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C17 U9 Project perfect modals in the passive voice for speculating about the past.

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Project perfect modals in the passive voice for speculating about the past.

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C17 U9 Project perfect modals in the passive voice for speculating about the past.

  1. 1. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST
  2. 2. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST spec·u·la·tion: Reasoning based on supposition; A conclusion, opinion, or theory reached by conjecture.
  3. 3. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST spec·u·la·tion: Reasoning based on supposition; A conclusion, opinion, or theory reached by conjecture. In English, we can make speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present and about the past.
  4. 4. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present. Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino Jack
  5. 5. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  6. 6. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  7. 7. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Jack thinks maybe she is lost. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  8. 8. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. …or She may still be working. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Jack thinks maybe she is lost. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  9. 9. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. …or She may still be working. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Jack thinks maybe she is lost. Jack thinks maybe she is still working. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  10. 10. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. …or She may still be working. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Jack thinks maybe she is lost. Jack thinks maybe she is still working. Jack is supposing or making speculations about present things. Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  11. 11. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Mary is not here yet. She must be on her way*. *be on her way: estar en camino …or She might be lost. …or She may still be working. Jack Jack supposes she is on her way. Jack thinks maybe she is lost. Jack thinks maybe she is still working. Jack is supposing or making speculations about present things. He uses: Might May Must Verb Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the present.
  12. 12. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the PAST.
  13. 13. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the past. To speculate about the PAST you need to use two structures:
  14. 14. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the past. To speculate about the PAST you need to use two structures: MODAL VERB FOR SPECULATIONS: MAY MIGHT COULD MUST
  15. 15. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the past. To speculate about the PAST you need to use two structures: MODAL VERB FOR SPECULATIONS: MAY MIGHT COULD MUST …IN PERFECT FORM: MAY HAVE MIGHT HAVE COULD HAVE MUST HAVE
  16. 16. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Speculations, conjunctures or suppositions about the past. To speculate about the PAST you need to use two structures: MODAL VERB FOR SPECULATIONS: MAY MIGHT COULD MUST …IN PERFECT FORM: MAY HAVE MIGHT HAVE COULD HAVE MUST HAVE …and… THE PASSIVE VOICE: BEEN
  17. 17. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Confused???
  18. 18. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Don’t worry. Look at the following examples…
  19. 19. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST
  20. 20. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST What happened here?
  21. 21. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST What happened here? (look, this is a question in past)
  22. 22. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST What happened here? (look, this is a question in past) They crashed their cars.
  23. 23. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST What happened here? (look, this is a question in past) They crashed their cars. (see? Everything is in past)
  24. 24. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST What happened here? (look, this is a question in past) They crashed their cars. (see? Everything is in past) You don’t really know what happened here, therefore*, you can only speculate or suppose or imagine what occurred. *therefore: Por lo tanto.
  25. 25. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming.
  26. 26. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming. He could have been distracted by his cell phone and didn’t see the lady coming.
  27. 27. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming. He could have been distracted by his cell phone and didn’t see the lady coming. MIGHT MAY COULD
  28. 28. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming. He could have been distracted by his cell phone and didn’t see the lady coming. MIGHT MAY COULD HAVE BEEN
  29. 29. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming. He could have been distracted by his cell phone and didn’t see the lady coming. MIGHT MAY COULD HAVE BEEN VERB IN PAST PARTICIPLE
  30. 30. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST He might have been called by his wife and when he answered the phone, he got distracted and didn’t see the lady coming. He could have been distracted by his cell phone and didn’t see the lady coming. MIGHT MAY COULD HAVE BEEN VERB IN PAST PARTICIPLE THIS STRUCTURE IS USED TO SPECULATE ABOUT THE PAST
  31. 31. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Look at more examples…
  32. 32. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?”
  33. 33. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.”
  34. 34. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” (Pudieron haber sido construidas)
  35. 35. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.” (Pudieron haber sido construidas)
  36. 36. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.” (Pudieron haber sido construidas) (Pudieron haber sido construidas)
  37. 37. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.” “I don’t know. They may have been built by giant people.” (Pudieron haber sido construidas) (Pudieron haber sido construidas)
  38. 38. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “Who built the statues in the Isla de Pascua in Chile?” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.” “I don’t know. They may have been built by giant people.” (Pudieron haber sido construidas) (Pudieron haber sido construidas) (Pudieron haber sido construidas)
  39. 39. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did they move those big rocks to build the pyramid of Giza?”
  40. 40. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did they move those big rocks to build the pyramid of Giza?” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.”
  41. 41. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did they move those big rocks to build the pyramid of Giza?” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.” (debieron haber sido movidas)
  42. 42. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did they move those big rocks to build the pyramid of Giza?” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.” “They must not have been transported by people, maybe machines.” (debieron haber sido movidas)
  43. 43. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did they move those big rocks to build the pyramid of Giza?” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.” “They must not have been transported by people, maybe machines.” (debieron haber sido movidas) (no debieron haber sido transportadas)
  44. 44. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did this crater happen?”
  45. 45. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did this crater happen?” “ Scientist are sure that it had to have been caused by a meteorite.”
  46. 46. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did this crater happen?” “ Scientist are sure that it had to have been caused by a meteorite.” (tuvo que haber sido causado)
  47. 47. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did this crater happen?” “ Scientist are sure that it had to have been caused by a meteorite.” “They, also say that it couldn not have been done by people.” (tuvo que haber sido causado)
  48. 48. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST “How did this crater happen?” “ Scientist are sure that it had to have been caused by a meteorite.” “They, also say that it couldn not have been done by people.” (tuvo que haber sido causado) (no pudo haber sido hecho)
  49. 49. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Notice this…
  50. 50. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Notice this…
  51. 51. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Notice this… If you are not certain or sure of something, use “Might, May or Could” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.”
  52. 52. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Notice this… If you are not certain or sure of something, use “Might, May or Could” If you are almost certain or sure of something, use “Must” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.” “They must not have been transported by people, maybe machines.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.”
  53. 53. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Notice this… If you are not certain or sure of something, use “Might, May or Could” If you are almost certain or sure of something, use “Must” If you are very certain or sure of something, use “have to and couldn’t” “I don’t know. They might have been built by the local people in ancient times.” “ I read in a book that they must have been moved by slaves.” “ Scientist are sure that it had to have been caused by a meteorite.” “They, also say that it couldn not have been done by people.” “They must not have been transported by people, maybe machines.” “I don’t know. They could have been built by aliens.”
  54. 54. PERFECT MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST Thank you!!!

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