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| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31
Building a More Cohesive
Organisation Using
Business Architecture
FINAL V.10.0 –11TH MARCH,2013
CraigMartin
COOandChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32
Mobile: +61 419 192 929
Twitter: @eatraining
Email: craig.martin@enterprisearchitects.com
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33
Look Familiar
60 000 views and counting
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34
Related Webinar
› Slideshare - Bridging business
analysis and business
architecture - The Open Group
webinar
» http://slidesha.re/10oCKOY
› Video on the OpenGroup
Webinar site –
» http://bit.ly/105xEYy
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 35
EA is a leading international provider of strategy
and architecture services and capabilities
Championing Practice Awareness in
the Community
• Chief Architect / CTO Round Tables
• Virtual Teaming & Practitioner
Collaboration
• Open Group Participation
• Industry Engagement
Lifetime Relationship with Practising
Architects
• Practitioner career lifecycle
management
• Architecture training and certification
• Professional development
• Community involvement
• PAYG payroll services
• Learning forums
Skills Uplift for Organisations &
Individuals
• TOGAF® 9.1 Certification
• ArchiMate® 2.0
• Advanced / Applied EA
• Business Architecture
• Information Governance
• Solution Architecture
• BPMN
Strategic Relationship With
Corporate Clients
• Strategy & Architecture Capability
Improvement
• The delivery of strategic architecture
outcomes
• Architecture delivery Accelerator
Frameworks
• Resourcing & Talent
• Managed Services
Learning
Services
Architect
Services
Thought
Leadership
Enterprise
Services
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 36
Man, Machine and the Dog
ON THE INTRODUCTION PAGE OF A TIER 1 BANK STRATEGY DOCUMENT:
"The factory of the future will have two
employees:
a man and a dog.
The man's job will be to feed the dog.
The dog's job will be to prevent the man
from touching any of the automated
equipment.”
Warren G Bennis
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37
Utility
(Foundation)
Innovate
Build
Advantages
Assemble
Prolong
Advantages
Mix
Reduce
Disadvantages
What's Business About?
DIFFERENTIATION
The Building Block Analogy
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38
Tactical
Strategic
Visionary
We develop advantages through the use of the
strategic planning discipline
The language of strategic planning is often inconsistent
Mission
Strategies
Tactics
Vision
Goals
Objectives
*Adapted from business motivation model - OMG
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39
The Business strategy is often cascaded down into different
functional business units for delivery
This often leads to a series of programs functionally divided across the business units
Mission
Strategies
Tactics
Vision
Goals
Objectives
Business Unit 1
Program 1
Program 2
Business Unit 2
Program 3
Program 4
Business Unit 3
Program 5
Program 6
Each Business unit tends to create
their own strategies to achieve the
enterprise goals. These are often not
aligned to the other business unit
strategies
The language of strategy also
varies across business units, thus
reducing cohesion at the
strategic layer
Fragmentation therefore
begins at the strategic level
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310
The minefield between strategy and projects
In navigating the minefield between strategy and execution there are multiple possible failure points
STRATEGY PROJECTS
   Strategy not
sufficiently tied to
operations
Needed capabilities
not properly
understood or
measured
Planners not
accountable for
delivery
Benefits aren’t
quantified or traced
back to original goals
The drivers of strategy
are often misaligned

This often leads to some typical
stakeholder issues regarding
transformation exercises
Are we investing in the right areas
across the enterprise?
Is my investment portfolio balanced across
all of the economic value add dimensions?
Are the strategic programs aligned,
or for that matter, are they the right
strategic programs?
There is a lot of activity going on out
there, how do I know we are doing
the right things?
Where can we take advantage of
synergies across the major strategic
programs?
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311
Loss of cohesion of effort across transformation exercises results in loss of
cohesion for the business
Companies with a high level of cohesion affect EBIT directly
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
24%
28%
32%
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
EBITMARGIN,2003-2007
CAPABILITIES COHERENCE SCORE
Coca-Cola
WrigleyPepsiCo
Kimberly-Clark
Sara Lee
ConAgra
Merck
Unilever
H.J. Heinz
Kraft
General Mills
Clorox
Campbell Soup Company
P&G
*Adapted from “The Coherence Premium”
Harvard Business Review, June 2010
A coherent organisation is one that is
thought of and executed as a whole
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312
The goal of a good
business model is to
create coherence
Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of
the components, and how to mix them in a manner
that is innovative and differentiating
› A Coherent Business Model is one that is
synchronised around:
» its market position,
» its product and service portfolio; and
» its most distinctive strategic capabilities
› All of the above working together as a system
› To bring coherence to these components requires
a variety of business skills and disciplines
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313
Capability driven
› Capability driven architectures are designed to support the strategic objectives of an organisation
› Capabilities consist of people, process and technology
› To fully understand a capability the three components exists regardless of their maturity level
One of the means to drive out cohesion is through capability based planning
Capability based
planning is one of
the tools that looks
at the best “mix” of
resources required
to develop this
cohesion
Mission
Strategies
Tactics
Vision
Goals
Objectives
Outcome
CAPABILITY
People
Process
Tools
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314
The capability mix challenge
› Identifying the right resources
to support the capabilities
› Mixing these resources
effectively to achieve the
capability outcomes
› Identifying mixes of
capabilities at a higher level to
drive out business outcomes
The Correct assembly and mix of these capabilities will help with cohesion across the business
and drive out a successful strategy
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315
Finding the Right Business Mixes
The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved
business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Rules of thumb
Robust,
repeatable and
replicable
formulas &
processes
Ultimately all innovative
algorithms will become utility.
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316
Who is best qualified to operate here?
ANALYTICAL
THINKING
INTUITIVE
THINKING
* From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
GOAL: Reliably produce
consistent, predictable
outcomes
GOAL: Produce outcomes
that meet desired
objectives
Certain business disciplines are required to reduce the time to
codify
Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges
into reliable and repeatable processes
Should investment go here
and who is qualified to
operate here?
Unresolved
Business
Challenges
Rules of
thumb
Robust, repeatable
and replicable
processes
Search for
“The EA Headspace”
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317
Value
Mandate
E
A
B
C
D
Responsibility depends upon the mandate from business
The Architecture Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases.
Business Architecture is
seen as a positive
progression away from IT
*Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer
• Maximize Product Profitability
• Maximise Market Share
• Maximise Customer Lifetime Value
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
program and portfolio
performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market
Performance (Shareholder
Value)
Improve Product/Service
Performance
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318
Improve project
performance
Improve enterprise wide
program and portfolio
performance
Improve Business Performance
Improve Market
Performance (Shareholder
Value)
Value
Mandate
Improve Product/Service
Performance
E
A
B
C
D
What are the Possible Problem Scenarios?
The problem space varies significantly depending upon the mandate.
BUSINESS
TRANSITION
SPACE
We are looking to acquire
a variety of companies.
How can we apportion our
assets across the company
to best take advantage of
an M&A
The Business is losing market
share due to inefficiencies
across the value chain. Find
out what the bottlenecks are
and fix it
The business is going
through a major
transformation program.
Deliver the solution on time
and under budget.
Design the solution
for an HR system
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319
Strategic Themes
Initiative 5
Initiative 6
Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution:
SCENARIO 1 – BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT - SPAWNING INITIATIVES FROM THE STRATEGY MAP
Initiatives straight from strategy often results in loss of cohesion
Strategic Themes
Initiative 1
Initiative 2
Strategic Themes
Initiative 3
Initiative 4
Mandate: Improve enterprise wide
program and portfolio performance
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320
Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution:
SCENARIO 2 – BUSINESS TRANSITION - DEVELOPING THE UNIFIED BUSINESS MODEL
Creating a single unified business model helps build cohesion across the enterprise
Strategic Themes
Capability 1
Capability 2
Strategic Themes
Capability 5
Capability 6
Strategic Themes
Capability 3
Capability 4
Mandate: Improve Business
Performance
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321
Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution:
SCENARIO 3 – PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE - DEFINING THE BUSINESS MODEL FOR CANDIDATE
STRATEGIC SCENARIOS
Injecting Business Architecture into the Strategic Scenarios
Will Improve the Strategic Decisions as well as the execution
of that strategy
Semi
Integrated
Universal Bank
Product
Specialist
Customer
Owner
Infrastructure
Provider
Mandate: Improve market
performance
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322
Understanding the gap between strategy and
execution
Goals and Drivers help define a driver tree hierarchy or value map
The value map
will help identify
enterprise aligned
business unit
drivers and
leverage points
Examples
• Revenue enhancement
• Margin enhancement
• Operating efficiencies
• Working capital
management
• Investment capital
productivity
• Capital structure
optimization
CORPORATE
LEVEL-SPECIFIC
Examples
• Pricing strategy
• Product assortment
• Departmental emphasis
• Product cost
• Store operating costs
• Corporate administrative
costs
• Operating cash reserves
• Inventory management
• Accounts payable
management
• Store base
• Leases
• Intangible assets
• Distribution assets
BUSINESS
UNIT-SPECIFIC
Examples
• Purchase frequency
• Household penetration
• Transaction size
• Gross margin
• Store operating expense
%
• SG&A expense %
• Distribution cost per
case
• Days cash on hand
• Inventory turns-store
and DC
• Account payable cycle
• Store-level profitability
• Debt/Equity ratio
• Annual capital
investment
OPERATING
VALUE DRIVERS
Earning loyalty & trust
with customers &
community
Make our
Processes simpler
and faster
Empower
the frontline to
Deliver Integrated
Financial Solutions
Deliver new
and relevant
products
Create a
performance
culture
REVENUE
COSTS
WORKING
CAPITAL
FIXED
CAPITAL
NOPLAT
INVESTED
CAPITAL
EVA®
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323
Understanding the Strategic Scenarios
Each strategic scenario can be evaluated in line with the value disciplines of the organization
DRIVER TREES
AND VALUE MAPS
& GOALS
These value disciplines will help decisions around the strategic
balance between efficiency and effectiveness
There is often fragmentation around value disciplines which results in
“competitive” forces and flawed decision making
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324
Developing
business models
for each scenario
Each strategic scenario will have a set of
corresponding business model options that
would need to be evaluated
Semi Integrated
Universal Bank
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325
Documenting the Business Models
Building cohesion requires understanding across the entire business model
› Value Chain Analysis
› Cross Functional Models
› Capability/Business Anchor Models
› Process Models
› Application Models
› Data and information Models
› Technology Models
› Value Maps
› Product and Offering Maps
› Design Models
› Customer Experience
› Journey Maps
› Learning Maps
› Motivation Models
› Business Model Innovation
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326
What we have found in large accounts
An ownership gap for business architecture exists - Lines of responsibility around cohesion and business architecture, are often unclear
Functional
Capabilities
Cross-Functional
Capabilities
EnterpriseCoherency
Capabilities
Strategic
Architecture
Mandate –
Business
Ownership
IT Architecture
Mandate –
IT Ownership
Business
Architecture
Mandate
Undefined
Cohesion Mandate
Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327
The functional capability anchor model provides the utility
building blocks of the organisation
The anchor model represents the "map" of the organisation
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328
The Functional Capability Anchor Model - Overlays
Many Overlays Can be Used on this Anchor Model
CL
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329
The functional capability anchor model – overlays:
The capability overlap is identified to help improve cohesion across the enterprise
Clearer visibility of synergies is required to consolidate strategic efforts across the major programs
Channel (Relationship Managers, Mobile Sales Force
& 3rd
Party Distribution)
NB Retail Quotation
Provision
NB Retail Identification
and Authentication
NB Retail Customer
Needs Analysis
NB Retail Contact
Management
NB Retail Account
Servicing
NB Retail Origination
NB Retail Customer
Information
Management
NB Retail Query and
Dispute Management
NB Retail Lead
Referral
ANZ Retail Quotation
Provision
ANZ Retail
Identification and
Authentication
ANZ Retail Customer
Needs Analysis
ANZ Retail Contact
Management
ANZ Retail Account
Servicing
ANZ Retail Origination
ANZ Retail Customer
Information
Management
ANZ Retail Query and
Dispute Management
ANZ Retail Lead
Referral
Retail Workforce
Planning
NB Retail Sales
Reporting
ANZ Retail Sales
Reporting
ANZ Retail Lead
Fulfilment
NB Retail Lead
Fulfilment
NB Retail Credit
Decisioning
Client Retail Credit
Decisioning
NB Retail Customer
Correspondence
ANZ Retail Customer
Correspondence
NB Retail Customer
On-boarding
ANZ Retail Customer
On-boarding
NB Retail Promotion
Execution
ANZ Retail Promotion
Execution
ANZ Prospecting
NB Prospecting
Retail Commission
Management
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330
The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays:
Hotspots and Issues are identified
Business architecture efforts are often tilted towards
either an issue centric view or a strategic centric view –
both views need to be considered
Some hot spots
exist under
product
manufacturing
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331
The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays:
Current and Planned Investment is identified
Often issues and planned investment are not aligned
Investment
skewed
towards
distribution
capability
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332
The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays:
Comparing Investment to Issues to Identify Loss of Cohesion
Comparing Multiple Overlays Often Produces High Value Insights
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333
The Value of The Functional Capability Model
Anchor Models Have a Short Business Value Lifespan
› The Business Anchor Model tends to be Driven by IT
› It is often used as a tool to “talk” to the business to maintain architectural
integrity
› The capability models resonate more with the IT & architecture
disciplines, not necessarily with the business disciplines
› The Capability model becomes more the execution focussed piece – it is
in fact the downward facing artefact
› Cross functional capabilities start to move upwards and resonate more
with business stakeholders
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334
Using Capabilities in The Functional Anchor Model
Capabilities and Capability Models require a different modelling technique
› Talk to business stakeholders in terms of People, Process and Tools that drive out an
outcome
› To come up with the detail around the these resources, you use the business analysis
community
› Cluster these capability components into capability models later, since these are the
models that the architecture discipline tends to use
› This approach also helps business stakeholders begin to understand the resources within
a capability
› This approach also begins to expose the resources for discussion and helps facilitate a
the assemble and mix discussions
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335
The Cross Functional Capability Anchor Model Helps Identify
the Better Mix of Capabilities for Business Outcomes
Its at this point that business begins to see the true value of using capabilities
Standard functional capabilities can
be aligned to a value chain
Cross functional capabilities assemble and mix functional capabilities to
achieve outcomes in the value map or driver tree
Cross functional capabilities each drive out different
outcomes. Underlying functional capabilities will have
varying perspectives of capability maturity and capability
uplift
You can also use cross functional models as scenarios to
test the capability anchor model validity
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336
The Cross Functional Capability Model
The Process Layer Plays a Strong Role in assembling capabilities for different
outcomes
36
PROCESS
Sign Up & Integrate
CAPABILITY
20. Information Services Management
CAPABILITY
15. Sales Execution
PROCESS
A1. Explore and compare
potential providers and
services
PROCESS
B2. Sign up and activate
account
PROCESS
C3. Integrate my store
with Australia Post’s API’s
precedes precedes precedes precedes
BUSINESS SERVICE
Customer Sales
Management
BUSINESS SERVICE
Partner Collaboration
PROCESS
C1. Receive information on
how the systems and
processes will work
PROCESS
C2. Install the necessary
hardware / software on
my systems
is realized by
LOGICAL
APPLICATION COMP.
Customer Sales
Management
LOGICAL
APPLICATION COMP.
Enterprise Resource
Planning
LOGICAL
APPLICATION COMP.
Partner Collaboration
Management
LOGICAL
APPLICATION COMP.
Security Management
communicates with communicates with
communicates with
implements
is realized by
implements
ACTOR
Post Staff
DATA ENTITY
Sales Order
ACTOR
Post Staff
participates in participates in
is processed by
consumes
SAP - CRM SAP - ERP auspost.com.a
u
IAM - OIM
is processed by
ACTOR
Fiona
participates in
Customer
CAPABILITY
People
Process
Tools
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337
The Cross Functional Capability Model
Customer Experience Journeys can also be used as guides to assembling cross
functional capabilities
Cust Journey ViewCust Interactions View
Capability to Journey
A
Journey to Capability
Capability to Logical
Data (via Business Service)
Capability to Logical
App (via Business Service)
D
B
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
C
We often find product architecture missing in
this space:
• Value Maps
• Product and Offering Maps
• Design Models
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338
The Cross Functional Capability Model
Use Stereotypes to Kick-start your Efforts
Stereotypes are a Recipe Set of Business Model Mixes and their outcomes
DIFFERENTIATED
BUSINESSMODELS
Utility
(Foundation)
Business Model Stereotypes
Innovate
Build Advantages
Assemble
Prolong
Advantages
Mix
Reduce
Disadvantages
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339
Assemble
Build
Advantages
Mix
Prolong
Advantages
Optimise
Reduce
Disadvantages
The Cross Functional Capability Model
Utility Business Model Stereotypes provide a set of standard
business model execution styles to work with
Aggregator Category Leader Consolidator Customizer Disintermediator
Experience
Provider
Fast Follower Innovator Platform provider Premium Player
Regulation
Navigator
Reputation Player Risk Absorber
Solutions
Provider
Value Player
These Stereotypes are different from reference models
Standard assembly patterns of
functional and cross functional
capabilities can be leveraged as
foundation business models to
kick-start your efforts
* Based upon “The Essential Advantage” Leinwand & Mainardi
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340
The Cross Functional Capability Model
Example: Experience Provider
Each stereotype can have a standalone business model to be used as a pattern - Experience Provider Stereotype
Mass Market
Love Mark Switching Costs
Seamless Music Experience
Hardware Design
Brand Content & Agreements
OEMS Record Companies
Personalised
Support
Retail Stores Apple Stores Apple.com iTunes
Marketing
Builds enjoyment, engagement, and emotional
attachment through strong brands or experiences
*Apples Example from “Business Model Innovation” Osterwalder
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341
The Cross Functional Capability Model:
Using the Business Motivation Model to Focus on Outcome
The Motivation Model resonates well with business sponsors
› Business Stakeholders often find traditional business
architecture models difficult to consume
› We found that the motivation model resonates well with
business stakeholders
› Helps move away from pain point architecture to focus on
outcomes
› The challenge is that when you show this to the architect its
scoffed at – yet when you show it to the business
stakeholder their response is – this is Gold – this is what I
have been looking for.
The Environment
The Business Model
Market Model
Products and
Service
Model
Operating
Model
 Markets
 Industries
 Customers
 Market Segment
 Channels
 Customer
Relationships
 Value Proposition
 Offering: Products /
Services
 Capabilities
 Processes / Value
Chains
 Business Services
 Functions
 Data
 Applications
 Technology
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342
Strategic alignment is determined by mapping of capability
dimensions to value levers
VALUE LEVERS
MaintenanceCost
Reduction
Productsper
Month(Brokers
andAdvisors)
Persistency
AcquisitionCost
Reduction
Numberof
Advisorsand
Brokers
PremiumSize
FundRetention
Percent Contribution of Current
Capability Resources to Target Values
48% 167% 100% 80% 18% 0% 60%
CAPABILITYDIMENSIONS
Products
Business Process
Information
Technology (Infrastructure)
Applications
Facilities
External Relations (Supply Chain and
Partnerships)
Organization and People
Very High
High
Medium
Low/Medium
None
0-49% of Target
Value
50-74% of
Target Value
75% of Target
Value
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343
Use Capability Mixes to Re-align the Investment
Portfolio
› Provide executives with a cohesive,
non-project based view of the
investment spend
› Address Capex and Opex conflicts
› Address duplication of effort across
the portfolio landscape
› Maintain alignment of the ensuing
programs
› Allows business stakeholders to have
a consistent business focussed view
of the project investment and its
status
Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs
Removed
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344
Plan & Market
Information,
Knowledge &
Systems
People
Assets & Services
• Strategically critical
• HIGH coverage by in-flight initiatives
• NOT strategically critical
• HIGH coverage by in-flight initiatives
• Strategically critical
• LOW coverage by in-flight initiatives
• NOT strategically critical
• LOW coverage by in-flight initiatives
HIGH COVERAGE
LOW COVERAGE
Initiative
Coverage
(primary impact
on L1 and L2
activities only)
Capabilities with ‘high’ potential for improvement from issues layer
Often the Investment Slate can be adjusted to cater for the misalignment – This is the biggest challenge
Ref Capabilities
# In-flight
Initiatives
% Gap
C14
Sales Planning and
Management
9 0%
C15 Sales Execution 6 0%
C30 Network Development 6 0%
C3 Plan to Realize 5 11%
C10
Channel Strategy
Management
4 25%
Ref Capabilities
# In-flight
Initiatives
% Gap
C17 Customer Service 9 0%
C34 Track and Trace 4 0%
C45
Information, Knowledge &
Systems Delivery
2 14%
C43
People Day-to Day
Management
4 40%
Ref Capabilities
# In-flight
Initiatives
% Gap
C1
Research, Analysis &
Insights
4 50%
C8 Market Planning 3 60%
C13
Business Performance
Management
4 75%
C2
Corporate Vision &
Strategy Management
2 100%
C5
Acquisition and
Divestment
2 100%
C40 People Planning 4 100%
C48
Asset Lifecycle
Management
3 100%
Ref Capabilities
# In-flight
Initiatives
% Gap
C44
Information, Knowledge &
Systems Planning
11 63%
C45
Information & Knowledge
Governance
11 67%
C41 Recruit & Retain People 5 21%
C4 Innovation Management 3 100%
C51
Supplier Relationship
Management
2 100%
Strategically ImportantYES NO
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345
Dealing with The Change Fallout
Building Cross Functional Teams to Facilitate Change
Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines to help socialise the
changes required for the
investment slate
Change
Manager
Finance
PMO
Business
Improvement
Strategy
Technology
Combination of People,
Process & technology to drive
out an outcome through
projects
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346
The degree of change effort to move to the future state is
evaluated
Change Frameworks applied to your process components can help determine impact
Current
State
Future
State
Pain Points – Inefficiencies
The application submitted by the consultant is often incomplete. The application is reviewed for completeness and adjudicated. The conditional approval, along with a list or
required documents are then sent back to the MS, who will communicate the results, a conditional approval, back to the applicant. This process can take several days and requires a
significant time and effort from RBC resources.
What would a truly transformational scenario look like?
New Capabilities
1. Portable credit scoring system
and rules engine
2. Document verification at POS
3. Automated disbursement
Incremental
Improvement
Significant
Improvement
Changethe
Game
Required Changes
How are pain points addressed?
Credit scoring engine must be available to the mortgage specialist, permitting an on-the-spot adjudication
Document verification enabled at the point of sale by the cons.
Highly automated process which advances funds without the need for the human intervention
1
1
2
3
Contacts bank to
request mortgage
Cons. meets with
the applicant
Application is
complete
Application
submitted for
adjudication
Application is
adjudicated
Results are
communicated to
MS
Applicant gets
conditional
approval
Applicant submits
required docs
Documents are
verified
Client executes
documentation
Mortgage is
approved
Mortgage is set up on
bank systems
Funds are advanced
1
Contacts bank to
request mortgage
rep meets with the
applicant
Application is
complete
Application
adjudicated on the
spot
Applicant gets
conditional
approval
Applicant submits
required docs Documents are
verified
Client executes
documentation
Mortgage is
approved
Mortgage is set up on
bank systems
Funds are advanced
1
Contacts bank to
request mortgage
Cons meets with the
applicant
Application is
complete
Application
adjudicated and
docs verified
Client executes
documentation
Mortgage is
approved
Funds are advanced2
3
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347
Business Model Assessment
Business Model Components
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Shareholder
Customer
Employee
Product Offering
Price Structure
Distribution
Brand / Reputation
Customer Segment
Customer Experience
Network Capability
Operational Efficiency / IT
Financial Capability
Business
Systems
Customer Product
Vision
Each Candidate Business Model Can be Evaluated Against the Value Driver Dimensions
Measure the value of
each possible
operating model and
their ability to support
and deliver the
strategic scenarios
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348
Capabilities and cross functional capabilities are evaluated in
light of all the change factors
The capability mixes are evaluated against each scenario to determine the optimal path going
forward
Requirements: Program “x” requires a $100M 5-year net benefit and must be implemented in under 3 years.
Strategic Scenarios
Cross Functional Capabilities
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349
Roadmapping
Look to Mature Capabilities Through Increments
Capabilities Basic Intermediate Advanced
Customer Service
1. Service Team Trained and Equipped
Marketing Execution
2. Marketing Playbooks Automated
3. Marketing and Sales Campaign Pilot
5. Advertising Revenue Adjustment Calculation
7. Marketing and Sales Campaign Pilot
6. Customer Sat Score & Stakeholder Sat Score
Sales Execution
1 2 3 4 5
Current State Future State
2. Sales Playbooks Automated
4. Marketing and Sales Campaign Prototype
5. Sales Team Training
7. Cross Functional Process Automation
6. Pilot
1
2 3 7 8
76542
2
3
7
8
9
1
7
6
5
4
2
Maturity
9
Capabilities increase and
decrease maturity over time
depending upon outcomes.
Plan for increments that can
be absorbed by the
business
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350
The Planning Roadmap Outcome
Architecture Roadmap – 3 Year Plan (FY11 to FY14)
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351
Socialise the Architecture:
The Architecture Storyboard Walkthrough
These methods help the architecture speak for itself
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352
In Closing:
Responsibility
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353
Business Architecture and Business Analysis
Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the
stakeholder?
Context of Work
UnderlyingCompetency
Detail Focus Big Picture
FoundationalAdvanced
Entry
level
BA
Junior
BA
Inter-
mediate
BA
Senior
BA
Advanced
Generalist
BA
Analyst
BizArch
Senior
BizArch
Principal
BizArch
Master
BizArch
Distinguished
BizArch
Business
Analysis
Business
Architecture
Strategic Business
Architect
Principal Business
Architect
Business
Architect
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354
Lack of
Opportunity
The Current Business Analysis Career Path
Dilutes the true Value
The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and
delivery type functions
Time
KnowledgeOfBusiness
Entry
Level BA
Junior
BA
Intermediate
BA
Senior
BA
BA Project
Lead
BA Program
Lead
BA Practice
Leader
Business
Relationship
Manager
Principal Business
Architect
Strategic
Business
Architect
Delivering Path
Thought leadership in terms of
the utility layer, standards,
replicating, reliability etc.
Managing Path
Thought leadership in terms of
management, delivery, change
and politics
Planning Path
Thought leadership in terms
of innovation, business
models and mixes
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 355
The Business Architect Mandate
Role Confusion Exists Due to Lack of a Clear Mandate – this results in overlap of function, output and value
Environ.
Models,
Competitor
Analysis,
Strategic
Diagnosis
Segmentation
Positioning,
Strategy Map,
Decision Trees
Perceptual
mapping,
distribution
channels and
models
Customer
Experience,
Journey Maps,
Learning Maps
Campaign
Models,
Advertising
Messages, Key
Messages
Competitor
Strategy,
Expansion
Strategy,
Innovation
Strategy
Marketing Mix,
Product
Lifecycle Model,
Pricing and
Cash Flow
analysis
Regression
Analysis and
forecasting,
Platform and
Expansion Plans
Design models,
Value Maps,
Product and
Offering Maps,
Design Models
Product Line
plans
Motivation
Model, Driver
Trees, Systems
Theory
Org. Model and
Structures, Org.
Culture, Partner
and supplier
models
Change
Models,
Organization
Unit model,
Org. learning
models
Resource
Management
and Scheduling
procedures
Contracts, Time
and Expense
Procedures
Performance,
Business
Structures,
Value Maps
Risk Models,
Growth Models,
Capital
Structure
Models
Performance
Alignment
model, Root
Cause Model
Balanced
Scorecard,
Financial
reporting
Financial
Reporting
Procedures,
EPM
Value Chain,
Value Streams,
Decisions &
Events
Capability
Models
Process Maps
Function
Models
Use Cases
Process Models
Workflows &
Activities
Operating
procedures
Info Mgt
Principles
Info Use
Policies
Meta-Data
Definition
Subject
Classification
Information
Classification
Enterprise Info
Model, Info
Lifecycle Model,
Human
Interface Model
Custodian
Model,
Integration
View,
Presentation
Models
Security Rules,
BI Reports, User
Interface,
Warehouse and
datamarts
Health
Assessment
Application
Principles
Application
Framework
Current State
Target State
Services
Definitions
Function
Models
Wiring
Diagrams
Activity Views
Patterns
Deployment
Model
Application
Standards
Resource
Estimates?
Class/Module
View
Configuration
Models
Data Principles
Reference Data
Stds
Data Dictionary,
Data quality
processes
Data Directory
Field Level
Views
Technology
Watch
Health
Assessment
Asset Lifecycle
Technology
Principles
Tech Reference
Model
Current State
Target State
Service
Catalogue
Service
Definition
Mud Maps
(N/W, etc.)
Technology
Standards
CMDB
Management
Contextual
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Implementation
Market Application Data Technology
Enterprise Architect
Solution Architect
Products &
Services Organizational Performance
Process &
Function Info
Business
Architect
Strategic
Business Architect
Principal
Business Architect
Senior Business Analyst /
Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect
Business Analyst
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356
Confusion Regarding the Business
Architecture RoleThis is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves
from this space
Environ.
Models,
Competitor
Analysis,
Strategic
Diagnosis
Segmentation
Positioning,
Strategy Map,
Decision Trees
Perceptual
mapping,
distribution
channels and
models
Customer
Experience,
Journey Maps,
Learning Maps
Campaign
Models,
Advertising
Messages, Key
Messages
Competitor
Strategy,
Expansion
Strategy,
Innovation
Strategy
Marketing Mix,
Product
Lifecycle Model,
Pricing and
Cash Flow
analysis
Regression
Analysis and
forecasting,
Platform and
Expansion Plans
Design models,
Value Maps,
Product and
Offering Maps,
Design Models
Product Line
plans
Motivation
Model, Driver
Trees, Systems
Theory
Org. Model and
Structures, Org.
Culture, Partner
and supplier
models
Change
Models,
Organization
Unit model,
Org. learning
models
Resource
Management
and Scheduling
procedures
Contracts, Time
and Expense
Procedures
Performance,
Business
Structures,
Value Maps
Risk Models,
Growth Models,
Capital
Structure
Models
Performance
Alignment
model, Root
Cause Model
Balanced
Scorecard,
Financial
reporting
Financial
Reporting
Procedures,
EPM
Value Chain,
Value Streams,
Decisions &
Events
Capability
Models
Process Maps
Function
Models
Use Cases
Process Models
Workflows &
Activities
Operating
procedures
Info Mgt
Principles
Info Use
Policies
Meta-Data
Definition
Subject
Classification
Information
Classification
Enterprise Info
Model, Info
Lifecycle Model,
Human
Interface Model
Custodian
Model,
Integration
View,
Presentation
Models
Security Rules,
BI Reports, User
Interface,
Warehouse and
datamarts
Health
Assessment
Application
Principles
Application
Framework
Current State
Target State
Services
Definitions
Function
Models
Wiring
Diagrams
Activity Views
Patterns
Deployment
Model
Application
Standards
Resource
Estimates?
Class/Module
View
Configuration
Models
Data Principles
Reference Data
Stds
Data Dictionary,
Data quality
processes
Data Directory
Field Level
Views
Technology
Watch
Health
Assessment
Asset Lifecycle
Technology
Principles
Tech Reference
Model
Current State
Target State
Service
Catalogue
Service
Definition
Mud Maps
(N/W, etc.)
Technology
Standards
CMDB
Management
Contextual
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Implementation
Market Application Data Technology
Enterprise Architect
Solution Architect
Products &
Services Organizational Performance
Process &
Function Info
Business
Architect
Strategic
Business Architect
Principal
Business Architect
Senior Business Analyst /
Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect
Business Analyst
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 357
The Various Roles and How They Support Decision Making
Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that
is supported by both the business architects and business analysts
Software
Automation
Projects
Funds
investment
Widget
assembly
Credit card
approval
Inventory
Management
Outsourcing
Projects
Major re-
design
projects
Six-sigma based
process
improvement
analysts
New Product
design
Deals with other
companies
International
Delivery
On-line
purchasing
ERP based
process
improvement
Complex Processes, not
part of company’s core
competency: Outsource
Complex, dynamic
processes of high value:
undertake business
process improvement
efforts that focus on
people
Straightforward, static
commodity processes:
use automated ERP-Type
applications and / or
outsource
Straightforward, static,
and valuable: automate
to gain efficiency
High
High
Low
Low
Must be done but adds little
value to product or services
Very important to success, high
value added to products and
services
Strategic Importance
ProcessComplexityandDynamics
Complex negotiation, design, or
decision process
Many business rules; expertise
involved
Some business rules
Procedure or simple algorithm
Organization
Heuristics
Principal
Business
Architects
Business
Analysts
Strategic
Business
Architect
Senior
Business
Analysts
*Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon
| BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 358
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Building a more cohesive organisation using business architecture

  • 1. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31 Building a More Cohesive Organisation Using Business Architecture FINAL V.10.0 –11TH MARCH,2013 CraigMartin COOandChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
  • 2. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32 Mobile: +61 419 192 929 Twitter: @eatraining Email: craig.martin@enterprisearchitects.com
  • 3. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33 Look Familiar 60 000 views and counting
  • 4. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 34 Related Webinar › Slideshare - Bridging business analysis and business architecture - The Open Group webinar » http://slidesha.re/10oCKOY › Video on the OpenGroup Webinar site – » http://bit.ly/105xEYy
  • 5. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 35 EA is a leading international provider of strategy and architecture services and capabilities Championing Practice Awareness in the Community • Chief Architect / CTO Round Tables • Virtual Teaming & Practitioner Collaboration • Open Group Participation • Industry Engagement Lifetime Relationship with Practising Architects • Practitioner career lifecycle management • Architecture training and certification • Professional development • Community involvement • PAYG payroll services • Learning forums Skills Uplift for Organisations & Individuals • TOGAF® 9.1 Certification • ArchiMate® 2.0 • Advanced / Applied EA • Business Architecture • Information Governance • Solution Architecture • BPMN Strategic Relationship With Corporate Clients • Strategy & Architecture Capability Improvement • The delivery of strategic architecture outcomes • Architecture delivery Accelerator Frameworks • Resourcing & Talent • Managed Services Learning Services Architect Services Thought Leadership Enterprise Services
  • 6. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 36 Man, Machine and the Dog ON THE INTRODUCTION PAGE OF A TIER 1 BANK STRATEGY DOCUMENT: "The factory of the future will have two employees: a man and a dog. The man's job will be to feed the dog. The dog's job will be to prevent the man from touching any of the automated equipment.” Warren G Bennis
  • 7. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37 Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages What's Business About? DIFFERENTIATION The Building Block Analogy
  • 8. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38 Tactical Strategic Visionary We develop advantages through the use of the strategic planning discipline The language of strategic planning is often inconsistent Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives *Adapted from business motivation model - OMG
  • 9. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39 The Business strategy is often cascaded down into different functional business units for delivery This often leads to a series of programs functionally divided across the business units Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives Business Unit 1 Program 1 Program 2 Business Unit 2 Program 3 Program 4 Business Unit 3 Program 5 Program 6 Each Business unit tends to create their own strategies to achieve the enterprise goals. These are often not aligned to the other business unit strategies The language of strategy also varies across business units, thus reducing cohesion at the strategic layer Fragmentation therefore begins at the strategic level
  • 10. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310 The minefield between strategy and projects In navigating the minefield between strategy and execution there are multiple possible failure points STRATEGY PROJECTS    Strategy not sufficiently tied to operations Needed capabilities not properly understood or measured Planners not accountable for delivery Benefits aren’t quantified or traced back to original goals The drivers of strategy are often misaligned  This often leads to some typical stakeholder issues regarding transformation exercises Are we investing in the right areas across the enterprise? Is my investment portfolio balanced across all of the economic value add dimensions? Are the strategic programs aligned, or for that matter, are they the right strategic programs? There is a lot of activity going on out there, how do I know we are doing the right things? Where can we take advantage of synergies across the major strategic programs?
  • 11. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311 Loss of cohesion of effort across transformation exercises results in loss of cohesion for the business Companies with a high level of cohesion affect EBIT directly 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28% 32% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 EBITMARGIN,2003-2007 CAPABILITIES COHERENCE SCORE Coca-Cola WrigleyPepsiCo Kimberly-Clark Sara Lee ConAgra Merck Unilever H.J. Heinz Kraft General Mills Clorox Campbell Soup Company P&G *Adapted from “The Coherence Premium” Harvard Business Review, June 2010 A coherent organisation is one that is thought of and executed as a whole
  • 12. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312 The goal of a good business model is to create coherence Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of the components, and how to mix them in a manner that is innovative and differentiating › A Coherent Business Model is one that is synchronised around: » its market position, » its product and service portfolio; and » its most distinctive strategic capabilities › All of the above working together as a system › To bring coherence to these components requires a variety of business skills and disciplines The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 13. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313 Capability driven › Capability driven architectures are designed to support the strategic objectives of an organisation › Capabilities consist of people, process and technology › To fully understand a capability the three components exists regardless of their maturity level One of the means to drive out cohesion is through capability based planning Capability based planning is one of the tools that looks at the best “mix” of resources required to develop this cohesion Mission Strategies Tactics Vision Goals Objectives Outcome CAPABILITY People Process Tools
  • 14. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314 The capability mix challenge › Identifying the right resources to support the capabilities › Mixing these resources effectively to achieve the capability outcomes › Identifying mixes of capabilities at a higher level to drive out business outcomes The Correct assembly and mix of these capabilities will help with cohesion across the business and drive out a successful strategy
  • 15. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315 Finding the Right Business Mixes The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes Ultimately all innovative algorithms will become utility. * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
  • 16. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316 Who is best qualified to operate here? ANALYTICAL THINKING INTUITIVE THINKING * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives Certain business disciplines are required to reduce the time to codify Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes Should investment go here and who is qualified to operate here? Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable processes Search for “The EA Headspace”
  • 17. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317 Value Mandate E A B C D Responsibility depends upon the mandate from business The Architecture Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases. Business Architecture is seen as a positive progression away from IT *Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer • Maximize Product Profitability • Maximise Market Share • Maximise Customer Lifetime Value Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Improve Product/Service Performance
  • 18. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318 Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Value Mandate Improve Product/Service Performance E A B C D What are the Possible Problem Scenarios? The problem space varies significantly depending upon the mandate. BUSINESS TRANSITION SPACE We are looking to acquire a variety of companies. How can we apportion our assets across the company to best take advantage of an M&A The Business is losing market share due to inefficiencies across the value chain. Find out what the bottlenecks are and fix it The business is going through a major transformation program. Deliver the solution on time and under budget. Design the solution for an HR system
  • 19. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319 Strategic Themes Initiative 5 Initiative 6 Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution: SCENARIO 1 – BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT - SPAWNING INITIATIVES FROM THE STRATEGY MAP Initiatives straight from strategy often results in loss of cohesion Strategic Themes Initiative 1 Initiative 2 Strategic Themes Initiative 3 Initiative 4 Mandate: Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance
  • 20. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320 Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution: SCENARIO 2 – BUSINESS TRANSITION - DEVELOPING THE UNIFIED BUSINESS MODEL Creating a single unified business model helps build cohesion across the enterprise Strategic Themes Capability 1 Capability 2 Strategic Themes Capability 5 Capability 6 Strategic Themes Capability 3 Capability 4 Mandate: Improve Business Performance
  • 21. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321 Understanding the Gap Between Strategy and Execution: SCENARIO 3 – PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE - DEFINING THE BUSINESS MODEL FOR CANDIDATE STRATEGIC SCENARIOS Injecting Business Architecture into the Strategic Scenarios Will Improve the Strategic Decisions as well as the execution of that strategy Semi Integrated Universal Bank Product Specialist Customer Owner Infrastructure Provider Mandate: Improve market performance
  • 22. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322 Understanding the gap between strategy and execution Goals and Drivers help define a driver tree hierarchy or value map The value map will help identify enterprise aligned business unit drivers and leverage points Examples • Revenue enhancement • Margin enhancement • Operating efficiencies • Working capital management • Investment capital productivity • Capital structure optimization CORPORATE LEVEL-SPECIFIC Examples • Pricing strategy • Product assortment • Departmental emphasis • Product cost • Store operating costs • Corporate administrative costs • Operating cash reserves • Inventory management • Accounts payable management • Store base • Leases • Intangible assets • Distribution assets BUSINESS UNIT-SPECIFIC Examples • Purchase frequency • Household penetration • Transaction size • Gross margin • Store operating expense % • SG&A expense % • Distribution cost per case • Days cash on hand • Inventory turns-store and DC • Account payable cycle • Store-level profitability • Debt/Equity ratio • Annual capital investment OPERATING VALUE DRIVERS Earning loyalty & trust with customers & community Make our Processes simpler and faster Empower the frontline to Deliver Integrated Financial Solutions Deliver new and relevant products Create a performance culture REVENUE COSTS WORKING CAPITAL FIXED CAPITAL NOPLAT INVESTED CAPITAL EVA®
  • 23. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323 Understanding the Strategic Scenarios Each strategic scenario can be evaluated in line with the value disciplines of the organization DRIVER TREES AND VALUE MAPS & GOALS These value disciplines will help decisions around the strategic balance between efficiency and effectiveness There is often fragmentation around value disciplines which results in “competitive” forces and flawed decision making
  • 24. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324 Developing business models for each scenario Each strategic scenario will have a set of corresponding business model options that would need to be evaluated Semi Integrated Universal Bank The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 25. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325 Documenting the Business Models Building cohesion requires understanding across the entire business model › Value Chain Analysis › Cross Functional Models › Capability/Business Anchor Models › Process Models › Application Models › Data and information Models › Technology Models › Value Maps › Product and Offering Maps › Design Models › Customer Experience › Journey Maps › Learning Maps › Motivation Models › Business Model Innovation The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 26. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326 What we have found in large accounts An ownership gap for business architecture exists - Lines of responsibility around cohesion and business architecture, are often unclear Functional Capabilities Cross-Functional Capabilities EnterpriseCoherency Capabilities Strategic Architecture Mandate – Business Ownership IT Architecture Mandate – IT Ownership Business Architecture Mandate Undefined Cohesion Mandate Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership
  • 27. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327 The functional capability anchor model provides the utility building blocks of the organisation The anchor model represents the "map" of the organisation
  • 28. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328 The Functional Capability Anchor Model - Overlays Many Overlays Can be Used on this Anchor Model CL
  • 29. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329 The functional capability anchor model – overlays: The capability overlap is identified to help improve cohesion across the enterprise Clearer visibility of synergies is required to consolidate strategic efforts across the major programs Channel (Relationship Managers, Mobile Sales Force & 3rd Party Distribution) NB Retail Quotation Provision NB Retail Identification and Authentication NB Retail Customer Needs Analysis NB Retail Contact Management NB Retail Account Servicing NB Retail Origination NB Retail Customer Information Management NB Retail Query and Dispute Management NB Retail Lead Referral ANZ Retail Quotation Provision ANZ Retail Identification and Authentication ANZ Retail Customer Needs Analysis ANZ Retail Contact Management ANZ Retail Account Servicing ANZ Retail Origination ANZ Retail Customer Information Management ANZ Retail Query and Dispute Management ANZ Retail Lead Referral Retail Workforce Planning NB Retail Sales Reporting ANZ Retail Sales Reporting ANZ Retail Lead Fulfilment NB Retail Lead Fulfilment NB Retail Credit Decisioning Client Retail Credit Decisioning NB Retail Customer Correspondence ANZ Retail Customer Correspondence NB Retail Customer On-boarding ANZ Retail Customer On-boarding NB Retail Promotion Execution ANZ Retail Promotion Execution ANZ Prospecting NB Prospecting Retail Commission Management
  • 30. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330 The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays: Hotspots and Issues are identified Business architecture efforts are often tilted towards either an issue centric view or a strategic centric view – both views need to be considered Some hot spots exist under product manufacturing
  • 31. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331 The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays: Current and Planned Investment is identified Often issues and planned investment are not aligned Investment skewed towards distribution capability
  • 32. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332 The Functional Capability Anchor Model – Overlays: Comparing Investment to Issues to Identify Loss of Cohesion Comparing Multiple Overlays Often Produces High Value Insights
  • 33. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333 The Value of The Functional Capability Model Anchor Models Have a Short Business Value Lifespan › The Business Anchor Model tends to be Driven by IT › It is often used as a tool to “talk” to the business to maintain architectural integrity › The capability models resonate more with the IT & architecture disciplines, not necessarily with the business disciplines › The Capability model becomes more the execution focussed piece – it is in fact the downward facing artefact › Cross functional capabilities start to move upwards and resonate more with business stakeholders The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 34. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334 Using Capabilities in The Functional Anchor Model Capabilities and Capability Models require a different modelling technique › Talk to business stakeholders in terms of People, Process and Tools that drive out an outcome › To come up with the detail around the these resources, you use the business analysis community › Cluster these capability components into capability models later, since these are the models that the architecture discipline tends to use › This approach also helps business stakeholders begin to understand the resources within a capability › This approach also begins to expose the resources for discussion and helps facilitate a the assemble and mix discussions The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 35. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335 The Cross Functional Capability Anchor Model Helps Identify the Better Mix of Capabilities for Business Outcomes Its at this point that business begins to see the true value of using capabilities Standard functional capabilities can be aligned to a value chain Cross functional capabilities assemble and mix functional capabilities to achieve outcomes in the value map or driver tree Cross functional capabilities each drive out different outcomes. Underlying functional capabilities will have varying perspectives of capability maturity and capability uplift You can also use cross functional models as scenarios to test the capability anchor model validity
  • 36. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336 The Cross Functional Capability Model The Process Layer Plays a Strong Role in assembling capabilities for different outcomes 36 PROCESS Sign Up & Integrate CAPABILITY 20. Information Services Management CAPABILITY 15. Sales Execution PROCESS A1. Explore and compare potential providers and services PROCESS B2. Sign up and activate account PROCESS C3. Integrate my store with Australia Post’s API’s precedes precedes precedes precedes BUSINESS SERVICE Customer Sales Management BUSINESS SERVICE Partner Collaboration PROCESS C1. Receive information on how the systems and processes will work PROCESS C2. Install the necessary hardware / software on my systems is realized by LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Customer Sales Management LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Enterprise Resource Planning LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Partner Collaboration Management LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Security Management communicates with communicates with communicates with implements is realized by implements ACTOR Post Staff DATA ENTITY Sales Order ACTOR Post Staff participates in participates in is processed by consumes SAP - CRM SAP - ERP auspost.com.a u IAM - OIM is processed by ACTOR Fiona participates in Customer CAPABILITY People Process Tools
  • 37. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337 The Cross Functional Capability Model Customer Experience Journeys can also be used as guides to assembling cross functional capabilities Cust Journey ViewCust Interactions View Capability to Journey A Journey to Capability Capability to Logical Data (via Business Service) Capability to Logical App (via Business Service) D B The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology C We often find product architecture missing in this space: • Value Maps • Product and Offering Maps • Design Models
  • 38. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338 The Cross Functional Capability Model Use Stereotypes to Kick-start your Efforts Stereotypes are a Recipe Set of Business Model Mixes and their outcomes DIFFERENTIATED BUSINESSMODELS Utility (Foundation) Business Model Stereotypes Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages
  • 39. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339 Assemble Build Advantages Mix Prolong Advantages Optimise Reduce Disadvantages The Cross Functional Capability Model Utility Business Model Stereotypes provide a set of standard business model execution styles to work with Aggregator Category Leader Consolidator Customizer Disintermediator Experience Provider Fast Follower Innovator Platform provider Premium Player Regulation Navigator Reputation Player Risk Absorber Solutions Provider Value Player These Stereotypes are different from reference models Standard assembly patterns of functional and cross functional capabilities can be leveraged as foundation business models to kick-start your efforts * Based upon “The Essential Advantage” Leinwand & Mainardi
  • 40. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340 The Cross Functional Capability Model Example: Experience Provider Each stereotype can have a standalone business model to be used as a pattern - Experience Provider Stereotype Mass Market Love Mark Switching Costs Seamless Music Experience Hardware Design Brand Content & Agreements OEMS Record Companies Personalised Support Retail Stores Apple Stores Apple.com iTunes Marketing Builds enjoyment, engagement, and emotional attachment through strong brands or experiences *Apples Example from “Business Model Innovation” Osterwalder
  • 41. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341 The Cross Functional Capability Model: Using the Business Motivation Model to Focus on Outcome The Motivation Model resonates well with business sponsors › Business Stakeholders often find traditional business architecture models difficult to consume › We found that the motivation model resonates well with business stakeholders › Helps move away from pain point architecture to focus on outcomes › The challenge is that when you show this to the architect its scoffed at – yet when you show it to the business stakeholder their response is – this is Gold – this is what I have been looking for. The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 42. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342 Strategic alignment is determined by mapping of capability dimensions to value levers VALUE LEVERS MaintenanceCost Reduction Productsper Month(Brokers andAdvisors) Persistency AcquisitionCost Reduction Numberof Advisorsand Brokers PremiumSize FundRetention Percent Contribution of Current Capability Resources to Target Values 48% 167% 100% 80% 18% 0% 60% CAPABILITYDIMENSIONS Products Business Process Information Technology (Infrastructure) Applications Facilities External Relations (Supply Chain and Partnerships) Organization and People Very High High Medium Low/Medium None 0-49% of Target Value 50-74% of Target Value 75% of Target Value
  • 43. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343 Use Capability Mixes to Re-align the Investment Portfolio › Provide executives with a cohesive, non-project based view of the investment spend › Address Capex and Opex conflicts › Address duplication of effort across the portfolio landscape › Maintain alignment of the ensuing programs › Allows business stakeholders to have a consistent business focussed view of the project investment and its status Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs Removed
  • 44. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344 Plan & Market Information, Knowledge & Systems People Assets & Services • Strategically critical • HIGH coverage by in-flight initiatives • NOT strategically critical • HIGH coverage by in-flight initiatives • Strategically critical • LOW coverage by in-flight initiatives • NOT strategically critical • LOW coverage by in-flight initiatives HIGH COVERAGE LOW COVERAGE Initiative Coverage (primary impact on L1 and L2 activities only) Capabilities with ‘high’ potential for improvement from issues layer Often the Investment Slate can be adjusted to cater for the misalignment – This is the biggest challenge Ref Capabilities # In-flight Initiatives % Gap C14 Sales Planning and Management 9 0% C15 Sales Execution 6 0% C30 Network Development 6 0% C3 Plan to Realize 5 11% C10 Channel Strategy Management 4 25% Ref Capabilities # In-flight Initiatives % Gap C17 Customer Service 9 0% C34 Track and Trace 4 0% C45 Information, Knowledge & Systems Delivery 2 14% C43 People Day-to Day Management 4 40% Ref Capabilities # In-flight Initiatives % Gap C1 Research, Analysis & Insights 4 50% C8 Market Planning 3 60% C13 Business Performance Management 4 75% C2 Corporate Vision & Strategy Management 2 100% C5 Acquisition and Divestment 2 100% C40 People Planning 4 100% C48 Asset Lifecycle Management 3 100% Ref Capabilities # In-flight Initiatives % Gap C44 Information, Knowledge & Systems Planning 11 63% C45 Information & Knowledge Governance 11 67% C41 Recruit & Retain People 5 21% C4 Innovation Management 3 100% C51 Supplier Relationship Management 2 100% Strategically ImportantYES NO
  • 45. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345 Dealing with The Change Fallout Building Cross Functional Teams to Facilitate Change Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines to help socialise the changes required for the investment slate Change Manager Finance PMO Business Improvement Strategy Technology Combination of People, Process & technology to drive out an outcome through projects
  • 46. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346 The degree of change effort to move to the future state is evaluated Change Frameworks applied to your process components can help determine impact Current State Future State Pain Points – Inefficiencies The application submitted by the consultant is often incomplete. The application is reviewed for completeness and adjudicated. The conditional approval, along with a list or required documents are then sent back to the MS, who will communicate the results, a conditional approval, back to the applicant. This process can take several days and requires a significant time and effort from RBC resources. What would a truly transformational scenario look like? New Capabilities 1. Portable credit scoring system and rules engine 2. Document verification at POS 3. Automated disbursement Incremental Improvement Significant Improvement Changethe Game Required Changes How are pain points addressed? Credit scoring engine must be available to the mortgage specialist, permitting an on-the-spot adjudication Document verification enabled at the point of sale by the cons. Highly automated process which advances funds without the need for the human intervention 1 1 2 3 Contacts bank to request mortgage Cons. meets with the applicant Application is complete Application submitted for adjudication Application is adjudicated Results are communicated to MS Applicant gets conditional approval Applicant submits required docs Documents are verified Client executes documentation Mortgage is approved Mortgage is set up on bank systems Funds are advanced 1 Contacts bank to request mortgage rep meets with the applicant Application is complete Application adjudicated on the spot Applicant gets conditional approval Applicant submits required docs Documents are verified Client executes documentation Mortgage is approved Mortgage is set up on bank systems Funds are advanced 1 Contacts bank to request mortgage Cons meets with the applicant Application is complete Application adjudicated and docs verified Client executes documentation Mortgage is approved Funds are advanced2 3
  • 47. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347 Business Model Assessment Business Model Components 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Shareholder Customer Employee Product Offering Price Structure Distribution Brand / Reputation Customer Segment Customer Experience Network Capability Operational Efficiency / IT Financial Capability Business Systems Customer Product Vision Each Candidate Business Model Can be Evaluated Against the Value Driver Dimensions Measure the value of each possible operating model and their ability to support and deliver the strategic scenarios
  • 48. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348 Capabilities and cross functional capabilities are evaluated in light of all the change factors The capability mixes are evaluated against each scenario to determine the optimal path going forward Requirements: Program “x” requires a $100M 5-year net benefit and must be implemented in under 3 years. Strategic Scenarios Cross Functional Capabilities
  • 49. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349 Roadmapping Look to Mature Capabilities Through Increments Capabilities Basic Intermediate Advanced Customer Service 1. Service Team Trained and Equipped Marketing Execution 2. Marketing Playbooks Automated 3. Marketing and Sales Campaign Pilot 5. Advertising Revenue Adjustment Calculation 7. Marketing and Sales Campaign Pilot 6. Customer Sat Score & Stakeholder Sat Score Sales Execution 1 2 3 4 5 Current State Future State 2. Sales Playbooks Automated 4. Marketing and Sales Campaign Prototype 5. Sales Team Training 7. Cross Functional Process Automation 6. Pilot 1 2 3 7 8 76542 2 3 7 8 9 1 7 6 5 4 2 Maturity 9 Capabilities increase and decrease maturity over time depending upon outcomes. Plan for increments that can be absorbed by the business
  • 50. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350 The Planning Roadmap Outcome Architecture Roadmap – 3 Year Plan (FY11 to FY14)
  • 51. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351 Socialise the Architecture: The Architecture Storyboard Walkthrough These methods help the architecture speak for itself
  • 52. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352 In Closing: Responsibility
  • 53. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353 Business Architecture and Business Analysis Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the stakeholder? Context of Work UnderlyingCompetency Detail Focus Big Picture FoundationalAdvanced Entry level BA Junior BA Inter- mediate BA Senior BA Advanced Generalist BA Analyst BizArch Senior BizArch Principal BizArch Master BizArch Distinguished BizArch Business Analysis Business Architecture Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Business Architect
  • 54. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354 Lack of Opportunity The Current Business Analysis Career Path Dilutes the true Value The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and delivery type functions Time KnowledgeOfBusiness Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Principal Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Delivering Path Thought leadership in terms of the utility layer, standards, replicating, reliability etc. Managing Path Thought leadership in terms of management, delivery, change and politics Planning Path Thought leadership in terms of innovation, business models and mixes
  • 55. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 355 The Business Architect Mandate Role Confusion Exists Due to Lack of a Clear Mandate – this results in overlap of function, output and value Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 56. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356 Confusion Regarding the Business Architecture RoleThis is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves from this space Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 57. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 357 The Various Roles and How They Support Decision Making Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that is supported by both the business architects and business analysts Software Automation Projects Funds investment Widget assembly Credit card approval Inventory Management Outsourcing Projects Major re- design projects Six-sigma based process improvement analysts New Product design Deals with other companies International Delivery On-line purchasing ERP based process improvement Complex Processes, not part of company’s core competency: Outsource Complex, dynamic processes of high value: undertake business process improvement efforts that focus on people Straightforward, static commodity processes: use automated ERP-Type applications and / or outsource Straightforward, static, and valuable: automate to gain efficiency High High Low Low Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services Strategic Importance ProcessComplexityandDynamics Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Organization Heuristics Principal Business Architects Business Analysts Strategic Business Architect Senior Business Analysts *Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon
  • 58. | BUILDING A MORE COHESIVE ORGANISATION USING BUSINESS ARCHITECTUR E | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 358 Questions?