
reporting
Financial
Reporting
Procedures,
EPM
Value Chain,
Value Streams,
Decisions &
Events
Capability
Models
Process Maps
Function
Models
Use Cases
Process Models
Workflows &
Activities
Operating
procedures
Info Mgt
Principles
Info Use
Policies
Meta-Data
Definition
Subject
Classification
Information
Classification
Enterprise Info
Model, Info
Lifecycle
Model, Human
Interface
Model
Custodian
Model,
Integration
View,
Presentation
Models
Security Rules,
BI Reports,
User Interface,
Warehouse
and datamarts
Health
Assessment
Application
Principles
Application
Framework
Current State
Target State
Services
Definitions
Function
Models
Wiring
Diagrams
Activity Views
Patterns
Deployment
Model
Application
Standards
Resource
Estimates?
Class/Module
View
Configuration
Models
Data Principles
Reference Data
Stds
Data
Dictionary,
Data quality
processes
Data Directory
Field Level
Views
Technology
Watch
Health
Assessment
Asset Lifecycle
Technology
Principles
Tech Reference
Model
Current State
Target State
Service
Catalogue
Service
Definition
Mud Maps
(N/W, etc.)
Technology
Standards
CMDB
Management
Contextual
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Implementation
Market Application Data Technology
Enterprise Architect
Solution Architect
Products &
Services Organizational Performance
Process &
Function Info
Business
Architect
Strategic
Business Architect
Principal
Business Architect
Senior Business Analyst /
Senior Business Architect
Analyst Business Architect
Business Analyst
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322
Lack of
Opportunity
The Current Business Analysis Career Path Dilutes the true Value
The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and delivery type functions
Time
KnowledgeOfBusiness
Entry
Level BA
Junior
BA
Intermediate
BA
Senior
BA
BA Project
Lead
BA Program
Lead
BA Practice
Leader
Business
Relationship
Manager
Principal Business
Architect
Strategic
Business
Architect
Delivering Path
Thought leadership in terms
of the utility layer, standards,
replicating, reliability etc.
Managing Path
Thought leadership in terms
of management, delivery,
change and politics
Planning Path
Thought leadership in terms
of innovation, business
models and mixes
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323
K
WHAT
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324
Why is there Lack of Opportunity?
• Risk driven
» Activities that produce consistent, predicable outcomes are more likely to attract investment due to lack of risk
• Utility Driven
» Business Analysis as well as business architecture are often seen as utility disciplines that provide the building blocks for the “actual” business
• Delivery Driven
» The business is in a delivery phase and the focus is therefore on delivery of outcomes through projects and programs
• Organization Driven
» Due to organization structures, there is less room at the top and hence less opportunity for those types of individuals.
• Performance Driven
» It is easier to measure the reliability dimension
• Politically Driven
» “In Corporate settings, high level heuristics are generally in the hands of highly paid executives who, out of sheer self interest, are reluctant to share that space and skill”
» There is strong ownership of the business outcomes and hence business is reluctant to relinquish control to what it sees as “outside” the business
• Mandate Driven
» Ultimately all of the above are driven by the mandate
» If the mandate from the business is for improved business performance or market share then the opportunity will exist
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
investment performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market Performance
A
B
VALUE
MANDATE
C
E
Improve Product and & Service
Performance D
Responsibility Depends Upon The Mandate from Business
The EA Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases.
Business Architecture is
seen as a positive
progression away from
IT
Maximize Product Profitability
Maximise Market Share
Maximise Customer Lifetime
Value
…but in fact
business
architecture spans
this entire curve.
Therefore the higher
the mandate, the
higher the value
*Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326
How Does the Mandate Affect Business Roles?
There are three areas that we can align to general BABOK language Lets Call this space the
Enterprise Planning
and Performance space
Lets Call this space the
Business Improvement
space
Lets Call this space the
Business Transition
space
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
investment performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market
Performance
A
B
VALUE
MANDATE
C
E
Improve Product and
& Service
Performance
D
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327
What are the Dominant Skills Across the Mandate?
The required Skills will therefore vary across the mandate
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
investment performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market
Performance
A
B
VALUE
MANDATE
C
E
Improve Product and
& Service
Performance
D
Elicitation
Business Analysis
Performance
Recommendation
of Improvements
Enterprise analysis
Determine
business processes
Requirements
analysis mngmnt
and comms
Addressed by
SFIA
Addressed by
SFIA
Lean thinking
Six Sigma
TQM
TOC
Planning and
monitoring
Solution
assessment and
validation
Program and
Portfolio mngmnt
and Governance
Risk mngmnt
Change Mngmnt
Benefit Realisation
Gap in
SFIA
Shareholder Value Analysis
Value Maps and Driver trees
Strategic Planning
Organisation Design
Economics and Accounting
Systems Thinking
Corporate Governance
Quantitative Analysis
Product Strategy
Design Thinking
Enterprise Planning
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328
What might the roles look like across the Mandate?
The true value of each role is reached when they operate within their “sweet spot”
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
investment performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market
Performance
A
B
VALUE
MANDATE
C
E
Improve Product and
& Service
Performance
D
Entry Level BA
Junior BA
Intermediate BA
Senior BA
Principal
Business
Architect
BA Project
Lead
BA Program
Lead
BA Practice
Leader Business
Relationship
Manager
Strategic BA
Distinguished
BizArch
Master
BizArch
Business
Architect
Analyst
BizArch
BABOK does not recognise
a hybrid overlap between
the Business Analyst and
the Business architect
Senior
BizArch
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Organizational Rhythms: Closer alignment to the planning cycle
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330
‘Enterprise Lifecycle's
2014 © Enterprise Architects PTY LTD
PERORMANCE
TIME
ENTERPRISE
BRAND PLATFORM
BUSINESS MODEL
BUSINESS CAPABILITIES
PRODUCT
Constant change is moving upwards faster
organizations…and architects need to be able to provide the means to enable this change
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Provide Structural insight into strategic scenarios
• Strategic option analysis - for a more informed
understanding of the potential impact of each
scenario on the business.
• This helps the business to compare investment
choices and effort before executing
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines
Change
Manager
Finance
PMO
Business
Improvement
Strategy
Technology
• Combination of People,
Process & technology to
drive out an outcome
through projects
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map
STRATEGIC THEMES
Initiative 5
Initiative 6
STRATEGIC THEMES
Initiative 1
Initiative 2
STRATEGIC THEMES
Initiative 3
Initiative 4
Mandate: Improve enterprise wide
program and portfolio performance
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Initiatives straight from strategy
often results in loss of cohesion
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Strategic
Planning
Business
Planning
Portfolio and
Project
Management
Business
Architecture
Solution
Architecture
Solution
Development
Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map.
PMO drives the
architecture efforts
Business Analysis
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Scenario 2: Business Transition - developing the unified business model
STRATEGIC THEMES
Capability 5
Capability 6
STRATEGIC THEMES
Capability 1
Capability 2
STRATEGIC THEMES
Capability 3
Capability 4
Mandate: Improve Business
Performance
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Creating a single unified business
model helps build cohesion across the
enterprise
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Strategic
Planning
Business
Planning
Business
Architecture
Portfolio and
Project
Management
Solution
Architecture
Solution
Development
As business architecture provides more value, its is being positioned above the delivery and execution space
Business Analysis
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Injecting Business Architecture into the strategic scenarios will Improve the
Strategic Decisions as well as the execution of that strategy
Mandate: Improve
market performance
Scenario 3: Planning and Performance - defining the
business model for candidate strategic scenarios
Mission Vision VISIONARY
StrategiesGoalsSTRATEGIC
Tactics Objectives TACTICAL
Semi
Integrated
Universal
Bank
Product
Specialist
Customer
Owner
Infrastructur
e Provider
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Strategic
Planning
Business
Architecture
Business
Planning
Portfolio and
Project
Management
Solution
Architecture
Solution
Development
Facilitating Business Architecture as a strategic tool in the planning process is where the greatest value lies
Business Analysis
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339
Enterprise Design
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Strategic
Planning
Business
Architecture
Service Design
Business
Planning
Portfolio and
Project
Management
Solution
Architecture
Solution
Development
Combining business architecture with design thinking provides a much broader value proposition where customer experience and value is linked directly to the architected components of the
business. In other words the entire enterprise is architected to improve the experience the end customer has with the organization. Outside in as opposed inside out.
Business Analysis
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
• High maturity organizations
have a clear linkage
between Business
architecture, strategic goals,
and performance
management
• These organizations also
have a feedback loop which
helps measure the progress
towards objectives
• This feedback loop will also
inform the next iteration of
business strategy and
architecture.
Piggy back off enterprise performance management as an onramp for business architecture
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Aligning to value
What
value is
created?
How is
value
created?
How is
value
measured?
Senior managers
must have a solid analytical
understanding of which
performance variables drive
the value of the company
An important part of VBM is a deep
understanding of the performance
variables that will actually create the
value of the business – the key value
drivers. Such an understanding is
essential because an organization
cannot act directly on value. It has to
act on things it can influence –
customer satisfaction, cost, capital
expenditures, and so on.
The problem
lies here
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Co-Design with your stakeholders
C U S T O M E R P E R S O N A S
S E R V I C E M O D E LE M PAT H Y M A P
V P C A N V A S
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
• Provide executives with a cohesive,
non-project based view of the
investment spend
• Address Capex and Opex conflicts
• Address duplication of effort across
the portfolio landscape
• Maintain alignment of the ensuing
programs
• Allows business stakeholders to
have a consistent business
focussed view of the project
investment and its status
Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs
Removed
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Choose your architecture sponsor carefully since it has a direct effect on the success of the architecture function.
= significant improvement
External consultants, or other individuals with recognized
credibility, strengthen your business case.
Highly placed business executives provide access to
funding and help assert governance over business
architecture. Executives with cross-functional
responsibility will make the best allies for your
architecture efforts
Executive sponsors involved in change are more open to
new initiatives and have access to discretionary funding.
(Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=43)
48%
50%
40%
60%
64%
94%
77%
76%
70%
69%
0% 50% 100%
External consultant responsible
for business architecture
Most highly-placed executive
Person responsible for change
area
Business architect employed by
the company
Person integrating multiple
departments
Involvement of business sponsors affects
success of the Architecture function
Not involved Involved in sponsorship
If you have a choice of Architecture
sponsors, look for external
consultants, high-placed executives,
or those in charge of change areas.
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
• Find the heuristic super powers and
use the business architecture
techniques to develop the
algorithms.
• Understanding the heuristics puts
you in a position of strength, since
rewards and status tends to go to
those individuals with the best and
most reliable heuristic.
• Motivation Models, cohesion
planning, cross functional
capabilities, journey maps, learning
maps and value maps are all
techniques to help understand the
heuristic recipe
Improve the speed through the knowledge funnel using business architecture techniques
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Rules of thumb
Robust,
repeatable
and replicable
formulas &
processes
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that is supported by
both the business architects and business analysts
Software
Automation
Projects
Funds
investment
Widget
assembly
Credit card
approval
Inventory
Management
Outsourcing
Projects
Major re-
design
projects
Six-sigma based
process
improvement
analysts
New Product
design
Deals with other
companies
International
Delivery
On-line
purchasing
ERP based
process
improvement
Complex Processes, not
part of company’s core
competency: Outsource
Complex, dynamic
processes of high value:
undertake business
process improvement
efforts that focus on
people
Straightforward, static
commodity processes:
use automated ERP-Type
applications and / or
outsource
Straightforward, static,
and valuable: automate
to gain efficiency
High
High
Low
Low
Must be done but adds little
value to product or services
Very important to success, high
value added to products and
services
Strategic Importance
ProcessComplexityandDynamics
Complex negotiation, design,
or decision process
Many business rules; expertise
involved
Some business rules
Procedure or simple algorithm
Organization
Heuristics
Principal
Business
Architects
Business
Analysts
Strategic
Business
Architect
Senior
Business
Analysts
*Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul
Harmon
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Address concerns based architecture through standardisation and simplicity
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Mix up the architecture to show its true value
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
Levelling, levelling, levelling
Level A
Value Chain
Level B
Capabilities
Level C
Core Processes in
cross functional capabilities
Level D
Business Process Flows
Level E
Operational Process Flows
Level F
Detailed Process Flows
Value Chain Objectives Scorecard
Capability Groupings Ownership Services
Core Processes Delivery Units Products
Processes Delivery Teams Systems
Sub Processes Roles System Functions
Detailed Processes Detailed Roles Transactions
x
x
x
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350
33%
61%
0%
50%
100%
Did not use Did use
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
• Always tie models into existing strategic
planning artifacts
• Mould architecture to current artifacts.
• Document to resonate, explain and
communicate.
• Get to the bottom line. The absence of metrics
outlining the efficiency, effectiveness, and
agility gains of the business analysis and
architecture discipline will drive the business
away.
• Don’t think it’s your job to introduce business
leaders to the practice of modeling - Business
models may not look like EA models, but you
have to find the link between the two
paradigms to achieve business engagement in
target state design
Tie target state models into existing strategic planning materials.
Usage of pre-existing business process
diagrams drives business engagement
%businessengaged (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=44)
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351
Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities
• Value and differentiation still require
the use of the utility
• Its this utility that must be optimised
through the creation of algorithms
• You need the utility and the algorithms
to help build reliability and
repeatability
• Capital investment is predominantly
directed towards this reliability and
utility area since it is predictable and
manageable
Developing a strong utility layer allows you to leverage reliability to support more innovative initiatives
Utility
(Foundation)
Innovate
Build
Advantages
Assemble
Prolong
Advantages
Mix
Reduce
Disadvantages
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352
TOGAF, BABOK and BIZBOK
The Tools for the Business Disciplines are Complementary and tend to support the gaps that exist between them
0 1 2 3 4 5
Supporting Techniques for completing the
outputs, workproducts and artefacts
Defined list of outputs, workproducts and
artefacts (Business Domain)
Standardised technique for defining outputs
A method to execute for the Business Domain
A method to execute for the Enterprise
An classification scheme
Competency model for the Business Domain
Practice development for the Business Domain
BABOK v2
BIZBOK 3.0
TOGAF 9.1
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353
TOGAF and the Other Tools
TOGAF is complemented by the other frameworks. In other words the other tools fill in the detail content where TOGAF is light
BIZBOK
Body of
Knowledge
Resources
Framework
“Glue”
Complementary
Methods and
Frameworks
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354
Frameworks and standards
TOGAF is a FRAMEWORK and focusses a lot on structural aspects. It can be seen as the “Glue” that interlinks all aspects of an enterprise
A Method
of
Execution
A
Classification
System
Structure of
Views and
Models
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 355
K
HOW
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356
“Architecture Thinking”
MOTIVATION MODEL BUSINESS MODEL
SERVICE MODEL
CAPABILITY MODEL
People
ROADMAP
GOVERNANCE
* Closed feedback
loop to Motivation
Model
Vision
Strategy
Blueprinting
Roadmapping
Governance
Information
Technolog y
Process
Design Thinking: Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype, Test
MARKET MODEL
MEANS ASSESSMENT
INFLUENCERS
ASSESSMENT
MEANS ENDS
MACRO
ENVIRONMENT
INDUSTR
Y SCAN
SWOT PERFORMANCE
• Financial
• Customer
• Internal (current)
• Internal (long-term)
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 357
A Method of Execution
TOGAF provides a more sophisticated method of the integration of the disciplines but does not provide the detailed content and methods for the
domains
Preliminary
A.
Architecture
Vision
B.
Business
Architecture
C.
Information
Systems
Architectures
F.
Migration
Planning
D.
Technology
Architecture
E.
Opportunities
& Solutions
G.
Implementation
Governance
H.
Architecture
Change
Management
Requirements
Management
• The business “hat” is worn in these phases since it involves the
innovate, mix and assemble activities
• The strength of the business architect in this space is
understanding the context and applying the right tools for that
context
• At this point it is advantageous to introduce the motivation
model, with specific reference focus as to how the customer
experience drives out the outcomes in the motivation model.
• The capability model often does not resonate here - so the
introduction of the underlying resource mix is more effective
e.g.. People, Process and tools
• A First iteration of these phases drives out the key enterprise
differentiation resources required to reach the outcomes
• A Second iteration drives out the products and services model
(4P’s - Product, Place, Price & Promotion) and what cross
functional resources we need to deliver these
• Journey management is a crucial aspect of the business
architect during this phase
• Some limited BABOK and BIZBOK techniques support this area
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 358
A Method of Execution
The Business Architect wears two hats when executing through this method
Preliminary
A.
Architecture
Vision
B.
Business
Architecture
C.
Information
Systems
Architectures
F.
Migration
Planning
D.
Technology
Architecture
E.
Opportunities
& Solutions
G.
Implementation
Governance
H.
Architecture
Change
Management
Requirements
Management
• The business architect wears the architecture “hat”
in these phases since they involve the reliability and
utility activities
• The business architect has to understand architecture
in order to apply it and help the teams downstream
• This space requires more of the traditional
architecture models - the people, process and tools
resources can now be assembled and clustered into
capabilities
• The architecture community is strong in this space but
tends to be weak at requirements management
across the whole process
• Techniques and resources within the BizBok will
support the business architect efforts within these
phases
• There are a number of techniques within the BABOK
that the business analyst will use in supporting the
business architect across these phases
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 359
A Method of Execution
The Business Analyst already has a mature capability around requirements management
Preliminary
A.
Architecture
Vision
B.
Business
Architecture
C.
Information
Systems
Architectures
F.
Migration
Planning
D.
Technology
Architecture
E.
Opportunities
& Solutions
G.
Implementation
Governance
H.
Architecture
Change
Management
Requirements
Management
• The business analyst primary focus is to seek to
understand the business
• The focus of this understanding is more often
delivery and project based
• The business analyst skill supports requirements
elicitation across the whole lifecycle
• This complements the weakness of the
architecture community
• There are a number of mature methods and
techniques within the BABOK that support these
activities
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 360
Components
Train for Hard Skills, Coach for Soft Skills
Business Architecture Skills Maturity Curve Illustrative
Baseline Skills
•Modeling Business Context
•Modeling Business Process
•Modeling Business Requirements
•Modeling Business Information
•Using a Business Capability Model
•Use Case Modeling
“Success Differentiators”
•Application of Techniques
•Soft Business Architecture Skills:
oCraft and Implement Strategy
oDrive Collaborative behavior
oLeadership
oDrive Innovation and Optimization
Coach for
Soft Skills
Train for
Hard Skills
Value to
Business
Skills Maturity
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 361
Team Structure
• Pragmatist and visionary
» The pragmatist follows the money and works with what he sees
» The visionary follows the vision and works with what he visualizes
• The challenge for the business architect is to deal with
both the analytical stakeholder as well as the intuitive
stakeholder and try create synergy between these two
• Team works well when there is a common vision and a
common purpose
• Mix the team on Myers Briggs scores
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 362
Team Profiles
Creating the right mix is crucial for a successful business team
Role Type Temperament &
Personality
Strengths
Business Architect ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better
way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new
processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising
the most effective means to accomplish their ends.
Journey Manager ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better
way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new
processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising
the most effective means to accomplish their ends.
Project Manager ENTJ Rational Field Marshall Give structure and direction, visualize where the organization is
going, communicate that vision to others. Organizational and
coordinating skills
Business Analyst INFJ Idealist Counsellor Understand and use human systems creatively, and are good at
consulting and cooperating with others. vivid imaginations and
poetic imagery and storytelling
Customer Experience ESTP Artisan Promoter Men and women of action, excellent negotiators. Charming,
confident, and popular, Promoters delight their friends and investors
with their endless supply of stories and jokes
IT Architect ISTP Artisan Crafter Masterful operation of tools, equipment, machines, and instruments
of all kinds. Action oriented
| DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 364
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Driving your BA Career - From Business Analyst to Business Architect

  • 1. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31 Driving your BA Career. From BA to BA Final–v2.0.0- August2014 CraigMartin ChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
  • 2. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32 About e zero HOURS A DAY BACK OFFICE VENDOR ALIGNMENT MORE THAN 1600 PEOPLE TRAINED IN ARCHITECTURE PRACTICES (AND RISING) 12YEARS IN BUSINESS 8GLOBAL OFFICES 1600 MORE THAN 10,000 DAYS OF ARCHITECTURE SERVICES DELIVERED LAST YEAR 10,000 oneCOMMON METHOD 20 four sixOPERATING IN 6 CONTINENTS
  • 3. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33 Our Services Servicing the Strategy and Architecture needs of Global Organisations STRATEGY CONSULTING • Business Architecture • Strategic Services & Operating Model Design: » Business Services & Capabilities » IT Services & Capabilities • Segment Strategies and Roadmaps: » Customer Experience & Digital » Enterprise Information Management » Big Data Analytics » Applications » Cloud & Infrastructure » Security, Risk & Resilience » Innovation Management PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT • Architecture Service Model Design • Architecture Operating Model Design • Service and Capability Readiness Assessment • Professional Training and Certification (Business Architecture, Information Management, TOGAF®, CDMP®, ArchiMate® and Design Thinking) • Project Architecture Resources • Architecture Talent Strategy and Professional Development • Architecture Back Office Services
  • 4. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34 our clients
  • 5. | DRIVING YOUR BA CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 46 K WHY
  • 6. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37 Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages What's Business About? The Building Block Analogy Differentiation
  • 7. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38 Finding the Right Business Mixes The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes Ultimately all innovative algorithms will become utility. * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
  • 8. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39 The Right Business Mix Results in Cohesion Which Increases Performance Companies with a High Level of Cohesion affect EBIT Directly 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28% 32% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 EBITmargin,2003-2007 Capabilities coherence score Coca-Cola Wrigley PepsiCo Kimberly-Clark Sara Lee ConAgra Merck Unilever H.J. Heinz Kraft General Mills Clorox Campbell Soup Company P&G *Adapted from “The Coherence Premium” – Harvard Business Review, June 2010 A coherent organization is one that is thought of and executed as a whole
  • 9. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310 The Goal of A Good Business Model is to Create Coherence • A Coherent Business Model is one that is synchronised around: » its market position, » its product and service portfolio; and » its most distinctive strategic capabilities • All of the above working together as a system • To bring coherence to these components requires a variety of business skills and disciplines Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of the components, and how to mix them in a manner that is innovative and differentiating THE ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS MODEL Markets Industries Customers Market Segment Channels Customer Relationships Value Proposition Offering: Services/Products Processes/ Value Chains Capabilities Business Service Functions Data Applications Technology MARKET MODEL OPERATING MODEL SERVICE MODEL
  • 10. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311 * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Exploitation; Reliability Produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Exploration; Validity Produce outcomes that meet an objective Coherency requires a balance of goals and thinking types The Challenge is identifying the right skills in the organization that are able to traverse the domains of innovative intuitive thinking, and reliable analytical thinking . Unresolved Business Challenges Heuristics Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable processes A reliable system will produce the same test results every time A valid system will produce a result that is shown, through the passage of time, to be correct Who is best qualified to operate here?
  • 11. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312 THE KNOWLEDGE FUNNEL Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Certain Business Disciplines Are Required to Reduce the time to codify Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes Source: Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Validity- Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives
  • 12. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313 The Results of Disruption the commodity space is growing, making the differentiation space more competitive Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Non-core but complex - Outsource Innovation, chaos & unresolved mysteries HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE & VALUE COMPLEXITYANDDYNAMICS Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Non -Core Competencies Core Differentiating Competencies Everyday, highly repeatable and automated Make repeatable and reliable to gain efficiency Core Competitive Competencies Opportunity or Threat?
  • 13. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314 K WHO?
  • 14. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315 What we have found in large accounts Cohesion Mandate Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership An ownership gap for business architecture exists - Lines of responsibility around coherency and business architecture, are often unclear EnterprisePerformance Capabilities X-FunctionalCapabilities FunctionalCapabilities CONTEXT Markets Industries Customers Market Segment Channels Customer Relationships Value Proposition Offering: Services/Products Processes/ Value Chains Capabilities Business Service Functions Data Applications Technology MARKET MODEL OPERATING MODEL SERVICE MODEL Strategic Architecture Mandate – Business Ownership IT Architecture Mandate – IT Ownership Business Architecture Mandate Undefined
  • 15. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316 Getting Closer to Business Business Stakeholders are seeking more value, but are often receiving more complexity TOGAFBusiness Stakeholder Relationship Management Who is best qualified to own this space?
  • 16. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317 Discipline Confusion Confusion reigns around which disciplines are used for what situations STRATEGIC PLAN MARKETING PLAN OPERATIONAL PLAN DELIVERY & EXECUTION OPERATIONS Planning Delivering Operating PORTFOLIO, PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREPRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN BUSINESS PLANNING SOLUTIONS ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE DESIGN BUSINESS ANALYSIS Environment analysis / SWOT, competitor / Business motivation / Product and portfolio analysis / Strategic Options Market analysis and forecasting Model the business / Evaluate and select strategy / Risk and funding analysis Project, portfolio and program management, solutions delivery Daily operations, run the business
  • 17. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318 Discipline Confusion The confusion and lack of results is often a caused by the breakdown of inter-discipline relationships, and not necessarily internal discipline operating models BUSINESS PLANNING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO / PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE SOLUTION DEVELOPMENT Business Direction Runs the Enterprise Delivers Structured Direction ENTERPRISE PLANNING Project Management Governance Delivers *Adapted from TOGAF 9.1
  • 18. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319 Business Architecture and Business Analysis Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the stakeholder? Context of Work UnderlyingCompetency Detail Focus Big Picture FoundationalAdvanced Entry level BA Junior BA Inter- mediate BA Senior BA Advanced Generalist BA Analyst BizArch Senior BizArch Principal BizArch Master BizArch Distinguished BizArch Business Analysis Business Architecture Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Business Architect
  • 19. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320 Overlap in BA and BA type roles Adding Additional Business Domains provides a greater Insight into the different role types Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 20. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321 Overlap in BA and BA type roles This is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves from this space Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 21. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322 Lack of Opportunity The Current Business Analysis Career Path Dilutes the true Value The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and delivery type functions Time KnowledgeOfBusiness Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Principal Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Delivering Path Thought leadership in terms of the utility layer, standards, replicating, reliability etc. Managing Path Thought leadership in terms of management, delivery, change and politics Planning Path Thought leadership in terms of innovation, business models and mixes
  • 22. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323 K WHAT
  • 23. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324 Why is there Lack of Opportunity? • Risk driven » Activities that produce consistent, predicable outcomes are more likely to attract investment due to lack of risk • Utility Driven » Business Analysis as well as business architecture are often seen as utility disciplines that provide the building blocks for the “actual” business • Delivery Driven » The business is in a delivery phase and the focus is therefore on delivery of outcomes through projects and programs • Organization Driven » Due to organization structures, there is less room at the top and hence less opportunity for those types of individuals. • Performance Driven » It is easier to measure the reliability dimension • Politically Driven » “In Corporate settings, high level heuristics are generally in the hands of highly paid executives who, out of sheer self interest, are reluctant to share that space and skill” » There is strong ownership of the business outcomes and hence business is reluctant to relinquish control to what it sees as “outside” the business • Mandate Driven » Ultimately all of the above are driven by the mandate » If the mandate from the business is for improved business performance or market share then the opportunity will exist
  • 24. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325 Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Responsibility Depends Upon The Mandate from Business The EA Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases. Business Architecture is seen as a positive progression away from IT Maximize Product Profitability Maximise Market Share Maximise Customer Lifetime Value …but in fact business architecture spans this entire curve. Therefore the higher the mandate, the higher the value *Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer
  • 25. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326 How Does the Mandate Affect Business Roles? There are three areas that we can align to general BABOK language Lets Call this space the Enterprise Planning and Performance space Lets Call this space the Business Improvement space Lets Call this space the Business Transition space Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D
  • 26. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327 What are the Dominant Skills Across the Mandate? The required Skills will therefore vary across the mandate Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Elicitation Business Analysis Performance Recommendation of Improvements Enterprise analysis Determine business processes Requirements analysis mngmnt and comms Addressed by SFIA Addressed by SFIA Lean thinking Six Sigma TQM TOC Planning and monitoring Solution assessment and validation Program and Portfolio mngmnt and Governance Risk mngmnt Change Mngmnt Benefit Realisation Gap in SFIA Shareholder Value Analysis Value Maps and Driver trees Strategic Planning Organisation Design Economics and Accounting Systems Thinking Corporate Governance Quantitative Analysis Product Strategy Design Thinking Enterprise Planning
  • 27. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328 What might the roles look like across the Mandate? The true value of each role is reached when they operate within their “sweet spot” Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide investment performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance A B VALUE MANDATE C E Improve Product and & Service Performance D Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA Principal Business Architect BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Strategic BA Distinguished BizArch Master BizArch Business Architect Analyst BizArch BABOK does not recognise a hybrid overlap between the Business Analyst and the Business architect Senior BizArch
  • 28. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Organizational Rhythms: Closer alignment to the planning cycle
  • 29. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330 ‘Enterprise Lifecycle's 2014 © Enterprise Architects PTY LTD PERORMANCE TIME ENTERPRISE BRAND PLATFORM BUSINESS MODEL BUSINESS CAPABILITIES PRODUCT Constant change is moving upwards faster organizations…and architects need to be able to provide the means to enable this change
  • 30. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Provide Structural insight into strategic scenarios • Strategic option analysis - for a more informed understanding of the potential impact of each scenario on the business. • This helps the business to compare investment choices and effort before executing
  • 31. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines Change Manager Finance PMO Business Improvement Strategy Technology • Combination of People, Process & technology to drive out an outcome through projects
  • 32. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 5 Initiative 6 STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 1 Initiative 2 STRATEGIC THEMES Initiative 3 Initiative 4 Mandate: Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Initiatives straight from strategy often results in loss of cohesion
  • 33. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Business Architecture Solution Architecture Solution Development Scenario 1: Business improvement - spawning initiatives from the strategy map. PMO drives the architecture efforts Business Analysis
  • 34. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Scenario 2: Business Transition - developing the unified business model STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 5 Capability 6 STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 1 Capability 2 STRATEGIC THEMES Capability 3 Capability 4 Mandate: Improve Business Performance Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Creating a single unified business model helps build cohesion across the enterprise
  • 35. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Planning Business Architecture Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development As business architecture provides more value, its is being positioned above the delivery and execution space Business Analysis
  • 36. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Injecting Business Architecture into the strategic scenarios will Improve the Strategic Decisions as well as the execution of that strategy Mandate: Improve market performance Scenario 3: Planning and Performance - defining the business model for candidate strategic scenarios Mission Vision VISIONARY StrategiesGoalsSTRATEGIC Tactics Objectives TACTICAL Semi Integrated Universal Bank Product Specialist Customer Owner Infrastructur e Provider
  • 37. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Architecture Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development Facilitating Business Architecture as a strategic tool in the planning process is where the greatest value lies Business Analysis
  • 38. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339 Enterprise Design Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Strategic Planning Business Architecture Service Design Business Planning Portfolio and Project Management Solution Architecture Solution Development Combining business architecture with design thinking provides a much broader value proposition where customer experience and value is linked directly to the architected components of the business. In other words the entire enterprise is architected to improve the experience the end customer has with the organization. Outside in as opposed inside out. Business Analysis
  • 39. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • High maturity organizations have a clear linkage between Business architecture, strategic goals, and performance management • These organizations also have a feedback loop which helps measure the progress towards objectives • This feedback loop will also inform the next iteration of business strategy and architecture. Piggy back off enterprise performance management as an onramp for business architecture
  • 40. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Aligning to value What value is created? How is value created? How is value measured? Senior managers must have a solid analytical understanding of which performance variables drive the value of the company An important part of VBM is a deep understanding of the performance variables that will actually create the value of the business – the key value drivers. Such an understanding is essential because an organization cannot act directly on value. It has to act on things it can influence – customer satisfaction, cost, capital expenditures, and so on. The problem lies here
  • 41. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Co-Design with your stakeholders C U S T O M E R P E R S O N A S S E R V I C E M O D E LE M PAT H Y M A P V P C A N V A S
  • 42. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Provide executives with a cohesive, non-project based view of the investment spend • Address Capex and Opex conflicts • Address duplication of effort across the portfolio landscape • Maintain alignment of the ensuing programs • Allows business stakeholders to have a consistent business focussed view of the project investment and its status Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs Removed
  • 43. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Choose your architecture sponsor carefully since it has a direct effect on the success of the architecture function. = significant improvement External consultants, or other individuals with recognized credibility, strengthen your business case. Highly placed business executives provide access to funding and help assert governance over business architecture. Executives with cross-functional responsibility will make the best allies for your architecture efforts Executive sponsors involved in change are more open to new initiatives and have access to discretionary funding. (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=43) 48% 50% 40% 60% 64% 94% 77% 76% 70% 69% 0% 50% 100% External consultant responsible for business architecture Most highly-placed executive Person responsible for change area Business architect employed by the company Person integrating multiple departments Involvement of business sponsors affects success of the Architecture function Not involved Involved in sponsorship If you have a choice of Architecture sponsors, look for external consultants, high-placed executives, or those in charge of change areas.
  • 44. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Find the heuristic super powers and use the business architecture techniques to develop the algorithms. • Understanding the heuristics puts you in a position of strength, since rewards and status tends to go to those individuals with the best and most reliable heuristic. • Motivation Models, cohesion planning, cross functional capabilities, journey maps, learning maps and value maps are all techniques to help understand the heuristic recipe Improve the speed through the knowledge funnel using business architecture techniques * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes
  • 45. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that is supported by both the business architects and business analysts Software Automation Projects Funds investment Widget assembly Credit card approval Inventory Management Outsourcing Projects Major re- design projects Six-sigma based process improvement analysts New Product design Deals with other companies International Delivery On-line purchasing ERP based process improvement Complex Processes, not part of company’s core competency: Outsource Complex, dynamic processes of high value: undertake business process improvement efforts that focus on people Straightforward, static commodity processes: use automated ERP-Type applications and / or outsource Straightforward, static, and valuable: automate to gain efficiency High High Low Low Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services Strategic Importance ProcessComplexityandDynamics Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Organization Heuristics Principal Business Architects Business Analysts Strategic Business Architect Senior Business Analysts *Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon
  • 46. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Address concerns based architecture through standardisation and simplicity
  • 47. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Mix up the architecture to show its true value
  • 48. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Levelling, levelling, levelling Level A Value Chain Level B Capabilities Level C Core Processes in cross functional capabilities Level D Business Process Flows Level E Operational Process Flows Level F Detailed Process Flows Value Chain Objectives Scorecard Capability Groupings Ownership Services Core Processes Delivery Units Products Processes Delivery Teams Systems Sub Processes Roles System Functions Detailed Processes Detailed Roles Transactions x x x
  • 49. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350 33% 61% 0% 50% 100% Did not use Did use Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Always tie models into existing strategic planning artifacts • Mould architecture to current artifacts. • Document to resonate, explain and communicate. • Get to the bottom line. The absence of metrics outlining the efficiency, effectiveness, and agility gains of the business analysis and architecture discipline will drive the business away. • Don’t think it’s your job to introduce business leaders to the practice of modeling - Business models may not look like EA models, but you have to find the link between the two paradigms to achieve business engagement in target state design Tie target state models into existing strategic planning materials. Usage of pre-existing business process diagrams drives business engagement %businessengaged (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=44)
  • 50. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Value and differentiation still require the use of the utility • Its this utility that must be optimised through the creation of algorithms • You need the utility and the algorithms to help build reliability and repeatability • Capital investment is predominantly directed towards this reliability and utility area since it is predictable and manageable Developing a strong utility layer allows you to leverage reliability to support more innovative initiatives Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages
  • 51. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352 TOGAF, BABOK and BIZBOK The Tools for the Business Disciplines are Complementary and tend to support the gaps that exist between them 0 1 2 3 4 5 Supporting Techniques for completing the outputs, workproducts and artefacts Defined list of outputs, workproducts and artefacts (Business Domain) Standardised technique for defining outputs A method to execute for the Business Domain A method to execute for the Enterprise An classification scheme Competency model for the Business Domain Practice development for the Business Domain BABOK v2 BIZBOK 3.0 TOGAF 9.1
  • 52. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353 TOGAF and the Other Tools TOGAF is complemented by the other frameworks. In other words the other tools fill in the detail content where TOGAF is light BIZBOK Body of Knowledge Resources Framework “Glue” Complementary Methods and Frameworks
  • 53. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354 Frameworks and standards TOGAF is a FRAMEWORK and focusses a lot on structural aspects. It can be seen as the “Glue” that interlinks all aspects of an enterprise A Method of Execution A Classification System Structure of Views and Models
  • 54. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 355 K HOW
  • 55. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356 “Architecture Thinking” MOTIVATION MODEL BUSINESS MODEL SERVICE MODEL CAPABILITY MODEL People ROADMAP GOVERNANCE * Closed feedback loop to Motivation Model Vision Strategy Blueprinting Roadmapping Governance Information Technolog y Process Design Thinking: Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype, Test MARKET MODEL MEANS ASSESSMENT INFLUENCERS ASSESSMENT MEANS ENDS MACRO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTR Y SCAN SWOT PERFORMANCE • Financial • Customer • Internal (current) • Internal (long-term)
  • 56. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 357 A Method of Execution TOGAF provides a more sophisticated method of the integration of the disciplines but does not provide the detailed content and methods for the domains Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business “hat” is worn in these phases since it involves the innovate, mix and assemble activities • The strength of the business architect in this space is understanding the context and applying the right tools for that context • At this point it is advantageous to introduce the motivation model, with specific reference focus as to how the customer experience drives out the outcomes in the motivation model. • The capability model often does not resonate here - so the introduction of the underlying resource mix is more effective e.g.. People, Process and tools • A First iteration of these phases drives out the key enterprise differentiation resources required to reach the outcomes • A Second iteration drives out the products and services model (4P’s - Product, Place, Price & Promotion) and what cross functional resources we need to deliver these • Journey management is a crucial aspect of the business architect during this phase • Some limited BABOK and BIZBOK techniques support this area
  • 57. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 358 A Method of Execution The Business Architect wears two hats when executing through this method Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business architect wears the architecture “hat” in these phases since they involve the reliability and utility activities • The business architect has to understand architecture in order to apply it and help the teams downstream • This space requires more of the traditional architecture models - the people, process and tools resources can now be assembled and clustered into capabilities • The architecture community is strong in this space but tends to be weak at requirements management across the whole process • Techniques and resources within the BizBok will support the business architect efforts within these phases • There are a number of techniques within the BABOK that the business analyst will use in supporting the business architect across these phases
  • 58. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 359 A Method of Execution The Business Analyst already has a mature capability around requirements management Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business analyst primary focus is to seek to understand the business • The focus of this understanding is more often delivery and project based • The business analyst skill supports requirements elicitation across the whole lifecycle • This complements the weakness of the architecture community • There are a number of mature methods and techniques within the BABOK that support these activities
  • 59. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 360 Components Train for Hard Skills, Coach for Soft Skills Business Architecture Skills Maturity Curve Illustrative Baseline Skills •Modeling Business Context •Modeling Business Process •Modeling Business Requirements •Modeling Business Information •Using a Business Capability Model •Use Case Modeling “Success Differentiators” •Application of Techniques •Soft Business Architecture Skills: oCraft and Implement Strategy oDrive Collaborative behavior oLeadership oDrive Innovation and Optimization Coach for Soft Skills Train for Hard Skills Value to Business Skills Maturity
  • 60. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 361 Team Structure • Pragmatist and visionary » The pragmatist follows the money and works with what he sees » The visionary follows the vision and works with what he visualizes • The challenge for the business architect is to deal with both the analytical stakeholder as well as the intuitive stakeholder and try create synergy between these two • Team works well when there is a common vision and a common purpose • Mix the team on Myers Briggs scores
  • 61. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 362 Team Profiles Creating the right mix is crucial for a successful business team Role Type Temperament & Personality Strengths Business Architect ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Journey Manager ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Project Manager ENTJ Rational Field Marshall Give structure and direction, visualize where the organization is going, communicate that vision to others. Organizational and coordinating skills Business Analyst INFJ Idealist Counsellor Understand and use human systems creatively, and are good at consulting and cooperating with others. vivid imaginations and poetic imagery and storytelling Customer Experience ESTP Artisan Promoter Men and women of action, excellent negotiators. Charming, confident, and popular, Promoters delight their friends and investors with their endless supply of stories and jokes IT Architect ISTP Artisan Crafter Masterful operation of tools, equipment, machines, and instruments of all kinds. Action oriented
  • 62. | DRIVING YOUR CAREER – FROM BA TO BA | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 364 Questions?

Editor's Notes

  1. Why do things fall to the ground? Rule of Thumb – a force called gravity draws objects towards the ground. Customers don’t actually know what they want, so don’t innovate around their feedback
  2. Intuitive thinking – knowing without reasoning Analytical thinking – declares truths and certainties about the world The most successful businesses in the years to come will balance analytical mastery and intuitive originality in a dynamic interplay call design thinking
  3. Messages Don’t spend time on this slide – just use it as an intro to the following slide, in which we decompose the structure of TOGAF This graphic illustrates the content of TOGAF – what the TOGAF specification can provide to your architecture team …and probably more importantly the business. Draw you attention to the point that Vision and Drivers are ‘processed’ through TOGAF to produce the appropriate ‘business capabilities’. The next slide illustrates some of those components of TOGAF
  4. As architects you always needs to be able to understand the next level up in context A building architect will always understand the context of the room and the house and the neighbourhood etc. This is a systemic apprchac
  5. Business Model diagram Wrap the people process and tools into clusters and develop the capability model top down Add the core headroom diagram in here to discuss the market model Add the strategy game board in here to discuss the products and services model – when do we go vertical and when do we go horizontal What people process and tools - do we need to drive out those products and services Cluster and group Next iteration – PPT + $ -> outcome Biz Arch is focussed on the P and AV Needs a spin down BCD so that the architects and business analysts can do their job properly but the key value for the business is the PAV The business architect is less about churning out the artefacts and more about managing the journey and change The business analysts is more about churning out the artefacts and requirements management What we have noticed in that transformation projects the business architects tend to steer more away from architecture and more into doing and managing the change BCD and must occur in the background since this is what the architecture community wants PAV occurs in the foreground since this is what the business stakeholders are looking for Therefore Biz Arch PAV with support from the BA Domain Architects BCD Solution Architects - E&F Project Managers – E&F BA’s – requirements management Enterprise Architect spans the whole lot.
  6. As architects you always needs to be able to understand the next level up in context A building architect will always understand the context of the room and the house and the neighbourhood etc. This is a systemic apprchac
  7. Challenge with this approach is the eroding goals pattern – The Vision is too far, pragmatism is the reality - mediocrity is the outcome Roles in the team: SME and business, industrial engineers, time motion analysis Technologist from technology view MBA Biz arch should not be finance or HR because of too much focus on a domain Must look at the organization from a systems theory perspective Who is the salesman, who is the connector and who is the maven What is the context and what is the message What does the team look like that must deliver this?