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Improving Your Library's Mobile Services


Published on

ALA TechSource Workshop on Sep. 12, 2013.

Also See Library Technology Report Issue "The Library Mobile Experience: Practices and User Expectations."

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Improving Your Library's Mobile Services

  1. 1. Sep. 12, 2013 ALATechSource Workshop Bohyun Kim DigitalAccess Librarian, Florida International University Medical Library
  2. 2. 1. The significance of the mobile web 2. Mobile consumer behavior 3. Developments in libraries’ mobile websites 4. ResponsiveWeb Design 5. Building and growing your library’s mobile presence 6. Ask questions on the chat window or on Twitter (@bohyunkim / #libmobile).
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  5. 5. Image from Flickr:
  6. 6.  Leaving a voice mail instead of texting is impolite because it wastes the receiver’s time.  Asking people something that is easily discoverable on the Internet is equally rude because the communication is not only unnecessary but also time-consuming. Nick Bilton, “Disruptions: Digital Era Redefining Etiquette,” Bits (blog), NewYorkTimes, March 10, 2013, etiquette-redefined-in-the- digital-age.
  7. 7. Image from Flickr
  8. 8.  An estimated 20 million passengers miss bus or train stops each year because of "digital distraction" from their smartphone.  The problem has affected 51% of Britons and causes around 15% of commuters to run late for meetings, according to the findings.  Over the last year, passengers have missed their stops an estimated 29 million times. Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2013), news/smartphones-lead-to-missed-stops-1.
  9. 9.  While the average British smartphone owner spends 97 minutes a day with their nearest and dearest, they spend 119 minutes – just shy of two hours – on their phones. Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2013), dear-im-on-my-phone. Image from Flickr:
  10. 10.  Over the five-year period from 2007 to 2011, wireless data traffic on AT&T, the second largest wireless carrier in the United States, has grown 20,000 percent, at least doubling itself every year since 2007. ChrisVelazco, “AT&T’s Wireless DataTraffic Doubles EveryYear, butThrottling Is Not the Solution,”TechCrunch, February 14, 2012, http://techcrunch. com/2012/02/14/atts- wireless-data-traffic-doubles- every-year-but-throttling-is-not-the-solution.
  11. 11.  Worldwide mobile data traffic will increase 13-fold over the next four years, reaching 11.2 exabytes per month (134 exabytes annually) by 2017. CiscoVisual Networking Index: Global Mobile DataTraffic Forecast Update, 2012–2017, per_c11-520862.html
  12. 12. ComScore, 2013 Mobile Future in Focus, white paper (Reston,VA: comscore, February 2013), 12, Insights/presentations_and_Whitepapers/2013/2013_Mobile_Future_in_Focus
  13. 13. Image from Flickr:
  14. 14. Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2012) phones/9365085/Smartphones-hardly-used-for-calls.html.
  15. 15.  Browsing the internet 24  Checking social networks 16  Listening to music 15  Playing games 13  Making calls 13  Text messaging 11  Checking/writing emails 9  Reading books 8  WatchingTV/films 7  Taking photographs 3  Total 119 minutes Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2013), dear-im-on-my-phone.
  16. 16. ComScore, 2013 Mobile Future in Focus, white paper (Reston,VA: comscore, February 2013), 33, Insights/presentations_and_Whitepapers/2013/2013_Mo- bile_Future_in_Focus.
  17. 17.  According to the interviews and the survey conducted byYahoo! and the Nielsen Company in June 2010 , 93 percent of mobile users accessed the Internet on their mobile devices away from home but as many as 89 percent also used their mobile devices to access the Internet inside their home. AshmeedAli, EdwinWong, Gateley Meeker, andDavidGill,The Mobile Shopping Framework Study:The Role of Mobile Devices in the Shopping Process, white paper (NewYork: Nielsen Company, January 2011), 5, frameworkstudy2010whitepaper-final.
  18. 18. Danielle Bulger, “smartphone owners: A Ready andWillingAudience,” Compete Pulse blog, March 12, 2010, owners-a-ready-and-willing-audience
  19. 19.  There’s a persistent myth that mobile users are always distracted, on the go, “info snacking” in sessions of 10 seconds.That’s certainly part of the mobile experience, but not the whole story. Mobile isn’t just “mobile”. It’s also the couch, the kitchen, the three-hour layover, all places where we have time and attention to spare. 42 percent of mobile users say they use it for entertainment when they’re bored.Those aren’t 10-second sessions.That means we shouldn’t design only for stunted sessions or limited use cases. Josh Clark, “Nielsen Is Wrong on Mobile,” .Net Magazine, April 12, 2012, opinions/nielsen-wrong-mobile.
  20. 20.  People are turning to their smartphones more to utilize their downtime than to meet some urgent need and that users are not always in a huge rush when they are using their smartphones. (p.11)  People are willing to and actually do turn to their mobile devices for a longer time than just a few minutes and for tasks that can be complicated. (p.12) Bohyun Kim,The Library Mobile Experience: Practices and User Expectations, LibraryTechnology Report 49(6), ALATechSource, 2013.
  21. 21.  Lookup/Find (urgent info, local): I need an answer to something now -frequently related to my current location in the world.  Explore/Play (bored, local): I have some time to kill and just want a few idle time distractions.  Check In/Status (repeat/micro-tasking): Something important to me keeps changing or updating and I want to stay on top of it.  Edit/Create (urgent change/micro-tasking): I need to get something done now that can’t wait. LukeWroblewski, Mobile First (NewYork: A Book Apart, 2011), p. 50.
  22. 22.  There are, of course, differences based on mobile and desktop usage patterns; but the core value of a web service remains the same across both formats and beyond. In fact, you’ll quickly find your customers will expect to do just about everything (within reason) on mobile. Especially those who primarily (or only) use their mobiles to get online. So don’t dumb things down on mobile—focus on what really matters most anywhere people can access your website. Wroblewski, Mobile First, 22.
  23. 23.  The mobileWeb is no longer an inferior or a complementary means of accessing theWeb. It is a competitor to the desktopWeb and will soon be accessed by more people than the desktopWeb. Considering this situation, offering only a basic set of information and features on the mobileWeb is no longer a viable strategy. (p.13) Bohyun Kim,The Library Mobile Experience: Practices and User Expectations, LibraryTechnology Report 49(6), ALATechSource, 2013.
  24. 24.  Mobile websites are preferred by libraries over native apps for the reasons of cost and development skills required.  But consumers overwhelmingly prefer native apps over mobile websites.  According to the recent survey and interview results from the Pew Internet andAmerican Life Project, 63 percent of Americans ages 16 and older would use apps-based access to library materials and programs (35 percent “very likely” and 28 percent “somewhat likely”), and 62 percent would use GPS-navigation apps that help them locate material inside library buildings (34 percent “very likely” and 28 percent “somewhat likely”). – Kathryn Zickuhr, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell, Library Services in the Digital Age (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, January 22, 2013), 57,
  25. 25. Content in a walled garden Easily discovered by a search engine Access to the device hardware such as GPS, microphone, camera, file system, etc. In development: - File systemAPIs - Device /media APIs - AudioAPIs Easy payment collection Can be cumbersome or not supported Continual updates / Separate installation No need for installation or updates Can function without Internet connection Requires Internet connection Faster Slower (Mobile Data Speed is improving)
  26. 26. NCsU Libraries’ mobile website MobiLIB in 2007 [Image credit: Markus Wust, “MobiLIB:A Library service for Generation ‘Mo bile’ at NorthCarolina state University” (presented at the RUsA MARs HotTopics Discussion Group at Ameri- can Library AssociationAn- nual Meeting,Washington, DC, June 23, 2007), www. projects/mobilib/presenta- tion_ALA.ppt] Images from AaronTay’, “What Are Mobile Friendly Library sites offering?A survey,April 24, 2010, html.
  27. 27. http://www.csupomona. edu/~library/m/
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  31. 31.  More information and resources beyond hours and contact info  Research section  Article Search  Course Reserves  Catalog Search Box on the mobile website homepage  Mobile-appropriate (for 2013) features  Study rooms, computers, account management
  32. 32.  “Participants’ interest in conducting research using their mobile device was certainly a surprise. Our assumption was that basic library information would suffice on a mobile Web site; however, the students who participated in this study wanted to be able to interact with library resources on their mobile devices.” Jamie Seeholzer and Joseph A. Salem, “Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library,” College & Research Libraries 72, no. 1 (2011), 17
  33. 33.  Being able to search the library catalog on the mobile device.  Request or place an item on hold from their phone.  Customizable options and personalized information from the library regarding their library account and other services such as:  Contacted by text messaging when a requested library item was available for pickup or when a material was nearing its due date.  Text message reminders about upcoming library appointments.  Being able to customize their mobile web experience such as:  Being able to pick their favorite databases or choose their own top ten links to see on a mobileWebsite  A library building guide and an explanation of the call number system.  Text or have a live chat with a librarian about a research question or how to cite a source. Jamie Seeholzer and Joseph A. Salem, “Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library,” College & Research Libraries 72, no. 1 (2011), 15-19.
  34. 34. Heather Denny, “survey snapshot: Library Research Using Mobile Devices,” MIT Libraries News, December 3, 2012, snapshot-library/9911
  35. 35.  Create a MobileWebsite  MobilizeYour Library Catalog  Put the Catalog Search Box onYour Library’s MobileWebsite Homepage  Add More Mobile-Friendly Library Resources and Content  Offer LibraryAccount Management Feature  Other experiments
  36. 36.  What is it?  How is it used in libraries?  Pros and Cons  Resources andTools
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  38. 38. See more examples in Eric Rumsey, “Responsive Design Sites: Higher Ed, Libraries, Notables,” Seeing the Picture (blog), May 3, 2012, http://blog. 12/05/03/ responsive- design-sites-higher-ed- libraries-notables.
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  40. 40.  The term, “responsive web design,” has become popular from the article that a web designer and developer Ethan Marcottee wrote in 2010.  The goal of responsive web design is to make a web page look equally well regardless of the screen size of a device.  Ethan Marcotte, “Responsive Web Design,” A List Apart, May 25, 2010,
  41. 41.  A flexible, grid-based layout  Flexible images  Media queries
  42. 42.  An extremely long page filled with too many navigation items, links, and more links.
  43. 43.  Responsive sites usually do not give users an option to go back to the look of the full desktop website.  For those who are familiar with the existing library website and know exactly where to go and get the information they want, the automatic change in the website layout on a small-screen device can be disorienting and confusing.
  44. 44.  Provide an option for mobile device users to opt out of responsive design by removing or changing the viewport meta tag.A demo page for one of the solutions is found at :  “Should Users Be Forced into a Responsive Design (without the Ability to Opt Out)?,” Stack Exchange - UX, May 1, 2012, be-forced-into-a-responsive-design-without-the-ability-to- opt-out .  Chris Coyier, “Opt-Out Responsive Design?,” CSS-Tricks, September 12, 2012, responsive-design/ .
  45. 45. Brad Frost, “Separate MobileWebsiteVs. ResponsiveWebsite,” Smashing Magazine, August 22, 2012, smackdown/.
  46. 46.  Example: A typical page on Romney’s mobile website was about 687 KB and loaded in about 8.75 seconds.  By contrast, the size of a typical page on Obama’s responsive website was about 4.2 MB and took whopping 25 seconds to load.  Brad Frost, “Separate MobileWebsiteVs. Responsive Website,” Smashing Magazine, August 22, 2012, parate-mobile-responsive-website-presidential- smackdown/.
  47. 47.  Web performance researcherGuy Podjarny reported that his performance test on 347 responsive websites showed that as many as 86 percent of them had little to no performance savings when loaded in the smallest window compared to the largest one, thereby making the page load painfully slow.  Guy Podjarny, “Performance Implications of Responsive Design – Book Contribution,” Guy’s Pod, July 11, 2012, of-responsive-design-book-contribution/.
  48. 48.  WordPress Responsive theme  Bootstrap  JQuery Mobile  The Responsinator  Ethan Marcotte, “Responsive Web Design,” A List Apart, May 25, 2010, responsive-web-design.  Matthew Reidsma, “Responsive Web Design for Libraries: Beyond the Mobile Web,” in Mobile Library Services: Best Practices, ed. Charles Harmon and Mi- chael Messina (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2013), 79–94.
  49. 49.  Mobile e-readers and tablets  E-books/audiobooks downloadable to a mobile device  Mobile devices for check-out (e.g. Flip camera, iPod touch, laptop, etc.)  Mobile resources (Part of your library collection)  Mobile services and communication (e.g. Facebook, SMS reference, etc.)  Mobile website
  50. 50. mobile/1192
  51. 51. ?
  52. 52. Florida International University Green Library. Images from Bohyun Kim, “Making Library e-Books on the e- Book ReaderVisible,” ACRL TechConnect Blog, =498
  53. 53. grained_look_at_how_digital_consumers_behave
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  55. 55. NYPL Photo Booth Project -
  56. 56. OR
  57. 57. Simple to Use & Rich in Content/Features & Attractive Enough to Appeal to Patrons
  58. 58. Image from Flickr