Jorge Suárez  PAI 2011   COHESION <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking house buying a...
<ul><li>It's practically impossible to restrain children when they get to grips with technology. Which is why the computer...
<ul><li>It's stuffed with packs of condoms and AIDS advice literature. An AIDS victim like Sonia needs help, not discrimin...
REFERENCE <ul><li>a exophoric reference (outside the text) </li></ul><ul><li>-Oh, he's already been? </li></ul><ul><li>-Ye...
<ul><li>b endophoric reference (textual) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>anaphoric reference (backward pointing) : <...
<ul><li>cataphoric reference (forward pointing): </li></ul><ul><li>This is how you get the best results. You let  the berr...
<ul><li>a Personal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>personal pronouns and possessive  adjectives and pronouns </li></...
<ul><li>b Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>selective nominal demonstratives: </li></ul><ul><li>this (near) that (far), thes...
<ul><li>c Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adjectives and adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>better, ...
<ul><li>Wash and core six cooking apples. Put them into a fireproof dish. </li></ul><ul><li>Amanda's house is beautiful. S...
<ul><li>-There seems to have been a lot of carelessness. </li></ul><ul><li>-That/this is what I can't understand. </li></u...
<ul><li>-When $1,000,000 is a minor matter, it must be really large scale crime that is in  question. </li></ul><ul><li>-B...
SUBSTITUTION <ul><li>Nominal Substitution  substitution of a nominal group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>'one' an...
<ul><li>I thought I'd finished with the toughest assignments. They didn't tell me about this one. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li...
<ul><li>-Paula looks very happy. </li></ul><ul><li>-She seems happier now than she did last time we met. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>ELLIPSIS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Ellipsis within the nominal group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li...
<ul><li>-Which last longer, the curved rods or the straight  rods? </li></ul><ul><li>-The straight are less likely to brea...
<ul><li>-Have you been swimming? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, I have. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-What have you been...
<ul><li>-Is she suing the doctor? </li></ul><ul><li>-She is the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Has she b...
CONJUNCTION <ul><li>Additive and, and also, not, or, furthermore, in addition, besides, incidentally, that is, I mean, for...
<ul><li>He heaved the rock aside with all his strength. And there in the recesses of a deep hollow lay a glittering heap o...
<ul><li>He heaved the rock aside with all his strength. And there in the recesses of a deep hollow lay a glittering heap o...
LEXICAL COHESION <ul><li>Reiteration </li></ul><ul><li>same word (repetition) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synonym or near-sy...
<ul><li>Synonyms  (same meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>thin/skinny hide/conceal </li></ul><ul><li>enough/s...
<ul><li>Semantic or lexical field: </li></ul><ul><li>hypernyms  (y) and  hyponyms (x is a kind of y) </li></ul><ul><li>   ...
<ul><li>General Noun : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>human people, person, man, woman, child, boy, girl </li></ul>...
<ul><li>-Didn't everyone make it clear they expected the minister to resign? </li></ul><ul><li>-They did.  But it seems to...
<ul><li>Can you tell me where to stay in Geneva? I've never been to the place. </li></ul><ul><li>  Henry seems convinced t...
<ul><li>COLLOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>heavy   traffic, but also, burden,  wear, defeat </li></ul><ul><li>auspicious occasi...
BIBLIOGRAPHY  <ul><li>Raphael Salkie, Text and Discourse Analysis, Routledge 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>MAK Halliday and Ruqai...
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Cohesion pai pp 2011

  1. 1. Jorge Suárez PAI 2011 COHESION <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking house buying a Anne is of. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anne is thinking of buying a house. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>It's practically impossible to restrain children when they get to grips with technology. Which is why the computer equipment used in schools has to be designed and built to a standard above and beyond the normal child. A standard that's set by Research Machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Which is why the computer equipment used in schools has to be designed and built to a standard above and beyond the normal child. It's practically impossible to restrain children when they get to grips with technology. A standard that's set by Research Machines. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It's stuffed with packs of condoms and AIDS advice literature. An AIDS victim like Sonia needs help, not discrimination. Jesuits in Britain are leading the call for St Aloysius to be officially designated as the patron saint for AIDS sufferers. Our Buddy service, which supports people living with AIDS, has trebled in size in three years. Meanwhile, Northern Ireland is beginning to confront AIDS. </li></ul>
  4. 4. REFERENCE <ul><li>a exophoric reference (outside the text) </li></ul><ul><li>-Oh, he's already been? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, he went about five minutes ago </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Look at that! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-What? Where? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Over there! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-¿Tiene fallado? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-No, tengo normal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>b endophoric reference (textual) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>anaphoric reference (backward pointing) : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>John went out into the playground. He stood under a tree to eat an apple. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Did the gardener water my hydrangeas? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- He said so. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>cataphoric reference (forward pointing): </li></ul><ul><li>This is how you get the best results. You let the berries dry in the sun... </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I would never have believed it. They've accepted the whole scheme. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>a Personal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>personal pronouns and possessive adjectives and pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>she, her, hers, her (all persons), it, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>b Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>selective nominal demonstratives: </li></ul><ul><li>this (near) that (far), these (near) those (far) </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrative adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>here (near) there (far), now (near), then (far) </li></ul><ul><li>definite article (determiner): </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>c Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adjectives and adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>better, more, fewer, less, further, </li></ul><ul><li>additional, same, equal, identical, </li></ul><ul><li> such, similar, other, different, else, identically, so, similarly, likewise, </li></ul><ul><li>differently, otherwise. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Wash and core six cooking apples. Put them into a fireproof dish. </li></ul><ul><li>Amanda's house is beautiful. She had it built three years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>John has moved to a new house. His partner must be delighted with it. </li></ul><ul><li>That new house is Sean's. I didn't know it was his. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Can you hand Mary a programme? Hers got lost. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>-There seems to have been a lot of carelessness. </li></ul><ul><li>-That/this is what I can't understand. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>She found herself in a long hall, which was lit up by lamps. There were doors all round the hall, but they were all locked. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald Middleton was a man of mildly depressive temperament. Such men are not at their best at breakfast. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>-When $1,000,000 is a minor matter, it must be really large scale crime that is in question. </li></ul><ul><li>-Bigger rackets go on. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Apparently Brown resigned. </li></ul><ul><li>-I wish he could have acted less rashly. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-He seemed most upset. </li></ul><ul><li>-I never knew he cared so. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SUBSTITUTION <ul><li>Nominal Substitution substitution of a nominal group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>'one' and related terms: one, ones, some, any, both, other thing </li></ul><ul><li>general noun: person, creature </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal substitution : do </li></ul><ul><li>Do operates in the place that is occupied by the lexical verb and its position is always final in the group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Clausal substitution so, not </li></ul><ul><li>The entire clause is presupposed. It has the same structural function as the clause it is substituting. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>I thought I'd finished with the toughest assignments. They didn't tell me about this one. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I'm fed up with this watch. The thing never works </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-I'll have two poached eggs on toast, please. </li></ul><ul><li>-I'll have the same. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>He never really succeeded in his ambitions. He might have done, one felt, had it not been for the restlessness of his nature. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>-Paula looks very happy. </li></ul><ul><li>-She seems happier now than she did last time we met. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Has everyone gone home? </li></ul><ul><li>-I hope not. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Is there going to be an earthquake? </li></ul><ul><li>-It says so. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>ELLIPSIS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Ellipsis within the nominal group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Ellipsis within the verbal group. May involve ellipsis external to the verb itself. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Clausal Ellipsis of the clause. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>-Which last longer, the curved rods or the straight rods? </li></ul><ul><li>-The straight are less likely to break. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Just ask Janet how to polish the brassware. Hers sparkles. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I've checked all the files. None was missing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Have another chocolate. </li></ul><ul><li>-No thanks, that was my third. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>-Have you been swimming? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, I have. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-What have you been doing? </li></ul><ul><li>-Swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Is John going to come? </li></ul><ul><li>-He might. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Did Jane know? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, she did. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>-Is she suing the doctor? </li></ul><ul><li>-She is the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Has she been crying? </li></ul><ul><li>-No, laughing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-What were they doing? </li></ul><ul><li>-Holding hands. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CONJUNCTION <ul><li>Additive and, and also, not, or, furthermore, in addition, besides, incidentally, that is, I mean, for instance, likewise, in the same way </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Adversative yet, though, only, but, however, nevertheless, in fact, actually, instead, rather, in any case, anyhow </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Causal so, then, therefore, consequently, because, for this reason, as a result, otherwise, in this respect </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal then, next, after that, after a time, next day, hours later, meanwhile until, secondly, finally, in conclusion, up to now, from now on </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>He heaved the rock aside with all his strength. And there in the recesses of a deep hollow lay a glittering heap of treasure. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>All the figures were correct; they've been checked. Yet the total came out wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I'd love to join you. But I don't know how to play. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It's the way I like to work. Otherwise there's a muddle. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>He heaved the rock aside with all his strength. And there in the recesses of a deep hollow lay a glittering heap of treasure. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>All the figures were correct; they've been checked. Yet the total came out wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I'd love to join you. But I don't know how to play. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It's the way I like to work. Otherwise there's a muddle. </li></ul>
  23. 23. LEXICAL COHESION <ul><li>Reiteration </li></ul><ul><li>same word (repetition) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synonym or near-synonym </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypernym of superordinate item/hyponym </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>general word </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Synonyms (same meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>thin/skinny hide/conceal </li></ul><ul><li>enough/sufficient perplexed/bewildered </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Antonyms (opposite meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>thin/fat sharp/blunt </li></ul><ul><li>clean/dirty wet/dry </li></ul><ul><li>happy/sad alive/dead </li></ul><ul><li>buy/sell black/white </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Semantic or lexical field: </li></ul><ul><li>hypernyms (y) and hyponyms (x is a kind of y) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>hypernyms fruit vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>hyponyms apples/grapes bicycle/cart </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>General Noun : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>human people, person, man, woman, child, boy, girl </li></ul><ul><li>non-human animate creature </li></ul><ul><li>inanimate concrete count thing, object </li></ul><ul><li>inanimate concrete mass stuff </li></ul><ul><li>inanimate abstract business, affair, matter </li></ul><ul><li>action move </li></ul><ul><li>place place </li></ul><ul><li>fact question, idea </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>-Didn't everyone make it clear they expected the minister to resign? </li></ul><ul><li>-They did. But it seems to have made no impression on the man. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-What shall I do with all this crockery? </li></ul><ul><li>-Leave the stuff there; someone'll come and put it away. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>We all kept quiet. That seemed the best move. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Can you tell me where to stay in Geneva? I've never been to the place. </li></ul><ul><li>  Henry seems convinced there's money in farming. I don't know what gave him the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos has bought himself a new Jaguar. He practically lives in the car. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Bette Midler treats Hollywood, and all that glitz, with extreme scepticism. 'There's this idea that Hollywood is a paradise on earth,' she explains. 'But it isn't true. ' </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>COLLOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>heavy traffic, but also, burden, wear, defeat </li></ul><ul><li>auspicious occasion, event </li></ul><ul><li>safely assume </li></ul><ul><li>high spirits </li></ul><ul><li>rancid butter and bacon (only) [milk and cream go sour] </li></ul>
  30. 30. BIBLIOGRAPHY  <ul><li>Raphael Salkie, Text and Discourse Analysis, Routledge 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>MAK Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan, Cohesion in English, Longman 1976 </li></ul>

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