Japanese Art After 1392<br />By Christina Andrzejewski, <br />Ashley Kosa,<br />Xurong Liu<br />
Japanese Periods<br />Muromachi Period (1392- 1573)<br />Momoyama Period(1573–1615)<br />Edo Period (1615-1868)<br />The Meji and Modern Period (1868-present)<br />
Muromachi Period<br />The Ashikaga family established a new military regime in Kyoto<br />Daimyo strongly influenced political events and cultural trends<br />Rivalry caused tension, creating instability and leading to the Onin War (1467-77)<br />War ended in a stalemate and with Hosowaka gaining control of the government <br />Country plummeted into a century of warfare and social chaos<br />Sengoku, the Age of the Country at War, lasted from the last quarter of the fifteenth to the end of the sixteenth century<br />Overall, economically and artistically innovative<br />Contact with China transformed Japanese thought and aesthetics <br />
Period impacted by Zen Buddhism <br />It became the dominant cultural force in Japan<br />Ink monochrome painting became extremely popular<br />The intensity of the masters created a subtle and more refined approach to painting. <br />Chinese style landscapes were the most important theme. <br />Shubun (c. 1418-63) was Japans first great monk-artist who mastered ink landscapes. <br />Muromachi Period<br />
The top and bottom half echo off of each other.
In the middle is empty space, which is supposed to represent water. </li></ul>Landscape<br />
Sesshu (1420-1506)<br />By the sixteenth century, temples staffed monks who specialized in art rather than religious or ritual teaching<br />Sesshu devoted himself to painting<br />Was inspired by Chinese scenery and Zen monasteries<br />Peaceful art was no longer possible and the violent energy of the time impacted landscape painting<br />This new spit was especially evident in his Winter Landscape<br />
Uses a forceful style<br />Short, jagged brushstrokes create the rocky hills<br />A cliff coming from the mist seems to break the piece into two<br />Flat overlapping planes break the piece into clear facets<br />The white of the paper in the bottom left is supposed to indicate snow, while the sky uses tones of gray. <br />Winter Landscape <br />
One of the most famous Zen masters in Japanese history<br />Now, Zen monks acted as government advisers, teachers, and leaders of merchant missions to China. <br />Ikkyu mocked this “fake Zen” and displayed the intensity of Zen through his calligraphy <br />Ikkyu (1394-1481)<br />
Comparison<br />Calligraphy Couplet c. mid-15th century<br />Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych c. 1962<br />
Comparision<br />Both were not attached by a hinge and meant to be hung next to one another<br />Both made for a purpose<br />The couplet “Abjure, evil, practice only the good,” was written out on single line scrolls. <br />The calligraphy is meant to be read starting with the right scroll and then the left<br />Each stroke is separate and distinct<br />The diptych 50 images is exactly the same and repeated <br />The 25 images on the left hand side of the piece are all in black and white, providing a stark contrast to the bright colors of the other side.<br />
Zen monks saw their gardens as objects of constant vigilance and work<br />This philosophy influenced Japanese art<br />Karesansui are dry landscape gardens<br />The main elements of karesansui are rocks and sand, with the sea symbolized by sand raked in patterns that suggest rippling water.<br />The dry garden in the Zen temple of Ryoan-ji is one of the most renowned Zen creations n Japan<br />The Zen Dry Garden<br />
Dates back to the mid-seventeenth century<br />The stones are set in asymmetrical groups of two, three, and five<br />The “borrowed scenery” is beyond the perimeter wall, and is made up of maple, pine, and cherry trees <br />Is celebrated for its severity and emptiness<br />The austere beauty of the naked gravel allows people to meditate. <br />Ryoan-ji<br />
The Ashikaga’s power began to decline <br />The daimyos began to fight for control over Japan<br />Unity was gradually resorted by three warlords<br />The first as Oda Nobunaga (1534-82)<br />He invaded Kyoto in 1568, ending the Ashikaga’s authority. <br />Was a patron of the arts and was assassinated on a military campaign<br />Momoyama Period (1573–1615)<br />
Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-98) succeeded him <br />Was an overly ambitious military commander<br />Believed he could conquer both Korea and China<br />Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) emerged and established the shogunate in 1603.<br />Was one of the most creative eras in Japanese history. <br />Momoyama Period<br />
Europeans made an impact on Japan<br />Portuguese explorers arrived in 1543and allowed to extend trade beyond the ports of Kyushu<br />European muskets and cannons changed Japanese warfare and architecture<br />Monumental castles were built in the late sixteenth century<br />Himeji Castle is one of the most beautiful surviving castles today<br />The castle had steep walls, stone ramparts, narrow fortified gates, and narrow ladders<br />Meant to confuse invaders and make them feel as though lost in a maze with little sense of direction or progress<br />Provided artists opportunities to work on a grand scale<br />Architecture<br />
Kano School of Decorative Painting<br />Fusuma, paper-covered sliding doors, large murals, and folding screens with gold-leaf backgrounds were features of the period<br />After the civil wars, temples commissioned large-scale paintings for rebuilding projects<br />The Kano school trained artists in the ink-painting tradition with new skills in decorative subjects and styles<br />Kano Masanobu (1434–1530) is credited with establishing the Kano school<br />Masanobu's son Kano Motonobu (1476–1559) widened the school's appeal and devised the style studied above<br />Motonobu's grandson, Kano Eitoku (1543–1590), introduced a new strength and dynamism to his large compositions that appealed to the warlords and suited the grand interiors of their castles.<br />Kano Sanraku (1559–1635), one of Eitoku's adopted sons, added a greater sense of elegance and decorativeness to Eitoku's style, capturing current interest in sophistication and sumptuousness. <br />
c. early seventeenth century<br />Pair of six-fold screens; color on gold-leafed paper <br />Twelve panels of folding screens depict the progression of the seasons <br />The right side depicts springtime, with wildflowers and blossoming trees<br />In the left-hand screen, a clump of summer lilies announces the transition from summer to fall and winter.<br />Pink and white rose mallow indicate late summer and early autumn<br />The final scene depicts snow-covered pine, framing a pair of cranes, which symbolize long life<br />Birds and Flowers of the Four Seasons<br />
Tea Ceremony<br />The quiet, restrained, and the natural world was expressed through tea ceremonies<br />Zen monks used tea as a mild stimulant to aid meditation, and as a form of medicine<br />Sen no Rikyu (1522-91) is the most famous tea master in Japanese history. <br />He established the aesthetic of modesty, refinement, and rusticity<br />The tearoom allowed people to get a way from the chaotic and violent world outside. <br />
Edo Period (1615-1868)<br /><ul><li>1615 marks the rise of a new Shogun from the Tokugawa family.
Rough texture gives the sense of earth and fire used to create pottery.</li></li></ul><li>Zen Painting in the Edo Period<br /><ul><li> Because of Neo-Confucianism, there is a decline in Zen painting.
Clouds continue to the left screen becoming land for the trees
Almost abstract in the pattern of waves, trees and islands</li></li></ul><li>Kabuki Theater<br /><ul><li> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67-bgSFJiKc</li></li></ul><li>Ukiyo-e<br /><ul><li> Also called “portraits of a floating world.”
Buddhist term used to describe the fleeting pleasures of life, originally had a negative context.
Now sought to live life to the fullest giving it a positive connotation.
Landscapes diverged from idyllic Chinese landscapes to real scenes of Japan.
Actors and courtesans became widely admired because of this, portrayed in paintings.
Woodblock printing became available for the common people.
So popular those woodblocks were used until they were worn out and re-cut multiple times.</li></li></ul><li>Suzuki Harunobu<br />Heron and the Crow (1769)<br /><ul><li> First artist to design nishiki-e (brocade prints)
Cresting waves echo appearance of Mt. Fuji</li></li></ul><li>Hiroshige<br />Kinryusan Temple at Asakusa: From the series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo (1856)<br /><ul><li>Utagawa Hiroshige (Ichiyūsai Hiroshige/Andō Hiroshige)
Considered one of two great ukiyo-e landscape artist (the other being Katsushika Hokusai.)
Linear perspective</li></li></ul><li>Ukiyo-e and the Western World<br /><ul><li> Drawn to flat planes of color and asymmetrical compositions
Influences post-impressionists such as Van Gogh, and Paul Gaugin, as well as influential artists of the Art Nouveau movement, such as Alphonse Mucha.
Especially popular in France, where the term Japonisme originates (Japonism)</li></li></ul><li>Suzuki Harunobu (1768)<br />Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1892)<br />
Dawn of the Meiji Period<br />With Tokugawa Clan overthrown, imperial restoration occurred<br />Emperor Mutsuhito ascends to the throne in 1868, Meiji Restoration<br />Meiji - “enlightened rule”<br />Court moved from Kyoto to Edo, renamed Tokyo, meaning “Eastern Capital”<br />Leaders promised move towards more democratic participation in government (Five Charter Oath)<br />Japan rapidly adopted the influences of the west in politics, philosophy and art<br />experts were brought in to teach specialized subjects<br />students sponsored by government to study abroad<br />
Meiji Art<br />Modernization and industrialization heavily influenced Japanese art<br />Confusion caused by influences and belief that Japan was losing its identity led to opposition of western style<br />Two distinct schools:<br />Western<br />Traditional<br />
Western Meiji Art (Yōga)<br />Artists who were important to the expansion of Western Meiji style include Kawakami Togai, Takahashi Yuichi and Koyama Shotaro<br />Western Art became a major school of art in Japan<br />Characteristics:<br />Oil paintings on canvas<br />Dramatic lighting<br />Subject matter adorned in western attire<br />Using the third dimension <br />Conveying perspective<br />using vanishing points and linear perspective<br />varying the textural gradient of distant objects<br />
Western Meiji Art (Cont.)<br />“Morning Giclee” by Antonio Fontanesi, 1861<br /><ul><li> Oil on Canvas
Defined brush strokes</li></li></ul><li>Traditional Meiji Art (Nihonga)<br />Draws mainly from traditional Japanese painting techniques<br />An attempt at preserving identity during the influx of western influences<br />Despite returning to traditional Japanese characteristics, Nihonga artists adopted Western techniques in perspective and shading<br />The main supporters and advocates of Nihonga art were Ernest Fenollosa and Okakura Kakuzo<br />Well known artists of the style includes Yokoyama Taikan<br />
Traditional Meiji Art (cont.)<br />by Tokoyama Taikan, Meiji artist<br /><ul><li> Ink and color on paper
References to nature</li></li></ul><li>Modern Japan<br />1912 – The Meiji Period ends with the death of Emperor Mutsuhito<br />1912 – Start of Taisho Era and “Taisho Democracy” Movement<br />1926 – Start of Showa Period with reign of Emperor Hirohito<br />1945 – Occupation by western powers<br />1989 – Start of Heisei, Japan’s current era, with ascension of Akihito<br />
Anime and Manga<br />Manga refers to Japanese comics or cartoons<br />Emerged as a popular art form after World War II<br />As a result of inspiration from Western comics, films and cartoons<br />As a result of natural evolution of Japanese aesthetic traditions with strong influences from ukiyo-e traditions<br />Anime refers to Japanese animation<br />First appeared in early 20th century, influenced by U.S. successes such as Disney’s Snow White<br />Both anime and manga became major exports for Japan in the 1980s and 1990s <br />Significant impact on Western Culture and made many interested in the culture of Japan<br />
Modern Japanese Painting<br />The most recent forms of Japanese art are all mixtures of Western and traditional Japanese style<br />A prominent artist is Takashi Murakami<br />utilize manga and anime art forms for inspiration for painting and sculpture.<br />Style is known as “superflat” because it features flat planes and forms of color<br />“Gleefully Smiling Flowers”<br />
Modern Japanese Ceramics<br />Ceramics is one of the most appreciated forms of modern Japanese art<br />Needed for tea ceremony and flower arranging<br />Well known contemporary ceramicists include Miyashita Zenji<br />Works utilize non traditional shapes but references traditional ceramics by evoking nature<br />“Wind”<br />
Modern Japanese Sculpture<br />An innovative sculptor in contemporary Japanese art is Chuichu Fujii<br />At first inspired by plastic, steel and glass, Fujii decided to begin sculpting with wood during his thirties<br />Fujii allowed wood to express its own uniqueness while taking on a new form<br />Fujii inserts hooks into a log and runs wires between them<br />Wires are tightened over a period of months until the wood is pulled into a desirable shape<br />The piece must be cut so that it stands<br />
Works Cited<br />Department of Asian Art. "Momoyama Period (15731615) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Oct. 2002. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/momo/hd_momo.htm>. <br />Department of Asian Art. "Muromachi Period (13921573) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. 2000. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/muro/hd_muro.htm>. <br />Department of Asian Art. "The Kano School of Painting | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Oct. 2003. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kano/hd_kano.htm>. <br />"Kano School: Birds and Flowers of the Four Seasons (1987.342.1,2) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Oct. 2006. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1987.342.1,2>. <br />"Warhol: Marilyn Monroe: Life as a Legend." The Warhol:. 2010. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.warhol.org/webcalendar/event.aspx?id=2346>. <br />"Art History 111 Imagebase." University of Illinois at Chicago - UIC. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.uic.edu/depts/ahaa/classes/ah111/imagebank.html>.<br />"Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec: Divan Japonais (58.621.17) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/58.621.17>.<br />"Japonisme | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/jpon/hd_jpon.htm>.<br />"Suzuki Harunobu: Crow and Heron, or Young Lovers Walking Together under an Umbrella in a Snowstorm (JP2453) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/JP2453>.<br />"Waves at Matsushima | F1906.231and232." Freer and Sackler Galleries. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/zoomObject.cfm?ObjectId=39375>.<br />"芸術の秋(The Art)." 不可能物体ぎゃらりぃ Gallery Impossible. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://galleryimpossible.com/art.htm>.<br />"Kano Chikanobu: Seven Gods of Good Fortune and Chinese Children (29.100.498) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/29.100.498>.<br />"Meiji Art in Japan." ESL Teachers Board. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/japan-info/index.pl?read=1140>.<br />"Meiji Period." Euronet Internet. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.euronet.nl/users/artnv/meiji.html>.<br />"The Miyagi Museum of Art." 宮城県ホームページ Miyagi Prefectural Government. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.pref.miyagi.jp/bijyutu/mmoa/en/navigation/index.asp?url=../museum/collect003.html>.<br />"Miyashita Zenji: Vase (1994.221.1) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1994.221.1>.<br />"Morning Giclee Print by Antonio Fontanesi at AllPosters.com." AllPosters.com - The World's Largest Poster and Print Store! Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?startat=/getposter.asp&APNum=4943604&CID=4CAB0EF6FF654BB4A39FAF17AFA8220A&PPID=1&Search=&f=t&FindID=0&P=1&PP=1&sortby=PD&c=c&page=1>.<br />"The Takashi Murakami Exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum | Collectors’ Quest." Interactive Community and Marketplace for Collectors - CollectorsQuest.com. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.collectorsquest.com/blog/2008/04/16/the-takashi-murakami-exhibit-at-the-brooklyn-museum/>.<br />