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Contagious Outbreaks

The document discusses an outbreak of contagious disease among 744 Harvard students during the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak. Researchers monitored students who were randomly selected as well as their friend groups. They found that clinical diagnoses of the flu were acquired earlier in friend groups than randomly selected students, showing friend groups can help detect outbreaks earlier than whole network mapping.

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Contagious Outbreaks
The article for this critique is Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks. The individuals at the center of social networks
have an increased risk of infection during an outbreak. The mapping of a whole network to identify central individuals at the risk for exposure is
difficult. The researchers proposed an alternative to this would be the monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. The friend group
evaluation could aid in early detection. The researchers studied 744 Harvard College students during the 2009 H1N1 Flu Outbreak. These students were
either members of a group randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. The clinical diagnoses found in the friend group it was acquired the
virus ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The students were considered to have the flu if they had a fever of 100 F. As well the student needed to report two other symptoms such as sore
throat, chills, cough fatigue, stuffy or runny nose, and body aches. The researchers checked the sensitivity of their findings by the definition of the flu
the results were not impacted. From the biweekly self–reports other information obtained was from the University Health Services if the student was
vaccinated. The researcher's objectivities was to only measure the topological factors. The students whom were part of the friend group were proxies
for the subject's location within unobservable social network. The friends were the social marker for the student social network position and observation
of the path of infection were
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Apoc Outbreak
The Apoc Outbreak Lilly Millan brewed some coffee while listening to the news that blared from her television situated atop a wooden table in her
living room. She listened to the news religiously, for as far back as she could remember anyway. It didn't matter to her what form it came from; whether
it be a podcast, viral video, or radio. As long as she could stay on top of what was occurring in the world, she was happy. Recently though, she
discovered that the news had become nothing more than televised daily announcements of people dying. Hearing nothing but increasing death tolls on
television made her feel like the world was doomed to rot. The coffee machine began to beep, so she shut it off and grabbed a mug with the initials LM
engraved onto it from her sink. She carefully poured herself a cup, watching the earthy liquid fill the mug up to the brim. She then sat down in a chair
and listened to the news reporter's somber voice. "Specific areas in Russia are continuing an ongoing battle with each other. Sections in Eastern
European border walls are still under a great amount of stress due to the massive income of refugees who continue to pour in from the openly
sanctioned states. This problem has become so bad that some guard stations are now on full lockdown, refusing to give people entry. People of all ages
and occupations are being crammed into these gateways, creating a long waiting line. Outbreaks of the deadly Apoc Virus have been reported in
Washington and
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Current Outbreak Of Ebolavirus
On the 8th of August 2014 the World Health Organisation declared the current outbreak of Ebolavirus to be an international health emergency. This
epidemic is the largest ever seen of the disease, and is located in West Africa – particularly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. At present it has led to
over 5,000 deaths, with more than 14,000 people having been infected.
Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been portrayed by some as a major threat to health outside of West Africa, though this is disputed. There is currently no
fully tested prophylaxis nor treatment available, and the disease has a relatively high case fatality rate. The combination of these factors has resulted in
the disease being prominently discussed in the media around the world, and has generated a large amount of public interest. The question we are
addressing is what would possibly lead to an outbreak in Europe, and discussing the controls and surveillance presently employed.
Background of the virus
EVD is a disease predominantly affecting humans and other primates. It is caused by members of the Ebolavirus genus in the Filoviridae family, which
are single stranded RNA viruses. There are five species of Ebolavirus, with the current outbreak being caused by Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBV). The
different species vary in their fatality rates and geographical distributions (2).
The present outbreak began in a village called Guedecko (????) Guinea, with the disease quickly spreading to the capital, Conakry, as well
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Introduction Of A New Vaccine Essay
Introduction of a New Vaccine to an Existing Immunization Program
The introduction of new vaccines is usually planned at national level by the national immunization program managers. These managers are assisted by
medical consultants to make informed decisions on how they can add a new vaccine to an existing program. Such new vaccines are introduced to
strengthen the existing program while the program is used to accommodate more vaccine; thus, cost is reduced. Therefore, there is a need to have a
decision making procedure that will act as a technical tool for planning, implementing and monitoring the introduction of new vaccines.
The first procedure is to gather data on the different factors to be considered to make informed and justifiable decisions. These data include; the disease
outbreak, the affected group, and the death caused among others. The second step is to analyze each data to determine the ground on which the
introduction of the vaccine is justified. This step is useful as it shows the seriousness of the diseases and determines the urgency at which the vaccine
should be carried to contain the spread of the ailment.
Another step is to estimate the cost of the exercise where the manufacturer quotes the price and the shipping expenses in case the vaccine is imported.
Additionally, the cost of storage and transportation to the specific areas where the outbreak of the disease has occurred is calculated. Also, the cost of
hiring health care providers for introducing
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Determinants Of Pre Clerkship Medical Students
Determinants of Pre–clerkship Medical Students' Willingness to Work During Infectious Disease Outbreaks
Meghan M. Nahass1, Jaya Kanduri1, Parth Shukla1, Justin Oh1, Rima Patel1, Kapil Wattamwar1, Priya Patel1, Jennifer Yoon1, Clifton R. Lacy1
1Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Medicine
The authors have no conflicts of interest of sources of funding to disclose.
Corresponding author:
Clifton R. Lacy, M.D.
Director
Institute for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
106 Somerset Street – 3rd Floor
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Cell Phone: 732–977–7714
E–Mail: clifton.lacy@rutgers.edu
Word Count =
Key Words: disaster medicine, pre–Clerkship medical students, role adherence, willingness to work, infectious disease outbreaks
INTRODUCTION
Infectious disease outbreaks greatly impact the responsibilities of health care workers (HCWs) including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, physician
assistants and students of these disciplines. A study of the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic showed that HCWs were neither
aware of nor prepared for the infection, contributing to its quick spread through various HCWs, with resulting morbidity and mortality. During the
SARS outbreak, 21% of all cases worldwide were among HCWs (1). Following this, a number of studies were conducted to assess the degree of
preparedness of HCWs for potential infectious disease outbreaks.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Cholera Outbreak
In 1849 London experienced a major outbreak of cholera due to the polluted water, which claimed the lives of about 15,000 residents. William Farr
believed that cholera traveled through the air instead of the water. Also he conducted many analysis of several variables in relation to the outbreak and
their relationship to death from cholera. From these findings he developed detailed statistics from the environmental conditions that he observed from
the local bodies of water. Working with William Farr's findings, John Snow was a physician which came to the conclusion that there was a relationship
between the water sources and the cholera outbreak ("John Snow – The Father Of Epidemiology").
Due to the fact that Snow believed that contaminated water
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Contagious Outbreaks

  • 1. Contagious Outbreaks The article for this critique is Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks. The individuals at the center of social networks have an increased risk of infection during an outbreak. The mapping of a whole network to identify central individuals at the risk for exposure is difficult. The researchers proposed an alternative to this would be the monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. The friend group evaluation could aid in early detection. The researchers studied 744 Harvard College students during the 2009 H1N1 Flu Outbreak. These students were either members of a group randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. The clinical diagnoses found in the friend group it was acquired the virus ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The students were considered to have the flu if they had a fever of 100 F. As well the student needed to report two other symptoms such as sore throat, chills, cough fatigue, stuffy or runny nose, and body aches. The researchers checked the sensitivity of their findings by the definition of the flu the results were not impacted. From the biweekly self–reports other information obtained was from the University Health Services if the student was vaccinated. The researcher's objectivities was to only measure the topological factors. The students whom were part of the friend group were proxies for the subject's location within unobservable social network. The friends were the social marker for the student social network position and observation of the path of infection were ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. The Apoc Outbreak The Apoc Outbreak Lilly Millan brewed some coffee while listening to the news that blared from her television situated atop a wooden table in her living room. She listened to the news religiously, for as far back as she could remember anyway. It didn't matter to her what form it came from; whether it be a podcast, viral video, or radio. As long as she could stay on top of what was occurring in the world, she was happy. Recently though, she discovered that the news had become nothing more than televised daily announcements of people dying. Hearing nothing but increasing death tolls on television made her feel like the world was doomed to rot. The coffee machine began to beep, so she shut it off and grabbed a mug with the initials LM engraved onto it from her sink. She carefully poured herself a cup, watching the earthy liquid fill the mug up to the brim. She then sat down in a chair and listened to the news reporter's somber voice. "Specific areas in Russia are continuing an ongoing battle with each other. Sections in Eastern European border walls are still under a great amount of stress due to the massive income of refugees who continue to pour in from the openly sanctioned states. This problem has become so bad that some guard stations are now on full lockdown, refusing to give people entry. People of all ages and occupations are being crammed into these gateways, creating a long waiting line. Outbreaks of the deadly Apoc Virus have been reported in Washington and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. The Current Outbreak Of Ebolavirus On the 8th of August 2014 the World Health Organisation declared the current outbreak of Ebolavirus to be an international health emergency. This epidemic is the largest ever seen of the disease, and is located in West Africa – particularly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. At present it has led to over 5,000 deaths, with more than 14,000 people having been infected. Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been portrayed by some as a major threat to health outside of West Africa, though this is disputed. There is currently no fully tested prophylaxis nor treatment available, and the disease has a relatively high case fatality rate. The combination of these factors has resulted in the disease being prominently discussed in the media around the world, and has generated a large amount of public interest. The question we are addressing is what would possibly lead to an outbreak in Europe, and discussing the controls and surveillance presently employed. Background of the virus EVD is a disease predominantly affecting humans and other primates. It is caused by members of the Ebolavirus genus in the Filoviridae family, which are single stranded RNA viruses. There are five species of Ebolavirus, with the current outbreak being caused by Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBV). The different species vary in their fatality rates and geographical distributions (2). The present outbreak began in a village called Guedecko (????) Guinea, with the disease quickly spreading to the capital, Conakry, as well ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Introduction Of A New Vaccine Essay Introduction of a New Vaccine to an Existing Immunization Program The introduction of new vaccines is usually planned at national level by the national immunization program managers. These managers are assisted by medical consultants to make informed decisions on how they can add a new vaccine to an existing program. Such new vaccines are introduced to strengthen the existing program while the program is used to accommodate more vaccine; thus, cost is reduced. Therefore, there is a need to have a decision making procedure that will act as a technical tool for planning, implementing and monitoring the introduction of new vaccines. The first procedure is to gather data on the different factors to be considered to make informed and justifiable decisions. These data include; the disease outbreak, the affected group, and the death caused among others. The second step is to analyze each data to determine the ground on which the introduction of the vaccine is justified. This step is useful as it shows the seriousness of the diseases and determines the urgency at which the vaccine should be carried to contain the spread of the ailment. Another step is to estimate the cost of the exercise where the manufacturer quotes the price and the shipping expenses in case the vaccine is imported. Additionally, the cost of storage and transportation to the specific areas where the outbreak of the disease has occurred is calculated. Also, the cost of hiring health care providers for introducing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Determinants Of Pre Clerkship Medical Students Determinants of Pre–clerkship Medical Students' Willingness to Work During Infectious Disease Outbreaks Meghan M. Nahass1, Jaya Kanduri1, Parth Shukla1, Justin Oh1, Rima Patel1, Kapil Wattamwar1, Priya Patel1, Jennifer Yoon1, Clifton R. Lacy1 1Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Medicine The authors have no conflicts of interest of sources of funding to disclose. Corresponding author: Clifton R. Lacy, M.D. Director Institute for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 106 Somerset Street – 3rd Floor New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Cell Phone: 732–977–7714 E–Mail: clifton.lacy@rutgers.edu Word Count = Key Words: disaster medicine, pre–Clerkship medical students, role adherence, willingness to work, infectious disease outbreaks INTRODUCTION Infectious disease outbreaks greatly impact the responsibilities of health care workers (HCWs) including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, physician assistants and students of these disciplines. A study of the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic showed that HCWs were neither aware of nor prepared for the infection, contributing to its quick spread through various HCWs, with resulting morbidity and mortality. During the SARS outbreak, 21% of all cases worldwide were among HCWs (1). Following this, a number of studies were conducted to assess the degree of preparedness of HCWs for potential infectious disease outbreaks. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6. Cholera Outbreak In 1849 London experienced a major outbreak of cholera due to the polluted water, which claimed the lives of about 15,000 residents. William Farr believed that cholera traveled through the air instead of the water. Also he conducted many analysis of several variables in relation to the outbreak and their relationship to death from cholera. From these findings he developed detailed statistics from the environmental conditions that he observed from the local bodies of water. Working with William Farr's findings, John Snow was a physician which came to the conclusion that there was a relationship between the water sources and the cholera outbreak ("John Snow – The Father Of Epidemiology"). Due to the fact that Snow believed that contaminated water ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Ebola Outbreak The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) just got worse. In what the World Health Organization's top response official is calling a "game changer" event, one case has now been confirmed in Mbandaka–a city of 1.2 million people about 150 kilometers from the rural rainforest area where the other confirmed Ebola cases have been found. The country has been grappling with 44 reported cases, three of which have been confirmed. Another 20 of these cases have been categorized as probable, and 21 are suspected. At least 23 of these individuals have died, according to the latest WHO figures. The Geneva–based Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance, a public–private partnership that has purchased 300,000 doses of the experimental Ebola vaccine ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Luckily there are good transport and portable transfer tools to do that. It can be used for a couple of weeks at normal, refrigerated settings on the field– but that's a challenge, too, [because electricity can be unreliable]. Getting teams together who will ensure there is informed consent is a challenge as well. The vaccine only works against one of the most common strains of the Ebola virus–the one apparently circulating in the DRC. Is there concern about this strain mutating in a way that would render the vaccine unhelpful, and are there any genome–sequencing efforts ongoing in real time to track the viral changes? Right now people are trying to figure out what is going on there. I don't think any real–time genome sequencing is going on right now, and you have to understand this is one of the most isolated places on Earth–which means things have to be delivered by helicopter and boat. Are you preemptively sending vaccine doses to neighboring ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. Salmonella Outbreak https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science–public/wash–your–veggies According to science news, over the past week there was a salmonella outbreak that's stricken more than 165 consumers of Roma, Italian–style plum, and round red tomatoes. The poisonings occurred in 17 states, mostly out West. Certain tomatoes are at risk not all tomatoes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention they said, "cherry tomatoes, grape tomatoes, and tomatoes sold with the vines still attached to any source" appear safe. They are still questioning if had the tomatoes that sickened people in the outbreak been cleansed very well. According to them, the tomatoes that weren't cleansed thoroughly contained the bacteria that causes salmonella. Also according ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One strength that this article has is their expansion of information. In the began talking about how Roma, Italian–style plum, and round red tomatoes caused an outbreak. Then, the author expanded the information and talked about other foods that also caused the outbreak. The author said, "so they buy bags of cut lettuce and other greens that come to the grocery store prewashed. Labels on some bagged lettuce actually say that washing is superfluous.". In this text, the author not only talked about the tomatoes but then expanded about other foods that may carry the bacteria, It is known as a strength because it's a good thing to expand information it provides better knowledge. Another strength is that the author provided evidence that the claim is actually true. It's a strength because providing evidence for a claim is what makes a good article. The author provided evidence by stating, "Not all tomatoes seem to pose a risk, "Cherry tomatoes, grape tomatoes, and tomatoes sold with the vine still attached from any source" appear safe", according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". In this excerpt he included the evidence about his claim which is not all tomatoes seem to have a risk. One weakness of this article is that the author doesn't go into depth about the tomato outbreak. Instead, he moved onto another topic which is that fruits and veggies could spread the disease especially bagged cut lettuce. He could've went ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Outbreak of Ebola Ebola was first recognized in 1976 as the cause of outbreaks of disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then known as Zaire) and in Sudan. About three hundred people in each of the two nations were infected with the virus, resulting in a mortality rate of 88% in Zaire, and 53% in Sudan (Bulletin of the WHO 1978). The disease as it was discovered spread through direct contact of unmans to humans, and then thought, from non–human primates to humans. The epidemic was a result of unsafe and unsanitary hospital practices, and non–sterilized medical equipment. The disease was then contained, however sporadic outbreaks of the Zaire and Sudan Ebola subtypes have risen in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Uganda, and Sudan; one of the latest outbreaks was in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in September of 2007. Therefore we ask ourselves, why is it important to discuss the Ebola virus? The answer is simple; because we need to know how the disease infects humans, and how researchers and medical professionals can prevent the virus from entering the organism. It is important to know that humans are not the host organism, or Ebola's natural reservoir; humans simply become infected when they come in contact with the infected host, such as non–human primate, pigs, or even insects. In 2005, it was reported that fruit bats may serve as the natural reservoir of Ebola. Fruit bats live in regions of Africa that include areas where Ebola outbreaks have occurred and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. The Struggle Of Private Verses Public Security Epidemic and disease outbreak in Guatemala have not in the past caused an issue of displacement. The challenges that Guatemala faces with an outbreak would be more a factor of their healthcare and security systems that they have in place. Although Guatemala's focus has been on having individuals participate in their own healthcare, it is still lacking (Ruano et al 94). The struggle of private verses public security is also an issue when it would come into a crisis situation. Guatemala would rely on outside assistance from foreign countries in order to properly treat and secure their citizens. Guatemala would be left vulnerable to a major epidemic without help from outside sources, because of the lack of support of healthcare and security provided. In order to understand the issue of possible diseases and epidemic outbreaks in Guatemala, it is important to first look at the healthcare system in Guatemala. Guatemala is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of WHO, countries health policies should fall in line with the primary healthcare approach (PHC) (Ruano et al. 93). The PHC should address issues such as "sanitation, education, expanded level of coverage, and provide healthcare to the unreachable population" (Ruano et al. 93 –94). The goal of participating in the PHC is to increase the health system's responsiveness and provide a tool to help balance out the economic cost (Ruano et al. 94). The PHC overall aimed to have citizens participate in their own ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Food Born Illness Essay Working Through a Food–Borne Illness Alvine Discharge Diseases Alvine Discharge Diseases (1) What key activities and important facts tie each of the individual cases together? Some key facts that tie both cases together are that typhoid was spread by some form of contaminated food by a person (milk, food, water, seafood). In the case of Typhoid Mary, it was spread by her handling the food improperly. She was a carrier, and thus when she did not use good sanitary food preparation skills (like washing of hands), she passed the typhoid along to others. In the second case in Schenectady, New York, water did not seem to play a part in the spread of typhoid. So in both of these cases, the key fats that tie them together is the way ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They can also do swabbing of the utensils used to cook the food, kitchens, and food itself ETC. They should have taken these steps as well: determined if an outbreak had occurred, contacted key personnel, obtained clinical specimens and food testing, implemented control measures, define a case, described the outbreak by person, place, and time, epidemic curves, maps and pictures, frequency tables, developed, planned, and tested their hypothesis, analyzed their collected data, and reported their findings to proper authorities. Revisit and do follow up with all the people. (6) OF the three persons– Picket, Bennett, and Reinhardt– who was most likely to have been infected during the picnic outbreak? Who was most likely to have been infected before the picnic? Going by the facts for typhoid disease from Merck, stools are positive during the 3rd to 5th week, therefore Irene Picket and Kenneth Rinehart should have been infected before the picnic and Margaret Benet at the picnic. Her stools were positive after the 3rd to 5th week time period for the picnic. (7) Which laboratory tests might be administered nowadays that was not available in 1939? Now they can do bone marrow testing. Back then, but still in use is the Widal test, it can be done, and a combination of blood, urine, stool, and bone marrow. Now they use the typhidot test kit, it could have aided ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. The Spread Of Food-Borne Illnesses Globalization Written Assignment 4 There are many opinions and thoughts I have regarding the subject matter of this week's written assignment. I will attempt to demonstrate in a short, succinct way, the ideas that have been lurking in my mind regarding these topics. The paper will go through reducing flows of people and goods, options regarding the spread of global disease, the spread of food–borne illnesses, reducing the incidence of food–borne illnesses, and the broad topic of GMOs. First, I think the movement of people, food, and manufactured goods cannot effectively be reduced by making laws or restrictions on these items. It might work for a time, but it may have the negative side effect of economic distress and entrenched nationalism. Besides, in my opinion, this is not the best method of dealing with spreading of disease. The fact is, ever since ancient times, humans have been on the move, trading and unfortunately wiping out people or other creatures in the same breath, mostly through the spread of disease. Many early humans came into contact with the Neanderthals, which then caused the Neanderthals to die off. The reasons for this are still rather uncertain, but at the very least, humans seemed to have outcompeted the Neanderthals, for the most part, while still managing to spread a small amount of their genes into the human gene pool (Neanderthals: Facts About Our Extinct Human Relatives, 2016). The drive to explore, to know, to learn and a curious mind are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Chipotle 's First Food Safety Problem Essay Despite the many benefits of Chipotle's managing style, it was still unable to escape major issues concerning their food products. For a while it seemed that Chipotle had discovered a full proof concept; they could create delicious and healthy food without negative repercussions. The company's stock was doing amazing in the market and investors were ecstatic. However, at some point in time, all companies face some sort of crisis and Chipotle is not an exception. It is how Chipotle manages the crisis which determines if it will recover. In September 2015 Chipotle began to face a crisis that could have bankrupt the company and undo all the progress it had made. The company would face numerous public and regulatory backlash for food safety issues associated with its stores. Chipotle's first food safety problem occurred on September 11, 2015. The issue involved a salmonella outbreak associated with Chipotle restaurants in Minnesota. There were 45 cases that were determined to be caused from tomatoes served by the restaurants in the area. However, the cases were not that massive and the media did not blow the situation out of control. Therefore, Chipotle tried to handle the cases as an isolated issue and not let it become a public relations problem. However, Chipotle's worst nightmare became a reality just a month later when a worst health related issued occurred at some of its restaurants. The company has always tried to pride itself on providing a safe environment ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Cantaloupes Outbreak To refer to the outbreak that occurred in cantaloupes, this was characterized by the CDC and FDA as one of the largest outbreak of listeria in decades and the first listeria outbreak that was attributable to cantaloupe. According to a timeline posted by the CDC, they were notified by the Colorado department of Public Health and Environment on September 2, 2011 of seven people who had contracted listeria. The full investigation lasted until October 19, 2011, which marked the day that the FDA elaborated on its knowledge gained from the investigation that concluded that Jensen Farm Cantaloupes company was responsible for the outbreak. Their cantaloupes where found to be the source of the problem. There was a total of 147 total reported cases and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. The Importance Of Vaccination Vaccinations per year save three million lives worldwide, and it saves millions more from suffering lifelong disability and illness(WHO estimate,2009).Immunisation in Australia was traditionally the responsibility of the states and territories in line with the federal system.As the demand for immunisation increased, there was a disparity between states regarding funding of and access to vaccines this lead to the first immunisation strategy, the establishment of ACIR(Australian childhood immunisation register) in 1993 and introduction of Immunise Australia program(NIP– National immunisation program)in 1997. Identify common reasons for the success in management of an outbreak? Each of the State and territories have a Guideline which provides recommendations regarding best practice for managing outbreaks of communicable disease.(Queensland Health, 2017). The steps followed by the guideline include: – Determine if there has been an outbreak and refer to facility's outbreak plan and assemble an outbreak control team. – Investigate and respond by identifying and investigating contacts with reference to disease communicability and incubation;collect data on demographics, movement and clinical information; isolate, screen and manage cases and contacts as required; communicate with other units, health professionals and facilities; eliminate the source of infection; prevent further transmission and recurrence,check notification requirements – Communicate and report problems ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. The Outbreak Of Ebola The Outbreak of Ebola In March of 2014, the commonly known virus, previously referred to as hemorrhagic fever, now Ebola, had begun to take effect over Guinea in West Africa. The main outbreaks of this disease were centered in West Africa, but it also traveled to other places in the world, having less major effects. The Ebola disease comes in five different forms of viruses, four which can actually show symptoms in humans. Reston is the fifth strand of virus that can only be found in non–human primates such as monkeys, chimpanzees or gorillas. Researchers have no specific evidence on how this virus was contracted, but believe that bats are likely the host. Shortly after the outbreak of the disease in West Africa, cases were reported in Liberia, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Along with death, decrease among trade, closing of West African borders, and flight cancellations are all effects that have been noted because of the outbreak (Umeora et al.1). Since the peak in the Ebola crisis, Liberia has experienced an 8% decrease in construction and automotive firms, a 15% decrease in the food industry and a 30% decrease in restaurants. A total of 25 billion has been estimated that the virus has caused upon the economy (Chippaux 44). Overall, the vicious virus has had many negative effects on the world. Along with long lasting effects on the economy, the virus also leaves lasting effects in one's body if contracted. Many people survive the Ebola virus, but there are lasting effects that will never leave the host's body. With treatment for the disease beginning to become more effective, the amount of survivors are also increasing. Studies show that it can take nearly 9 months for a patient to recover fully, or as much as possible once contracted the disease. Long term effects include blurred vision, loss of hearing, joint pain, sleep difficulty, and even blindness (Umeora et al. 1). Although lingering effects of the disease can take place, one can recover almost fully if ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Salmonella Outbreak According to the new report released by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a salmonella outbreak happened in the US. The officials affirmed that people should not kiss or cuddle chicken since they risk getting salmonella infection. PEOPLE KISSED CHICKEN AND GOT SALMONELLA The report (http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/live–poultry–07–15/index.html) is far from being a fake, and there have been 181 cases of salmonella reported this year in the US, 33 of them being hospitalized. Fortunately, not deaths have been registered, until this moment. An investigation that involved people who reported problems was conducted. Patients were asked a large number of questions, including if they had contact with animals, as well as what they ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. The World Health Organization Response I. Attention Getter: Have you ever wondered what would life be like if there were no responses to disease outbreaks? Every day we are exposed to microorganisms that may or may not be fatal to our health. Imagine getting an Eagle Alert saying that there has been a recent outbreak of Ebola in the Hattiesburg area. What would you do? It is not up to use to handle the situation but it is up to the World Health Organization (WHO) to respond to a terrifying event such as that. II. Significance: WHO's are the people that we count on to keep the world a safer place from dangerous diseases. It shines a light on how effective the World Health Organization response is towards the outbreak of Ebola. III. Credibility: WHO.int gives credits to what their responses are and why it is important to the world. IV. Specific Purpose Statement and Central Idea: Although WHO's is an organization for controlling the outbreaks of virtuous diseases, many people may want to know what is going on within the worlds health organization. There are some agreements and disagreements to WHO's continuation of handling the situation. Today, I will inform my audience about why WHO's should or should not handle the Ebola situation. V. Preview: First I will discuss what is Ebola and the World Health Organization. I will then present to you the accomplishments and why they should be able to handle the situation. Lastly, I will talk about the failures towards the Ebola virus and they should not continue to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Ebola Outbreak Jacob Pierce BIM 1 Seigler October 23, 2014 Why Has Ebola Spread so Wide in Africa But Not the U.S.? This Ebola outbreak first began the jungles of West Africa and has spread throughout several countries in the area, but not the U.S. This is because of many factors, including traditional medical practices in Africa, lack of technology in many African areas, and access to advanced medical facilities in the U.S. The most significant of these is Africa's lack of highly technological medical care. The use of traditional medical practices is one important reason for Ebola's spread (Brooks). One method for treating illness is putting medicinal plant matter in a cut made in the patient (Kunii). Ancient medical practices like this do not involve the healer trying to protect themselves from being infected. This helps the virus transfer from person to person easily (Kunii). Africa's rural nature also contributes to Ebola's spread. Many people there live in the country, so they go out into the forests that contain the virus and get exposed to it (Sanchez). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... is the lack of good medical technology in most African areas. The country of Liberia, where the Ebola outbreak started, has less than one hospital bed for every thousand people in its population (Sharf). Most countries in West Africa are very poor. These nations cannot afford the amount of doctors and protective equipment needed to stop a virus. This lack of doctors means many people do not get treated in time (Linshi, 5 Reasons We May Never Know Ebola's True Impact. ). Poor countries also cannot afford to distribute safety equipment. This means there are fewer obstacles in place to halt the spread of Ebola (Linshi, Ebola Healthcare Workers Are Dying Faster Than Their Patients. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. Ebola Outbreak The Ebola outbreak that started in Guinea in March 2014 and that spread to Sierra Leone and Liberia later, is not the first Ebola outbreak in human history. In fact, 25 Ebola outbreaks were recorded since the virus was first discovered in 1976. But this year's outbreak has been the severest one because of its widely geographic spread[ http://time.com/47018/ebola–breaks–out–in–west–africa/] and the lack of health infrastructure in those three countries hardest hit. Although in February, the United States and 28 other countries announced the Global Health Security Agenda, one of whose goals was to prevent and reduce the likelihood of outbreaks, the US response in the early months was not enough given the size of the disaster.[ http://ic.galegroup.com.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/ic/ovic/NewsDetailsPage/NewsDetailsWindow? failOverType=&query=&prodId=OVIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display– query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=News&limiter=&u=psucic&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&sea ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Clinicians and hygienists are separated for portions of the program. Clinicians , including doctors, nurses and physicians' assistants ,are instructed on the assessment of Ebola disease, the treatment of Ebola patients, the discharge of recovered patients, and the management of bodies if patients unfortunately pass away; the hygienists learn how to appropriately clean the treatment unit. Both two groups of healthcare workers go through a five– day process of training. Day one is an overview class of the Ebola Virus Disease and infection prevention. From day two to four, healthcare workers practice the fragile but vital process of donning and doffing their PPE – Personal Protective Equipment. They are later separated into their respective clinician and hygienist groups; while the clinicians learn the methods of providing medical care for patients, hygienists learn how to spray down body bags and safely clean up bodily fluids. "Students are tested on the fifth day by going through a mock ETU. They go through the mock ETU as a team and don their PPE in buddy teams so they learn to check each other for exposed skin. Then they have five patient scenarios to go through in separate rooms, including patients who are combative and a patient who has passed away. From caring for the patient to properly disinfect the rooms, the teams are tested on their ability to safely handle various situations they may face in an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Mump Outbreaks Mump outbreaks can occur any time of year. A major factor contributing to outbreaks is being in a crowded environment, such as attending the same class, playing on the same sports team, or living or sleeping with a person who has mumps. Kissing or sharing utensils, cups, lipstick or cigarettes, might increase the spread of the virus. (CDC, 2016) There are many ways to prevent yourself from getting the mumps. The best way is having good hygiene. Wash your hands frequently, use hand sanitizer when you don't have soap and water available and try not to touch your face, eyes and nose. If you have to cough or sneeze, do so into a tissue or sleeve, try avoiding sneezing or coughing into your hands. Not sharing drinks or food, not touching contaminated ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. The Outbreak Of Salmonella Heidelberg (a) In 2011 there was a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg infections. There were a total of 190 affected individuals from 6 states [New York (109), New Jersey (62), Pennsylvania (10), Maryland (6), Ohio (2), and Minnesota (1)]. Research showed a correlation between the outbreak and a contaminated kosher chicken liver product labeled as "kosher broiled chicken livers" from Schreiber Processing Corporation. This product is one that not ready–to–eat requiring cooking before eating. According to investigations put forth by the CDC and FDA, consumers incorrectly assumed the word "broiled" on the label meant the chicken liver was ready–to–eat. Additionally, laboratory testing conducted by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets Laboratory Division identified the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg in samples of the above–mentioned product. Once the specific bacterium was directly isolated and found to be present in the suspected food item, a recall of the chicken livers was implemented. This outbreak showed how important certain methods of prevention from foodborne illnesses are. There are a few ways in which this outbreak could have been prevented. For example, appropriate cooking temperatures, especially when cooking chicken liver is fundamental. Specifically, the internal temperature of chicken liver needs to be 165 degrees F. Therefore, if the livers were being cooked properly, then many of the ill individuals could have been ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. The Ebola Outbreak How do you give a voice to those who are voiceless? Without journalism, many people would be blind, from luxury, pain, and love. It is journalism that unites the world. Over the past decade, technology has revolutionized what was once all on paper, changing the way journalism is published, and consumed. While social media's presence in the industry grows every year, it is Adrienne Arsenault and her magnanimous coverage of the Ebola Outbreak, that keeps broadcast journalism alive and that impacted my desire to study it. With unconcealed imagery, she tells us about newly orphaned girl named Esther, who awakens from her coma Ebola–free, but without her parents. She mused about her time with the little girl, and the acts of kindness healthcare ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. Salmonella Outbreak Introduction. Background This essay follows on to the findings from the report into the outbreak of a gastro–intestinal illness among attendants of the Street Spice Festival that took place between 28 February and 2 March 2013 in Newcastle. Due to the nature and scale of the outbreak, a multi agency coordination team swung in place to oversee the entire operation. Like any food poising on a large scale, public health agencies take control of such incidences as public health is paramount and as well to limit the spread of the epidemic. The mechanics of the food preparations and the additives were called into question that led to the involvement of the Food Standards Agency and together with the local team from the Environmental Health. Since ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For an individual to succumb to salmonella, an infectious does 500,000 organisms is enough to cause illness. Salmonella if found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and birds., with the typhoid one only residing in the in human gut. Prevalence: The organism was responsible for 30% of food borne outbreaks in UK in 2009. Salmonella is known to survive well in foods and on surfaces and survives well under a minimum of 7⁰C. Salmonella is capable of survival under refrigeration for long periods. Poultry and its products has traditionally been the route of salmonella infection in humans in the UK. Outbreaks of salmonella of 60% to 80% are usually termed as sporadic cases; this could be down to the fact that domestic animals widely carry salmonella bacteria. Food animal such as poultry, pigs, cattle but also pets like cats and dogs carry salmonella. The entire food chain can be infected through animal feed and up to final food outlets (WHO). However, outbreaks are very often caused by contaminated food. Ready to eat products are increasingly becoming sources of salmonella infection just as we witnessed at the Street Spice Carnival. Heating thoroughly food would help hold back salmonella ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Kelley Outbreak The Kelly outbreak is a famous phenomenon in Australia's colonial history. Whilst some people prefer to see the outbreak as a simple criminal incident between an outlaw and the police, most historians view it as a broader sociological phenomenon, involving conflict between a larger rural community and the colonial authorities. An important issue for historians has been to understand the underlying causes of this criminal outbreak, whether it was mainly due to personal, ethnic or socio–economic factors. This essay will critically examine each of these explanations and argue that the actions of the Kellys and their supporters, and the reactions of the police can best be understood in terms of broad socio–economic developments in rural ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These changes, he argues, could not fail to produce 'profound results', one of which was an outbreak of social banditry 13 . Evidence from the period strongly supports such a view. The region was first occupied by squatters during the late 1830s and 1840s, and was largely settled by 1847. By 1850, several villages were established, there were good seasons and high wool prices .... 14 Between 1860 and 1880 several land reform laws were introduced, intended to halt the monopoly of the squatters by creating a new rural class from the diggers – now experiencing diminishing returns on the goldfields. These laws made available small freeholds of pastoral land for 'selection' by any man or (single) woman over the age of eighteen.... 15 This effort to make land available to the new rural classes proved a failure however. The government's and the selectors' knowledge of agriculture, shaped by the European experience, proved largely to be inapplicable to Australia .. 16 In addition, selection was opposed and obstructed by the squatters who used their superior knowledge of land conditions, political and financial influence, and evasion of certain regulations of the Land Acts to amass large holdings of premium land, leaving poorer land to selectors. ... 17 This situation caused hardship and poverty among selectors, and stock theft became an increasing problem as the selectors sought to supplement meagre food supplies and income with stock stolen ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Ebola Outbreak The Ebola outbreak in West Africa was stated as the world's deadliest outbreak to date and the World Health Organisation had declared an international health emergency because fatalities were more than 3850 (BBC,2016). The possibility of the disease spreading rapidly to other countries gives it a global dimension. This paper takes an approach to explain the source and the transmission of the condition. Further, the paper discusses why the condition has not yet got a vaccine compared to "Spanish" Influenza Pandemic another deadly outbreak in 1918–1919 with similar medical circumstances (Taubenberger and Morens, 2006). The paper would be restricted to the socio–political aspects while making a comparison and would try to exploit the context ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When the illness emerged, several vaccines had already been developed: smallpox, typhoid fever, rabies etc. The epidemic claimed more than 70 million lives and was regarded as the last and the worst recorded influenza epidemic in the world before Ebola (THE BALTIMORE SUN, 2014). One can see staunch similarity between the two epidemics especially in the initial phase. However, prevention and public health management approach differs on account of the economic conditions of country of origin. The initial stages of the both the epidemics saw chaos in the medical community. However, the "Spanish" Influenza witnessed a range of non–pharmaceutical public health measures interventions in the U.S. in 1918, including closure of schools and churches, banning of mass gatherings, mandated mask wearing, case isolation, and disinfection/hygiene measures. Strong penalties were implicated on the medical practitioners and citizens for not reporting the cases and not following hygiene guidelines respectively. The influenza was airborne and the transmission of the virus could have occurred even before the signs were diagnosed. This factor and the potential of the epidemic spreading rapidly, accelerated the process of vaccine development. Another important factor to be considered is the market for the vaccine, the influenza was airborne and had the capability to spread rapidly, making it deadlier and lethal. The major affected areas were wealthier countries which had capability to afford the vaccination. This propelled the pharmaceutical companies to mass produce the vaccine and dissipate it to the effected people (Kong,Wing–pui, et al., 2006). As opposed to Influenza, Ebola was not airborne and transmitted through direct contact with patients' body secretions including saliva, blood and semen (Vidal,2015). Although lethal, however the spread of the epidemic to the wealthier countries could be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Ebola Outbreak Ebola is a fever–bound viral disease which belongs to the Filoviridae family and is extremely fatal. When it first appeared in 1976, it claimed 90% of its recipients. Ebola originated from Nzara, Sudan and Yambuku of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Its name originates from the Ebola River where it was first contracted in Yambuku. Since its initial outbreak and more recent understanding of the disease, medical amends have reduced the mortality rate greatly but it still spans from about 25% to 90% nonetheless. Before its outbreak in the United States in 2014, there were roughly 2300 cases with over 1500 deaths. In 2014, the US had its first outbreak of Ebola with 11 total cases documented where there were 2 deaths. Symptoms include fever, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. Measles Outbreak My current health issue in an underdeveloped country is the recent measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This country is prone to many disease epidemics, as a result of frequent wars, which have resulted in poor health infrastructure and government services. Many people are not able to get access to or afford the proper medical care that they need, and this can contribute to the spreading of the disease. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, measles is often a life–threatening issue, along with occurrences of malaria and cholera. Many additional factors have also led to the large number of people infected, such as shortages of medicine and trained medical staff, the delay in medical relief due to the failure of authorities ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Children, especially those under the age of five, are at a high risk of contracting the disease, and dying from it. The problem of malnutrition, combined with disease, also increases the death rate. As of November 20, 2015, there have been official reports of 39,619 people infected and 474 deaths. Around 77% of the cases have been children five years old and under, and a large majority of the deaths have been from this age group, as well. The current measles epidemic began in early 2015, and has gone through the end of the year. By late December, the number of new cases was declining and the situation seems to be improving. The government does not appear to have done much to solve the issue, but there are several organizations in the area that are involved in the crisis. They have been working to vaccinate children and treat those who have been infected. Many people and institutions around the world have also donated money in response to the situation. This event is taking place in the former Katanga province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is a mining region the size of Spain in the southeastern part of the country. It is poor and underdeveloped, with frequent conflicts and clashes between different militant groups. Additionally, Katanga experienced another large measles epidemic in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Ebola Virus Outbreak For over half a century the United States' largest threat was a catastrophic war, but now everything is changing. According to highly renowned scientists from the Future of Life Institute, humans will be eradicated in less than a hundred years due to a combination of climate change, artificial intelligent weapons, nuclear war, and more specifically, unstoppable viruses. In other words, scientists like Stephen Hawking believe that one of the country's, even the world's, most pressing matters is not a terrorist or a war, but a highly infectious virus outbreak. Since a potential virus epidemic is the country's future leading hazard, it begs the question, is the United States prepared to prevent a lethal outbreak? Currently in the United States, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In 2014 when Ebola caused mass hysteria among people, members like James G. Hodge Jr. from the Public Law Conference explained what polices are currently in place if a disease to become a pandemic. Currently in the United States, there are two policies that are specifically in place if a virus happened to spread and kill uncontrollably. The first law is a product of the U.S Supreme Court case, Jacobson v. Massachusetts. This precedent case entails that vaccines are mandatory for a child who wishes to be enrolled in school and it also gives any member of the police force the right to quarantine an infected person in order to protect the illness to spread to the healthy public. Police are even allowed to isolate a person for over seven days, which is the amount of time that it usually takes for an illness take its full form (Hodge). On the other hand, second law comes from another Supreme Court case, Mayhew v. Hickox. In contrast to the previous law, this policy states, "The court found that some quarantines as established were "unreasonable, unjust, and oppressive." (Hodge). For example, a concerned citizen demanded to quarantine a nurse that helped treat of three Americans that were infected by Ebola. The citizen had a right to be concerned, but the request was swiftly denied because the woman showed no signs of the virus and it had been over a month since she was in contact with the particular infected patient (Hodge). There maybe a few flaws with the legal side of a potential virus outbreak, but unlike virus prevention plans, the laws that are currently in place actually displays that America is prepared for a viral outbreak in legal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Prevention Of Measles Outbreak I. Public Health Problem There is persistent problem of measles outbreaks occurring in the U.S. Although some numbers of outbreaks may seam low, each outbreak of measles can infect several people because it is such an infectious disease. Some symptoms are visible approximately 10–12 days after infection (WHO, 2015). The symptoms range from fevers, dehydration, diarrhea, and rashes or even on rare occasions in the U.S., death (Watkins, 2014). Measles rarely kills in the U.S., but it has done so in 2003 and in one case in 2015 (CDC, 2015). In 2011, 17 measles breakouts and 222 measles cases occurred across 31 U.S. states and the main problem that stemmed from all of these is from either unvaccinated people got infected or from people who did ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The three main factors for prevention are education, awareness, and action in that order. Education is required to understand facts about the disease and vaccines for it via research. Awareness is obtained only once education is understood because there are a lot of negative and essentially negatively false things said about vaccines that are not scientifically proven. For example with the misconception that vaccines can cause autism is spread around by social media self proclaimed people who say they understand it completely based off of already debunked scientifically fabricated data. If there is a proper awareness raised by healthcare officials and properly reliable and credited organizations then vaccines can obtain a more positive image and people will be more inclined to obtain said vaccines. And lastly once the other two are completed action is now required by the individual to either take the vaccine, prepare for a breakout or do both. The two factors in regards to when an outbreak occurs is control the spread of it and to treat it. The 7 steps listed in the Indiana case are a good example of these factors in action. To control it is to limit the geographical area to which the disease can spread and to eventually minimize that spread to nothing. At the same time while controlling it, it is required to treat it or at least its symptoms until it wares off. The correct and careful execution of the steps is key to controlling an outbreak of measles disease. Healthcare providers are always a strong influence on a person's vaccination checkups and education on any matter related to health. They are on the frontlines of battling disease on a daily basis and are key to measles out breaks prevention and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Ebola Outbreak Essay Fight, and we will Win! The 2014 epidemic acknowledged as the "Ebola Outbreak", is the leading, most widespread, disease recorded in history. Ebola is a virulent, lethal disease, evident by fever, and severe internal bleeding. It is spread through the contact of infected body fluid. Symptoms include fever, body weakness, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat. Ebola fever has been recently discovered wiping out large populations in multiple countries all throughout West Africa. On September 30, 2014, CDC confirmed the first travel–associated case of Ebola in the United States. Because of the uncontrolled outbreak, the CDC and partners were taking precautions to stagnate the spread of the Ebola virus throughout the United States. Cases have ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The first Ebola patient to be diagnosed with the deadly disease was recorded to be in Dallas Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Thomas Eric Duncan, the man who traveled from Liberia to the United States to seek treatment for the Ebola disease, died at the Dallas Hospital 10 days after he was admitted. This man is primarily responsible for spreading the disease into the United States. The day after Duncan's death, government officials declared innovative screening devices detecting Ebola in the 5 busiest Airports in America. This precaution was taken in order to stop infected travelers from spreading the disease to others around the globe. The Ebola epidemic is one of the worst epidemics in history. It is starting to expand more and more throughout the United States. Ebola can take up to 21 days to appear. CNN has reported that 5 Dallas school children have allegedly came in contact with Duncan, and were on the school's district homebound program during the 21–day wait. To this day, no child has shown any symptoms, but we have to ask, how long will it be until they do? Even nurses treating the rare disease were exposed to the virus and have become affected. Ebola is the new contagion of our time, so hopefully it doesn't inflict too much ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Identifying The Structural Violence And The National... Another governance framework in the literature is the concept of security (Kamradt–Scott 2015, Kassalow 2001, Kemp et. al 2006, Kirton et al 2014, Mustapha & Bangura 2016, Ostergard 2002, Roderick 2006, Smith et al 2003, and Sy & Copley 2014). This can be broken down into two subsets: first, that disease outbreaks can be national security problems, destabilizing economies and regimes, and even threatening international peace. Second, that building and strengthening the institutions to provide health (as well as other services like education, or food) will bring human security, which is freedom from conflict. Mustapha & Bangura (2016), Menon–Johansson (2005), and Wilkinson & Leach (2014) describe the structural violence, as decisions made, by the state, over a long period of time that have led to inequalities in the health systems and can lead to human insecurity. However, human insecurity and lack of these key resources can lead to destabilization of the state (conflict). At the advent of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, many experts asked why these nations were unable to identify and contain the spread of the disease early on and why was the international community slow to respond. It is my view that any developing country (especially fragile, post conflict states) would have struggled with an epidemic of this nature, not just Sierra Leone and Liberia. However, as many fragile states have under–developed health systems, the real questions are: "why are the health systems ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Is The Best Method Of Dealing With Spreading Of Disease? There are many opinions and thoughts I have regarding the subject matter of this week's written assignment. I will attempt to demonstrate in a short, succinct way, the ideas that have been lurking in my mind regarding these topics. The paper will go through reducing flows of people and goods, options regarding the spread of global disease, the spread of food–borne illnesses, reducing the incidence of food–borne illnesses, and the broad topic of GMOs. First, I think the movement of people, food, and manufactured goods cannot effectively be reduced by making laws or restrictions on these items. It might work for a time, but it may have the negative side effect of economic distress and entrenched nationalism. Besides, in my opinion, this is not the best method of dealing with spreading of disease. The fact is, ever since ancient times, humans have been on the move, trading and unfortunately wiping out people or other creatures in the same breath, mostly through the spread of disease. Many early humans came into contact with the Neanderthals, which then caused the Neanderthals to die off. The reasons for this are still rather uncertain, but at the very least, humans seemed to have outcompeted the Neanderthals, for the most part, while still managing to spread a small amount of their genes into the human gene pool (Neanderthals: Facts About Our Extinct Human Relatives, 2016). The drive to explore, to know, to learn and a curious mind are unstoppable for humans. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. The Outbreak Choose your own adventure series is not only made for fiction books, it is also being made for short films. Filmmakers are taking advantage of interactivity to allow their audience to steer the film's narrative however they desire, with limited choices of course. Just like those fiction books, the film has many different pathways for audience to choose from, each with its own consequences and endings. An example of one short film that takes full advantage of the "Choose your own adventure" technique is The Outbreak, Produced by SilkTricky Productions in 2010. The Outbreak is a short film that utilises the "choose your own adventure technique to immerse the audience in its story, and to give total control to viewers to take charge in the film. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. The Outbreak Of The War The outbreak of the war prompted the formation of numerous women's voluntary organizations, and a number of women worked to extend women's role. In 1942 defense ministers and others finally considered to form WAAC to substitute men in the army. The bill took a year to pass. The WAAC only lasted until 1943 because of the newly founded group WAC. The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps benefited women's rights, how women got to be accepted in society , and most importantly what the women did to help make the country stronger. Thanks to the honorable Edith Nourse Rogers a congress women from Massachusetts introduced the first bill to establish a women 's auxiliary in May of 1941. This bill didn't get passed by congress until May of 1942. They ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They also made mutton broth, beef tea, potato pie, and duff pudding. They even served foods that are familiar to us today like stew and even curry. The food that women cooked for men on the front line was often better quality than the food that men ate back home. Men at war consumed 4,600 calories a day. The women cookings in the canteens were told to make the food feed as many men as possible. They had tricks to make the food more bulk so the men would be more full from smaller portions. Women would dip bacon and other meats into oatmeal or flour to make it thicker and used other techniques such as putting old bread into water and baking the bread again in the oven for an hour. Many women were asked to undertake office jobs. Women received 24 shillings for unskilled work but up to 48 shillings for jobs which required specific skills like shorthand or typing. One of the many jobs that had been an unthinkable idea prior to the outbreak of the war was women working on cars. By 1916 women had been given the task of repairing motor vehicles which had been broken down. Later they started to work with mechanics to identify what problem it had. They built rifles,bombs,ammunition and much more equipment needed. The WAAC opened up doors to jobs that the women wouldn 't usually have. They soon let African American women work in the factories and science labs as well. This gave the women more confidence in and outside of the work place. Women became ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. The Foreclosure Outbreak Introduction Foreclosure has become an outbreak affecting an entire nation. Realtytrac just reported in the month of April 2011 that one in every 593 housing units received a foreclosure filing. (N1) That statistic is for just one month! Some states such as Arizona, California, Florida, Michigan and Nevada continue to be plagued with an influx of homes falling victim to foreclosure or some other form of default. Each home that is a casualty to a foreclosure, short sale or even bankruptcy is secured as collateral for the lender holding the promissory note. The consequences tend to come at a cost for the lender selling the property but a deal for the buying investor. The costs incurred and the losses experienced by the affected ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Treasury Index, the Cost–of–Funds Index (COFI) or the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus a margin. The promissory note will state the caps or maximum/minimum amount the rate can adjust during the adjustment period and over the life of the loan. This can ultimately increase the interest rate resulting in an increase in monthly payment. As a result, the borrower experiences payment shock and cannot afford to make the required payment. b) Balloon Mortgage: This loan is not fully amortizing. Instead the entire loan balance is due on the maturity date. An example of a balloon mortgage occurs when the payment is amortized over a 30 year period, but balloons in 10 years making the remaining unpaid principal balance due in 10 years. At the end of the balloon period, the borrower must find alternative financing to refinance the remaining balance. The terms of the refinance could potentially be less favorable or even worse; the borrower cannot obtain new financing. c) Interest–Only Mortgage: The required loan payment just covers the interest that is owed; therefore, the payments are not reducing the principal balance of the mortgage loan. This mortgage product is ideal for the short–term investor. Unfortunately, this type of loan was used to qualify individuals for homes that they otherwise may not have qualified for based on a traditional mortgage product such as a 30 year fixed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Salmonella Outbreak Essay For the module 1 SLP, we're going to take a brief look at Salmonella and some of the factors that play a role in a foodborne outbreak. We'll look at etiologic agent, host factors, and environmental factors as well as host factors and how they can play a role in the occurrence. First and foremost, we need to see what salmonella is and then we can break it down when we look at the other factors. Salmonella is a bacterial disease that occurs in the intestines, the signs and symptoms can be; fever, or other illnesses such as diarrhea and abdominal cramps. People typically get salmonella from contaminated foods, which seems to occur frequently from poultry and eggs (Nordqvist, 2016). This is just a basic look at salmonella though, next we need to look at the epidemiologic triad (host, agent, and environment) and see how each plays a role in a salmonella outbreak. First the etiologic agent of salmonella; Salmonella gastroenteritis is the infectious agent that causes salmonella. It is transmitted through vehicle transmission, meaning it travels from place to place on something (contaminated meat for example). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... What if it were a host that had salmonella from the beginning? If a patient presents with all the signs and symptoms, but it isn't due to food handling then you'd have to assume that there is an outside factor. According to the Mayo Clinic article on salmonella there are a few factors where a host can increase their chance of getting salmonella. These factors include; international travel, specifically to countries with poor sanitation, owning a bird or reptile that is infected with the bacteria and handling that animal routinely increases your change for exposure. Additionally use of antacids and antibiotics can create a perfect environment for the bacteria to grow in your intestines (Mayo Clinic, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. The Outbreak Of Measles Outbreak In December of 2014, an outbreak of measles, which started in Disneyland, resulted in nearly two hundred people being sickened across the United States, Mexico, and Canada. The highly contagious respiratory disease spread for three months. Among those who contracted the illness, one developed severe pneumonia and multiple organ injury, while another suffered acute respiratory distress syndrome. So, why did an illness, which was purportedly eliminated sixteen years ago, experience a surge so dramatic that it caused more cases in 2014 than in the five preceding years combined? According to the CDC, the outbreak could be boiled down to one simple reason: "The majority of people were unvaccinated." So while the California measles outbreak is a thing of the past, the fight to increase compliance with vaccinations continues. Although the benefits and safety of vaccinations are undisputed by the medical and scientific community, there are still sizeable groups of "anti–vaxxers" who refuse to vaccinate their children. These groups spread misconceptions, sometimes unknowingly, and become even more influential when coupled with the power of the internet and social media. Therefore, in order to increase compliance with routine vaccinations, the misconceptions of parents should be targeted, and legislation should be changed in order to prevent leniency and loopholes regarding vaccine exemptions. Although it may be hard to imagine in a day and age where typing 'vaccines' in the Google ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. The Outbreak Of The Measles An outbreak of the measles in the United States has sparked controversy in the autism world today. Contrary to previous theories, the measles vaccination is not a leading component to the cause of this disease. One in sixty–eight children in the United States are entering this world with Autistic Spectrum Disorder today, a thirty percent increase from the one in eighty eight percent two years ago. This disease is unquestionably one of the worst and most confusing disabilities out there. So, despite all of the exquisitely diverse theories, even to this day we have not fully revealed the precise cause of autism. (Autism Spectrum) Eugen Blueler, a psychiatrist, was the first to introduce the name "Autism" but he diagnosed this disease to a schizophrenic adult. Leo Kanner distinguished the two later in order to clarify the understanding of the disability. (Forty–six) Autistic Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a brain disorder that mutates the ability to produce healthy and energetic brain cells. This is sometimes referred to as mitochondrial disfunction in autism and causes an autistic child to excel in cognitive tactics but to struggle with the simple skills of communication. This fact is easily proven because in most cases, and autistic child is also an extremely genius human being. Autistic children don 't like to be touched, loud noises, or changes in their daily routine. (Autism–Topic) They also have trouble making eye contact, forming relationships, answering to their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...