Learning Event No 9, Session 2, From Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) 2011

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Rainwater management: Next Agricultural Revolution to Support climate change adaptation and livelihoods. By Tilahun Amede, Deborah Bossio, Bharat Sharma. Learning event number 9, Session , Room G. How can rainwater management help support food production and smallholder farmers’ ability to adapt to climate variability and change?

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Learning Event No 9, Session 2, From Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) 2011

  1. 1. Rainwater Management:Next Agricultural Revolution to Support Climate Change  Adaptation and Livelihoods Tilahun Amede, Deborah Bossio, Bharat Sharma
  2. 2. Challenge Program on Water and Food• Time‐bound program of “high impact research”• Use water as an entry point to address Rural  Livelihoods and agroecosystems;• Target complex issues of overwhelming global  and/or regional significance related to water, climate  and systems;• Closely work with partnerships among a wide range  of institutions;• Part of “CGIAR institutional reform”
  3. 3. Dependence on Rainwater for Livelihoods 3
  4. 4. CC IMPACTS: RAINFED AGRICULTUREDecreasing or variable water availabilityBiodiversity, crop variety, forage types;Changing Pests and DiseasesDeclining crop and Livestock yieldExtreme events, damage crops and infrastructure Complicate farm operations and services;Fluctuations in farmers’ incomeImpact on national economy, with 90% probability  4
  5. 5. Make Choices :  Scenarios to 2050, without CC Today Without productivity improvements CA Scenario Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade 5Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA
  6. 6. Convert unproductive water to productive use for CC adaptation High unproductive water losses = Low system productivity; Kuhar Michael - all cropland Lenche Dima - all cropland 1800 3000 1600 2500 1400flo w s p er HH (m 3) f lo w s p e r H H ( m 3 ) 1200 2000 1000 livestock livestock 1500 800 crops crops 600 1000 400 500 200 0 0 ev aporation trans piration perc olation e v a p o r a tio n tr a n s p ir a tio n p e r c o la tio n runoff r u n o ff deep deep 6
  7. 7. Collective action Capturing water  In landscapes  Managing landscapes yield more water Rainwater Management Systems  More Food /  More Income / Resilient Systems  Institutions! Institutions! Storing water Institutions!  Improved WP
  8. 8. Climate‐smart Rainwater management  systems (RWM)• Integrated strategy that enables actors to systematically  map, capture, store and efficiently use Green and Blue  water in a landscape for  productive and domestic  purposes and ecosystem services. • Decrease unproductive water losses;• Improve the water productivity (increase returns per unit  of water investment)• Capitalizes on harvesting principles, water productivity at  various scales; • Combining water management with land and vegetation  management.  8
  9. 9. Conservation structures to rehabilitate systems; trapping nutrients and water in Ethiopia
  10. 10. Rainwater harvesting along with high value crops, Kalu, Ethiopia 10
  11. 11. Investing in watershed management  Investing in IrrigationUpstream‐downstream linkages  (irrigation) 2.5 320 World Bank lending for irrigation 280 2.0 Irrigated Area 240 200 1.5 160 1.0 Food price index 120 80 0.5 40 0 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Dependency effect? 2005 11
  12. 12. Reduce water loss for climate change adaptation Average % loss Loss % loss/ Canal type N flow rate per (l/s/100m) 100m/30l/s (l/s) 100m* Main canal 121 43.21a 2.58a 6.46a 4.49b Secondary canal 57 33.03b 1.59b 4.40b 4.00b Field canal 49 2.88c 0.39c 2.49c 25.94a
  13. 13. Increased Storage Capacity for CC adaptation; even  without external support Comparision of Per capita Storage Capacity 7000 6150 Per Capita Storage (m^3) 6000 4729 5000 4000 3255 3000 2486 2000 1287 1406 746 1000 4 43 0 Kenya Ethiopia South Thailand Laos China Brazil Australia North Africa America Countries 13
  14. 14. Micro dose 8 7 6 0 0 0 F a rm C Tuber yield (t/ha) 5 0 4 0 3 0 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 2 1 Tuber yield (t/ha) 1 8 F a rm B 1 5 1 2 4 3 2Zai 1 8 0 0 7 0 Tuber yield (t/ha) 6 0 F a rm A 5 0 4 0 1 2 8 4 0 N N N N N N N N N 14 30 60 30 60 30 60 0 0 0 C o n tro l W ith o u t Z a i W ith Z a i
  15. 15. Improve Livestock Systems for CC adaptationImprove feed quality; reduce methane emissionsIntegrate livestock into the wider development agenda (e.g. irrigation; watershed management);Developing watering points in closer distances (> 35% milk yield);Limit conversion of range to annual croplands; Improve animal management (health, feed quality, productivity);Interventions to maximize transpiration at the expense of evaporation (feed);Market Incentives
  16. 16. Building Adaptive capacity on localexperiences .. • Building on byelaws/ religious  organizations/  Water User  Associations  • Facilitate information flow /  technologies using local channels • Local institutions for collective  action: Upstream‐downstream  • Commitment from local authorities  and policy makers • Home gardens; women 16
  17. 17. PES – Water and Carbon• Mountains are the water towers; degraded  and mis‐managed;• Landscape management key to C  sequestration• Challenges: – Funding and institutional modalities – Measuring, monitoring and reporting (time) – Incentives – Co‐benefits  Adapted from Tarawali, 2011
  18. 18. Key messages for CC adaptation:1. Investing in water storage at landscape and higher scales (reservoirs, strategic dams, ground water etc..);2. Policy geared towards climate‐sensitive systems  (Agriculture / wetlands / water towers) and vulnerable communities;3.Cross‐boundary hydrological planning /management; drought and flood monitoring and information system; coping strategies;4. Improving rainwater management systems, from capturing to efficient utilization and resilience;5.Responsive research system along with resources for 18 innovation;
  19. 19. Tilahun Amede CPWF Nile Basin Leader t.amede@cgiar.orgA CGIAR Challenge Programme Water for Food (CPWF) aims to increase water productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems Thank you !

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