Agriculture & nutrition semionar zambia march 2012_zari
Ministry of Agriculture and LivestockZambia Agriculture Research InstituteContribution to Nutrition Improvement By John C. Musanya Mt Makulu Central Research Station CHILANGA email@example.com www.zari.gov.zm
Zambia Agriculture Research Institute The Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI) is one of the departments of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. ZARI is an institution that focuses on public good agricultural research issues. It is the leading institution in the generation and transfer of improved and appropriate agricultural crop technologies. ZARI has a presence in nine provinces except Muchinga either in form of research stations or testing sites.
ZARI’s Technical Divisions SOILS AND WATER MANAGEMENT Appropriate Soil and Irrigation Technology Development CROP IMPROVEMENT AND AGRONOMY New improved crop Varieties and Agronomy Package Development. PLANT PROTECTION AND QUARANTINE Improvement of Crop Protection Technologies ,use of Agro Biotechnologies ,and Post Harvest Technologies Phytosanitary and Quarantine Services Provision FARMING SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Research/Extension/Farmer linkage promotion
Agro Ecological Regions Finger Millet Aroforestry RESEARCH STATIONS AND MAJOR PROGRAMMES Coffee Food Leg (Beans) Rice Soils FSRT SOI LS (S.V. ) 80 0 80 160 Kilo meters % Ms am fu N W E Man s a S % Root and Tubers FSRT FSRT SO ILS (S.V.) SOI LS (S.V.) KEY % Muf ulira Mut and a % Ro ads Rive rs SO ILS (S. V. ) Tree C rops kenaf Ms ek era FSRT % Agrof orest ry SO ILS (S. V. ) Food Legume Irrigation Maize FSRT Veget ables Pas tures SOI LS (S.V.) Tree C rops Ka bwe LEGEND % Go ld en Va lley % Reg ion s Simu lu mb e Cotton FPM Mt M ak u lu % Nan ga Re g io n I % Pearl Millets % Re g io n IIa Liv estock Mag oy e % Cashew Re g io n IIb FSRT Plant Prot ec tion KEY TO A BB REV IATIO SO ILS (S. V. ) Oil Seeds Re g io n III Moc h ip apa Wheat FP M = F A R M PO W ER AN D M A C % Researc h Management FS R T = F A R M I N G S YST E M S R E Adm inistration G .V= GO LD E N VA LLE Y Liv estock Central Serv ices N IR S = N A T I ON A L I R R IG AT IO N Sorghum Soils S. V. = S O IL S U R VE Y FSRT FSRT SO ILS (S. V. ) SOI LS (S.V.)S oi ls Re s e ar ch T e a m, M t M a ku lu ,ZA R I P ri va te B a g 7 , Ch i la n g a A ug u s t 2 00 6
Role of ZARI in the Zambia Agricultural Framework Development and promotion of appropriate agricultural crop technologies Diversification of agricultural crop production and utilization Promotion of sustainable and environmentally sound agricultural practices
Role of ZARI continues Strengthening the capacity of agencies handling agricultural products for export in ensuring that the products meet the standards and sanitary and phytosanitary requirements for export markets Strengthening and facilitating the provision of agricultural services
Role of ZARI continues Re-enforcing the sectors regulatory functions; this also include liaising or coordinating with the appropriate institutions or bodies responsible for the regulation of the use of biotechnology and the resulting products, particularly Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
ZARI Vision To be a centre of excellence providing scientific leadership in the generation and transfer of improved and appropriate technologies through partnerships involving stakeholders and beneficiaries.
ZARI Variety Development Crops research is the main focus and in Zambia it dates as far back as 1953 ZARI is among 3 public research institutions engaged in variety development Other institutions are CDT and UNZA
ZARI Variety DevelopmentVariety Development takes place in: maize, sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, rice, wheat, sunflower, cassava, sweetpotato, ground nuts, bean and soyabeanVariety selection takes place in: vegetables, cowpea, bambara ground nuts, pigeon pea, kenaf, and fruit & nut.
ZARI Variety Development Overall objective is to breed varieties with the following attributes for all categories of farmers: ◦ high yield ◦ stable ◦ adapted to target environments ◦ tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses ◦ desirable plant, fruit and grain quality and ◦ Postharvest food processing technologies and value addition
Factors influencing varietydevelopment beneficiaries (small scale farmers in this case) Preferred characteristics such as: earliness, drought tolerance, low nitrogen tolerance, soil acidity tolerance, bird resistance, disease resistance, good storability, flintiness, (taste), sweetness, bitterness, etc
There are approximately 900,000 farmfamilies in Zambia (a guide)CATEGORY TOOLS AREA % (ha)Small Hoe/Oxen <5 75Medium Oxen/Tractor 5 – 20 17Commercial Tractor > 20 8
Factors influencing varietydevelopment Conventional methods are being used to come up with varieties. In short there are no GMO varieties at ZARI. For cross pollinated crops like maize, when proper isolation distance is not observed, chances of stray pollen affecting other maize varieties is there and will be exhibited by colored grains within a cob.
Factors influencing varietydevelopment All factors being equal (maturity, genetic improvement) best performance of varieties is in order of single cross, three way cross, double cross, top cross and OPV. ◦ Cost of seed is in reverse order. ◦ Under adverse environmental conditions stability of varieties is also in reverse order due to variation among the plants.
Products of variety development OPVs: Mostly developed in self pollinated crops (finger millet, pearl millet, rice, wheat, ground nuts, beans, soyabean and cowpea). Also developed in maize, sunflower and sorghum Hybrids: mostly developed in cross pollinated crops (maize and sunflower). Also developed in
Collaboration with International Organizations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Int’ Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) International Sorghum and Millet Programme (INTSORMIL) The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Int’ Crops Research Inst for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Centre for International Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Network (TSBF) International Centre for Agroforestry Research (ICRAF) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), SADC (SPGRC), ICART International Information and Communication Development Centre (IICD) etc
Collaboration with InternationalOrganizations in NutritionThe Feed the Future Program was launchedon 13 June 2011 involving 2 SubProgrammes.Food Security Research ProgramAgriculture Research and Development.Nutrition is in Agriculture R and D SubProgram and will work through key ICGIARCentres (IITA, ICRISAT, CIMMYT, CIP) tobuild the capacity of Zambia’s NARI’s toraise farm productivity and promote adoption
Highlights, on ZARI’sResearch QPM – Obatampa (Lysine, Tryptophan) Sweetpotato – Chingovwa (High Beta Carotein) Vegetables – Beta Car, Vit A, Vit C ,other nutrients Wheat – Methionine, Cystein –Gluten Quality ProVitamin A Maize (Harvestplus) Bio-fortification in Beans increase
Nutrition Promotion Most ZARI Commodity research teams concentrate on breeding and agronomic practices. Released varieties for nutrition usage is done through collaboration but is mainly under Farming Systems and Social Sciences Successful projects have been undertaken that have taken up processing e.g. Food Legumes and
Conclusion ZARI has the capacity to contribute to Nutrition Improvement as the crops worked on are the ones consumed by the general population. ZARI has also within its establishment a division with qualified nutrition practitioners. ZARI collaborates with many institutions and there is room for many more.