Impressionism to Post- Impressionism<br />
Pierre-Auguste Renoir<br />1841-1919<br />One of the best loved Impressionist, largely due to subject matter – children, p...
Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette<br /><ul><li>Energetic dancing by the middle class in Paris
Dappling of light and shade
Artfully blurred figures in the picture
Casual and unposed natural placement of figures
Suggested space goes beyond the boundaries of the painting
People go about their business, don’t pose
Influence of candid photography in the casualness of groupings and the cut off figures at the edges</li></li></ul><li>Le M...
Girl With a Watering Can, 1876<br />
Camille Pissaro<br />1830 –1903<br />Big Proponet of Plein Air painting<br />Mentor to Cezanne<br />Only Painter to show i...
The Stage Coach at Louveciennes   1870<br />
Edgar Degas<br />1834-1917<br />Master of drawing the Human Figure in Motion<br />Known for use of pastels<br />Ballet Dan...
L'absinthe1876 (larger version, 140 Kb); Oil on canvas, 92 x 68 cm (36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris<br />
Degas, Ballet Rehearsal<br /><ul><li>Enjoyed depicting ballet movements
Composition inspired by Japanese prints: center of painting empty, spiral staircase at left cut off, ballerina being dress...
Strong diagonals unify composition
Light feathery brushstrokes define dresses
Effect of light from window on the floor and on shapes
Faces in darkness or cut off</li></li></ul><li>The Star [Dancer on Stage])1878<br />
The Rehearsal, 1873-78<br />
Girl Drying Herself1885<br />
James Abbot McNeil Whistler<br />1834-1903<br />American (New England), moved to Russia at age 9 then back to CT (Pomfret)...
Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother 1871<br />
He achieved international notoriety when Symphony No. 1, The White Girl was rejected at both the Royal Academy and the Sal...
Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket<br /><ul><li>Reaches to the limit of abstraction
Fireworks in London over the Thames River
Clouds of black and dark blue represent the smoke of the rockets
Left: large tree looms in darkness
Art critic called the painting “a pot of paint in the public’s face.” Whistler sued for libel
Signed the painting with a Japanese anagram
Color effects decorate the painting</li></ul>1875<br />
In 1877 the critic John Ruskin denounced Whistler's Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875; Detroit Institut...
Mary Cassatt<br />1844-1926<br />Friend of Degas, showed with Impressioinists in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886<br />Born Ameri...
Cassatt, The Bath<br /><ul><li>Not like other Impressionists, not a landscape or still life painter
Figures are never actors, nor do they appear to be models posing
Mother and child theme her specialty
Has a tenderness foreign to Impressionism
Figures seen from unusual angles as in Japanese prints
Flatness of background forms
Solidity of main figures
Japanese decorative details in background</li></ul>La Toilettec. 1891 <br />
The Boating Party      1893-94 <br />
Little Girl in a Blue Armchair1878<br />
Mother and Child (The Oval Mirror)1901 <br />
Auguste Rodin<br />1840 –1917<br />Stunning Strength and realism<br />Confronts distress and moral weakness as well as nob...
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Impressionist2

  1. 1. Impressionism to Post- Impressionism<br />
  2. 2. Pierre-Auguste Renoir<br />1841-1919<br />One of the best loved Impressionist, largely due to subject matter – children, pretty women and flowers<br />
  3. 3. Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette<br /><ul><li>Energetic dancing by the middle class in Paris
  4. 4. Dappling of light and shade
  5. 5. Artfully blurred figures in the picture
  6. 6. Casual and unposed natural placement of figures
  7. 7. Suggested space goes beyond the boundaries of the painting
  8. 8. People go about their business, don’t pose
  9. 9. Influence of candid photography in the casualness of groupings and the cut off figures at the edges</li></li></ul><li>Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876<br />
  10. 10. Girl With a Watering Can, 1876<br />
  11. 11. Camille Pissaro<br />1830 –1903<br />Big Proponet of Plein Air painting<br />Mentor to Cezanne<br />Only Painter to show in ALL Impressionist exhibitions (8 in total)<br />
  12. 12. The Stage Coach at Louveciennes 1870<br />
  13. 13. Edgar Degas<br />1834-1917<br />Master of drawing the Human Figure in Motion<br />Known for use of pastels<br />Ballet Dancers and Horses<br />
  14. 14. L'absinthe1876 (larger version, 140 Kb); Oil on canvas, 92 x 68 cm (36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris<br />
  15. 15. Degas, Ballet Rehearsal<br /><ul><li>Enjoyed depicting ballet movements
  16. 16. Composition inspired by Japanese prints: center of painting empty, spiral staircase at left cut off, ballerina being dressed at right cut off
  17. 17. Strong diagonals unify composition
  18. 18. Light feathery brushstrokes define dresses
  19. 19. Effect of light from window on the floor and on shapes
  20. 20. Faces in darkness or cut off</li></li></ul><li>The Star [Dancer on Stage])1878<br />
  21. 21. The Rehearsal, 1873-78<br />
  22. 22. Girl Drying Herself1885<br />
  23. 23. James Abbot McNeil Whistler<br />1834-1903<br />American (New England), moved to Russia at age 9 then back to CT (Pomfret) then to Paris then to England<br />Friend of Rossetti (pre-Raphaelites) and Oscar Wilde<br />
  24. 24. Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother 1871<br />
  25. 25. He achieved international notoriety when Symphony No. 1, The White Girl was rejected at both the Royal Academy and the Salon, but was a major attraction at the famous Salon des Refusés in 1863.<br />Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl1862<br />
  26. 26. Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket<br /><ul><li>Reaches to the limit of abstraction
  27. 27. Fireworks in London over the Thames River
  28. 28. Clouds of black and dark blue represent the smoke of the rockets
  29. 29. Left: large tree looms in darkness
  30. 30. Art critic called the painting “a pot of paint in the public’s face.” Whistler sued for libel
  31. 31. Signed the painting with a Japanese anagram
  32. 32. Color effects decorate the painting</li></ul>1875<br />
  33. 33. In 1877 the critic John Ruskin denounced Whistler's Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875; Detroit Institute of Arts), accusing him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face", and Whistler sued him for libel the following year. He won the action, but the awarding of only a farthing's damages with no costs was in effect a justification for Ruskin. Potential patrons were repelled by the negative publicity surrounding the case, and the expense of the trial led to Whistler's bankruptcy in 1879. His house was sold and he proceeded to Italy with a commission from the Fine Arts Society to make twelve etchings of Venice. He spent a year in Venice (1879-80), concentrating on the etchings-- among the masterpieces of 19th-century graphic art-- that helped to restore his fortunes when he returned to London. <br />After returning to England in 1880 he painted a wide variety of subjects, continued with his interest in the graphic arts, and promulgated his aesthetic theories in print and in the Ten O'Clock lecture (1885); his polemical The Gentle Art of Making Enemies was published in 1890. In 1886 he was elected president of the Society of British Artists, but despite some successes his revolutionary ideas ran afoul of the conservative members, and he was voted out of office within two years.<br />
  34. 34. Mary Cassatt<br />1844-1926<br />Friend of Degas, showed with Impressioinists in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886<br />Born American but lived in Paris most of her adult life<br />Contributed to the Interest of American Impressionism<br />
  35. 35. Cassatt, The Bath<br /><ul><li>Not like other Impressionists, not a landscape or still life painter
  36. 36. Figures are never actors, nor do they appear to be models posing
  37. 37. Mother and child theme her specialty
  38. 38. Has a tenderness foreign to Impressionism
  39. 39. Figures seen from unusual angles as in Japanese prints
  40. 40. Flatness of background forms
  41. 41. Solidity of main figures
  42. 42. Japanese decorative details in background</li></ul>La Toilettec. 1891 <br />
  43. 43. The Boating Party 1893-94 <br />
  44. 44. Little Girl in a Blue Armchair1878<br />
  45. 45. Mother and Child (The Oval Mirror)1901 <br />
  46. 46. Auguste Rodin<br />1840 –1917<br />Stunning Strength and realism<br />Confronts distress and moral weakness as well as noble themes<br />Emphasis on Hands and feet in his works<br />A turn away from the smooth neo-classical styling common in sculpture<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. The Gates of Hell1880-1917 <br />
  49. 49. The Burghers of Calais1884-86 <br />
  50. 50. Post-Impressionism<br />Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge<br />Zigzag composition<br />Pitiless representation of figures<br />Gauguin’s influence in the large areas of flat color<br />Joyless, oppressive; people out to have a good time, but achieve none<br />Self-portrait as a short bearded man in background with his very tall cousin<br />Off-key colors<br />Tilted perspective of Japanese prints<br />People tend to be aging, flabby, cynical<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Vincent Van Gogh 1853 - 1890<br />
  53. 53. q       Tactile surface of painting<br />q       Brushstrokes conveying emotion and inner reality<br />q       Not an imitation of nature<br />q       Forerunner of expressionism<br />q       Major emphasis on texture, line and color<br />q       Colors were vivid, bright and strong<br />q       Deeply impressed by Millet and Social art<br />Missionary zeal<br />
  54. 54. Post-Impressionism<br />Van Gogh, The Starry Night<br />Painted from his room at the hospital at St-Rémy<br />Mountains of the Lapillus could be seen from his window<br />Steepness of the mountains is exaggerated<br />Deep forces of the universe playing out on the canvas<br />Visionary sense of power<br />Discordant colors<br />Thick, swirling paint strokes<br />Unconventional perspective<br />Strong waves splashing from left to right<br />Sky movement echoed in mountains and trees<br />Two verticals interrupt flow: cypress tree and church steeple<br />A religious message?<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903)<br /><ul><li>q       Emphasizes the use of bright, non-naturalistic colors
  57. 57. q       Emphasizes the use of flat planes of color
  58. 58. q       Rejected notions of Western naturalism
  59. 59. q       Often employs symbolic or primitive subjects
  60. 60. q       Interested in the primitive man, a removal from the norms and mores of society
  61. 61. q       Rejected notions of Western naturalism
  62. 62. q       Uses nature as a starting point from to abstract figures and symbols
  63. 63. q       Stressed linear patterns and color harmonies
  64. 64. q       Tried to include a profound sense of mystery</li></ul>BOTH strength and intensity over the slick and superficial<br />
  65. 65. Post-Impressionism<br />Gauguin, The Vision after the Sermon<br />After hearing an impassioned sermon on the Biblical account of Jacob wrestling with the angel, the pious rural people envision the struggle<br />Tree trunk separates the real from the vision<br />Red heat of sermon matches red coloring<br />Color used as an emotional response not as a physical description<br />Rejection of perspective<br />Priest at lower right is a self-portrait<br />Heavily enclosed forms<br />Renounced Impressionism<br />Many sharply drawn black outlines<br />Broad areas of color, relatively flatly applied, containing some subtly that gives it a rich glow<br />
  66. 66. 1888<br />
  67. 67. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?1897<br />
  68. 68. Post Impressionism<br />Seurat, La Grande Jatte<br />Analyzed color relationships in a pictorial space<br />Small brush strokes of complementary color: reds and greens, violets and yellows, blues and oranges<br />Pointillist technique<br />Result is sort of a mosaic like quality with a geometric structure<br />Accent on the loneliness of modern life, figures together yet in isolation<br />Most are faceless<br />Conventional perspective used<br />Reduced intensity of color to give effect of distance<br />Interest in geometric shapes<br />An Egyptian stillness: figures are posed to run but become frozen statues<br />
  69. 69.
  70. 70. Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906)<br />The “Father of Modern Art” – an artist’s artist<br />Obsessed with form over content<br />Development of planes to comprise the surface<br />Forunner of Cubism<br />
  71. 71. Post Impressionism<br />Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire<br />Broad splashes of color in suggestive rather than descriptive passages<br />Areas of the canvas left unpainted<br />No human figures<br />Not a countryside of Impressionism, lacking in human contact<br />Aim is to create a unity within the picture in which each element has a clearly defined role and a relationship to the elements around it<br />Solidity achieved through massing of shapes<br />Grand and monumental form of the mountain<br />Worked in color patches<br />
  72. 72. 1902-06<br />
  73. 73. Cezanne, The Basket of Apples<br /><ul><li>Each form round and solid
  74. 74. Sought to represent each shape as if it were a geometric principle
  75. 75. Geometric forms determine shapes of apples, bottle, biscuits
  76. 76. Studied forms in volumes and solids
  77. 77. Breaking down of objects into its basic shapes</li></ul>1889<br />
  78. 78. The Symbolists<br />Rousseau, The Sleeping Gypsy<br />Displays the characteristics of primitive artists: flat surfaces, minute detail, stiff and frontally posed figures and arbitrary proportions<br />Influence of Japanese prints and Persian manuscripts<br />Frame inscription: “The feline, though ferocious, is loathe to leap upon its prey, who, overcome by fatigue, lies in a deep sleep”<br />Vase for drinking water in the desert<br />Play of light on the lion<br />Lion is not ferocious, but curious, a cat with its tail up<br />Where is gypsy’s left hand?<br />Hair of gypsy forms a pattern with the dress<br />Cut out moon and landscape<br />What is the lion doing in the desert?<br />Is the lion the gypsy’s dream?<br />
  79. 79. 1897<br />
  80. 80. The Symbolists<br />Munch, The Scream<br />Lengthy brushstrokes<br />Linear pattern of diagonal movement<br />Straight and curving patterns<br />Exaggerated perspective<br />Figure twists like a worm<br />Unnerving impression on viewer<br />Scream echoed in the composition<br />Sexless emasculating figure<br />Final painting on a series about love<br />Represents a closing scene in a battle between the mind and sex, out of which sex comes through triumphant<br />
  81. 81. 1893<br />

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