Correlation VS Causation

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Simple teaching tool for explaining the difference between correlation and causation

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  • Great info on Correlation VS Causation.

    Roy Jan
    http://be.freepolyphonicringtones.org/ http://dk.freepolyphonicringtones.org/
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    Teisha
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Correlation VS Causation

  1. 1. Correlation Research: A Brief Introduction Colleen Carmean
  2. 2. Definition of Correlation <ul><li>correlation (or co-relation) refers to the departure of two variables from independence. (Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>What goes with, is associated with, or connects to what? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples? <ul><li>Is there a relationship between amount of time spent on homework and grades? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the association between junk food sold in cafeterias and obesity in high school students in Arizona? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What words suggest correlation? <ul><li>What is the relationship… </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an association between… </li></ul><ul><li>Can we determine a predictive ability of… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Does this mean one of the variables is causing the other? <ul><li>Does junk food cause obesity in high school students? </li></ul><ul><li>Does amount of time doing homework create good grades? </li></ul>
  6. 6. NO!
  7. 7. Researchers don’t jump to conclusions.
  8. 8. Well, sometimes we do…but we try not to. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causation? <ul><li>We used to believe that ulcers were caused by stress and spicy food. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causation <ul><li>There was a correlation between the independent variables (stress/spicy food) , and the dependent variable (ulcers) but the independent variables were NOT the cause. </li></ul><ul><li>We now know that ulcers are caused by a corkscrew-shaped bacterium Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Correlation <ul><li>Natural stomach acids and spicy food may have irritated the already damaged stomach and small intestine, but they never caused the ulcers. </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on ulcers, see http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00242.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causation <ul><li>Correlation studies help us determine the existence of a relationship between variables. </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship can help us design more precise, experimental studies to better understand our environment and causation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interested in learning more? <ul><li>Visit Wikipedia: Correlation Implies Causation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thank You! [email_address]

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