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The Potential and Challenges of Today's AI

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A preconference presentation given by Bohyun Kim, CTO and Associate Professor, University of Rhode Island Libraries, at the NISO Plus Conference at Baltimore, MD on February 23, 2020.

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The Potential and Challenges of Today's AI

  1. 1. The Potential and Challenges ofToday’s AI Bohyun Kim CTO & Associate Professor, University of Rhode Island Libraries NISO Plus Conference, Baltimore MD, Feb. 23, 2020
  2. 2. Today’s participants are from… • Publishers • Libraries • Library/Information systems vendors • Professional associations • Consulting service firms • Funders • Other places..? 2
  3. 3. https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/?cn-reloaded=1 3
  4. 4. Q1.WhatWord First Comes toYour Mind WhenYou Hear “AI” &Why? 4
  5. 5. Warm-up Qs •Q2.Which aspect of AI are you most excited about? •Q3.Which aspect of AI are you most concerned about? 5 *AddYour Ideas to Google Doc* https://bit.ly/37Hu22l
  6. 6. Q4.When AI is adopted everywhere, what will the world look like? Q5. How would AI affect your work and life? Q6.What kind of world would people be living in? 6
  7. 7. https://www.cnn.com/2019/12/02/tech/china-facial-recognition-mobile-intl-hnk-scli/index.html Surveillance 7
  8. 8. https://www.theverge.com/2019/7/17/20697540/boston-dynamics-robots-commercial-real-world-business-spot-on-sale Convenience 8
  9. 9. Benevolent AI 9
  10. 10. Malicious AI 10
  11. 11. Today – Part I I. AI: Overview a) What CanToday’s AI Do? b) How Does AIWork? c) AI Applications that Use Deep Learning d) AI for Information Profession/Industry e) Group-discussion & Sharing f) Q/As & Comments Break (10:45 - 11 AM) 11
  12. 12. Today – Part II II. AI & Society a) Algorithmic Bias/ Opacity b) Data-ism c) Human-in-the Loop & Automation’s Last Mile d) Learning in the Age of AI e) AI & Ethics Q/A & Wrap-Up (Noon) 12
  13. 13. I. AI: Overview 13
  14. 14. What is the Purpose of AI? 14
  15. 15. (a)What CanToday’s AI Do ? 15
  16. 16. https://deepmind.com/blog/article/alphago-zero-starting-scratch Reinforcement Learning 16
  17. 17. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/05/busines s/media/artificial-intelligence-journalism- robots.html AITools for NLG • Heliograf, Washington Post • Wibbitz, USAToday • Cyborg, Bloomberg News 17
  18. 18. ComputerVision real-time translation and object identification from the camera screen 18
  19. 19. More Examples of AI Applications • Siri • Alexa • Tesla • Amazon • Netflix • Pandora • Nest 19
  20. 20. https://www.forbes.com/si tes/gilpress/2019/07/15/is- ai-going-to-be-a-jobs- killer-new-reports-about- the-future-of- work/#17fd2057afb2 20
  21. 21. (b) How Does AIWork? 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Symbolic AI is Rule-Based. (50’s – 80’s) https://medium.com/@sunilpnwr/expert-systems-42715a5a5b14 23
  24. 24. Machine Learning is Data-Driven. Diagrams from Francois Chollet and J. J. Allaire, Deep Learning with R, 1st edition (Shelter Island, NY: Manning Publications, 2018). 24
  25. 25. https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2016/07/29/whats-difference-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-ai/ Deep Learning Uses Hidden Layers. 25
  26. 26. https://www.amchkg.com/shileiblog/2017.1.4deep-learning 26
  27. 27. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/26/technology/in-a-big-network-of-computers-evidence-of-machine- learning.html • +1 billion parameters • 16,000 CPU cores • 10 million unlabeledYouTube videos 27
  28. 28. (c) AI Applications that Use Deep Learning 28
  29. 29. • 9-layer neural network • +120 million weights • 4 million images https://research.fb.com/publications/deepface-closing-the-gap- to-human-level-performance-in-face-verification/ https://www.technologyreview.com/s/525586/facebook-creates- software-that-matches-faces-almost-as-well-as-you-do/ 29
  30. 30. https://www.nature.com/news /deep-learning-boosts- google-translate-tool-1.20696 30
  31. 31. https://www.blog.google/pr oducts/assistant/lost- translation-try-interpreter- mode-google-assistant/ 31
  32. 32. https://www.theguardian.com/ technology/2018/may/08/googl e-duplex-assistant-phone-calls- robot-human 32
  33. 33. https://techcrunch.com/2018/08/20/nyu-and-facebook-team-up-to-supercharge-mri-scans-with-ai/ 33
  34. 34. 34 https://firedrop.ai/
  35. 35. Questions? 35
  36. 36. (d) AI for Information Profession/ Industry 36
  37. 37. (i) Abstracting & Indexing 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. (ii) Information Discovery / Retrieval & Research Insight 39
  40. 40. https://quartolio.com/ 40
  41. 41. https://yewno.com/edu/concept/102e6bf8445dff7c922e1cc4e997ebf3 41
  42. 42. https://mitlibraries-hamlet.mit.edu/similar_to/16605/ 42
  43. 43. (iii) Feature Detection & Content Extraction 43
  44. 44. https://2018.code4lib.org/talks/deep-learning-and-historical-collections Also see : Eric Phetteplace, Bohyun Kim, and Ashley Blewer, “Reflections on Code4Lib 2018,” ACRLTechConnect (blog), March 12, 2018, https://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/post/reflections-on-code4lib-2018/. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. (iv)Voice User Interface (VUI) & Chatbots 46
  47. 47. https://www.eventscribe.com/2018/ALA-Midwinter/fsPopup.asp?Mode=presInfo&PresentationID=348820 47
  48. 48. https://books.google.com/talktobooks/ https://research.google.com/semanticexperiences/about.html +100,000 books 48
  49. 49. https://books.google.com/talktobooks/query?q=what%20is%20the%20best%20place%2 0to%20go%20on%20earth 49
  50. 50. 50 https://books.google.com/talktobooks/query?q=why%20is%20there%20a%20wage%20difference%20b etween%20men%20and%20women
  51. 51. JessamynWest, “TILT #55 - ‘Hey Google AREWomen Smarter than Men...?,’” TinyLetter (blog), accessed June 11, 2018, http://tinyletter.com/jessamyn/letters/tilt-55-hey-google-are-women-smarter-than-men. 51
  52. 52. Q7. How can libraries / content providers / information system vendors make the content and the metadata easier for AI- powered tools to ingest, process, and evaluate? 52 *AddYour Ideas to Google Doc* https://bit.ly/37Hu22lGroup Discussion Q 7-Q11
  53. 53. Q8. How will AI and machine learning affect people’s information-seeking activities? Q9.-Q11.What are some of the ways in which libraries / content providers / information system vendors can utilize AI techniques or AI-powered services/ products in order to • make their content more accessible, discoverable, and analyzable, • Make their services more effective and user-friendly, • and make their operations more efficient? 53 *AddYour Ideas to Google Doc* https://bit.ly/37Hu22l Group Discussion Q 7-Q11 [15 MIN]
  54. 54. 54 * Break! ( Now - 11 AM) *
  55. 55. II. AI & Society 55
  56. 56. (a) Algorithmic Bias / Opacity 56
  57. 57. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604 087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/ 57
  58. 58. https://www.wired.com/2017/04/courts-using-ai-sentence-criminals-must-stop-now/ 58
  59. 59. https://www.aclu.org/blog/privacy-technology/pitfalls-artificial-intelligence-decisionmaking-highlighted-idaho-aclu-case 59
  60. 60. http://explainableai.com/ 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62 https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/09/technology/facial-recognition-race-artificial-intelligence.html https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/self-driving-car-crash-racial-bias-black-people-study- a8810031.html https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/14/us/facial-recognition-ban-san-francisco.html
  63. 63. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/group/fate/ 63
  64. 64. https://blackinai.github.io/ 64
  65. 65. https://gizmodo.com/google-employees-resign-in-protest-against-pentagon-con-1825729300 65
  66. 66. https://www.blog.google/topics/ai/ai-principles/ 66
  67. 67. Questions / Comments? 67
  68. 68. (b) Data-ism 68
  69. 69. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/05/opinion/brooks-the-philosophy-of-data.html. 69
  70. 70. Data-ism is a belief that • everything that can be measured should be measured; • data is a transparent and reliable lens that allows us to filter out emotionalism and ideology; • data will help us do remarkable things - like foretell the future.” –David Brooks, “The Philosophy of Data,”The NewYorkTimes, February 4, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/05/opinion/brooks-the-philosophy-of-data.html. 70
  71. 71. Data-ist Dogma • We must expand and facilitate the great data flow as a new mandate over the right of humans to own data and to restrict its movement. • Human experiences are only valuable to the degree that they produce data that can contribute to data flow. • As a result, epistemologically, socially, and politically, humans are no longer the source of meaning, knowledge, or authority. Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus: A Brief History ofTomorrow, (NewYork, NY: Harper, 2017), p.389. 71
  72. 72. Techno-Utopianism ⊃ Data-ism / Dataist Dogma 72
  73. 73. 73 https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2019/06/robots-are-not-coming-for-your-jobmanagement-is/
  74. 74. 74 http://www.infotoday.com/OnlineSearcher/Articles/Technolog y-and-Power/The-Peril-of-Dataism-135012.shtml
  75. 75. (c) Human-in-the-Loop & GhostWork at the Automation’s Last Mile 75
  76. 76. Humans & AI Systems • Human in the loop • Human on the loop • Human off the loop 76
  77. 77. https://www.ibm.com/watson/ Delegation of High- Level Decisions https://en.th-wildau.de/university/central-facilities/university-library/ifla-wlic-preconference-satellite-meeting/reports-photos/ 77 The Role of Human in the Loop
  78. 78. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/201 8/jul/06/artificial-intelligence-ai-humans-bots- tech-companies 78 Automation’s Last Mile
  79. 79. 79 Madhumita Murgia, “AI’s New Workforce:The Data-Labelling Industry Spreads Globally,” FinancialTimes, July 23, 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/56dde36c-aa40- 11e9-984c-fac8325aaa04.
  80. 80. (d) Learning in the Age of AI 80
  81. 81. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/613502/deep-learning-could-reveal-why-the-world-works-the-way-it-does/81
  82. 82. 82 AI in Education
  83. 83. Most Significant Question AI Poses to Our Information Profession •Not so much “how to utilize AI techniques to our field?” •What kind of learning and research we should support and how, in the new era of AI? •How can we add efforts to ensure that the right kind of learning and research take place in the new A- driven learning and research environment? 83
  84. 84. 84NewTemple University’s Charles Library Building https://library.temple.edu/explore-charles What would learners need in the environment filled with ubiquitous AI tools and systems ?
  85. 85. Given the fast-approaching AI age, ask: •How are we different from intelligent machines? •How should our learning be different from that of a data-processing AI algorithm? * Really important questions facing the information profession* 85
  86. 86. What Education is Really About “A live educator offers more than the content of a course. Human interaction and presence are important components of effective pedagogy. Moreover, a teacher sets an example by embodying the ideals of learning and critical thinking. Possessed by a spirit of inquiry, the teacher enacts the process of learning for students to mimic.The act of mimesis itself matters: one human learning by watching another, observing the subtle details, establishing rapport, and connecting to history.” Douglas Rushkoff, Team Human, 1 edition (NewYork:W.W. Norton & Company, 2019), 45, 48. 86
  87. 87. Can we keep what makes learning special in the age of AI? 87
  88. 88. (e) AI & Ethics 88
  89. 89. TheTrolley Problem https://pixel.nymag.com/imgs/daily/selectall/2016/08/09/09-trolley.w710.h473.jpg 89
  90. 90. What Is a MachineTo Do? 90
  91. 91. https://www.nbcnew s.com/tech/tech- news/self-driving- uber-car-hit-killed- woman-did-not- recognize-n1079281 91
  92. 92. Ethics for Data Science & AI • It’s popular for people nowadays to invoke ethics as if it may solve all the problems. But… ! • Ethics isn’t there to give us answers. • Ethics is there to show how complicated the Qs are in the first place. 92
  93. 93. What is “intelligence”? 93
  94. 94. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test#/media/File:Turing_test_diagram.png TuringTest 94
  95. 95. Image from MaxTegmark, Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (NewYork: Knopf, 2017), p.53. Figure 2.2: Illustration of Hans Moravec’s “Landscape of Human Competence” 95
  96. 96. 96 Mind and intelligence as a software for download and upload Abuela in a birthday body
  97. 97. Questions / Comments? https://www.alastore.ala.org/ltr56_2 97
  98. 98. ThankYou! Bohyun Kim @bohyunkim [Twitter] http://bohyunkim.net/blog [Blog] CTO & Associate Professor University of Rhode Island Libraries Slides: https://www.slideshare.net/bohyunkim 98

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