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GAS PERMEATION AND LIQUID PERMEATION 
Step 1 
Step 2 
Step 3 
ASHWINI KUMAR 
RISHABH RAJ
PERMEATION 
Permeation is the penetration of a permeate (such as 
liquid,gas or vapour) through a solid. 
 It is directly related to the concentration gradient of the 
permeate, a material's intrinsic permeability, and the 
materials' Mass diffusivity. 
 Permeation is modeled by equations such as Fick's laws 
of diffusion, and can be measured using tools such as a 
minipermeameter. 
 Permeation works through diffusion; the permeant will 
move from high concentration to low concentration 
across the interface.
THEORY 
 Gas permeation is the term used to describe a membrane 
separation process using a non-porous semi-permeable 
membrane. In this, a gaseous feed stream is fractionated 
into per-meate and non-permeate streams. Transport 
occurs by a solution-diffusion mechanism and 
membrane selectivity is based upon the relative 
permeation rates of the components through the 
membrane. Each gaseous component transporting 
through the membrane has a characteristic permeation 
rate that is a function of the ability to dissolve and 
diffuse
 Separation mechanism: 
different velocity of gas permeation (sorption, diffusion, 
sieving effect, desorption) 
 Driving force: partial pressure gradient. 
 Working pressure: up to 100 bar. 
 Non-porous polymeric membranes: 
PDMS(polydimethylsulphoxan),PS(polysulphone),PES. 
 Ceramic Membranes (small pores for Knudsen). 
 Metallic membranes (Pd and Ag alloys).
process 
 In the process as shown in fig. The feed gas at high 
pressure P1 contains some low molecular weight species 
(molecular weight <50) to be separated from small 
amounts of high molecular weight species. 
 The other side of the membrane is maintained at much 
lower pressure P2 often near ambient pressure the 
membrane used is micro pores perm selectivity for 
certain low molecular weight species in the feed 
gas(species A) 
 If the membrane is dense these species are absorbed at 
the surface and then transported though the membrane 
by one or mechanism.
 Thus perm selectivity depends on both membrane 
adsorption and membrane transport rate. 
 In this process perfect separation is generally not 
achievable, If the difference of molecular weight of 
substance is near by.
Calculation: 
 The gas permeability was calculated according to the 
following equation. 
 where l is the film thickness (m), Q is the permeate 
volumetric flow rate (mol/s), p2 is the feed absolute 
pressure, p1 is the downstream absolute pressure (Pa) 
and A is the membrane area available for transport (m2). 
Permeability is reported in units of (mol. m /(m2.s.Pa)).
Application: 
 Separation of hydrogen from methane, 
 Removal of carbon di oxide, 
 Removal of organic solvent from air, 
 Nitrogen enrichment from air.
Advantages: 
 Low capital investment, 
 Ease of installation, 
 Ease of operation, 
 High pressure flexibility, 
 Low weight and space requirement, 
 Low environmental impact.
Gas 
permeation 
Residuals gases 
to fuel-gas 
Hydrogen 
Recycle of n-C4 
Unitat de 
isomerització 
n-Butane 
Isobutane 
Recycle 
H2 (96%) 
Hydrogen recovery in a butane isomeration plant. A typical PRISM® 
Separator 
(Airproducts)
LIQUID PERMEATION 
 DEFINITION-When a volatile liquid mixture is 
imposed on the feed side of a nonporous membrane and 
the other side of the membrane has a liquid phase ,the 
process is called liquid permeation. 
 The molecular structure of the permeating gas or liquid 
is an important factor in permeation.Liquid permeation 
depends upon the molecular size of the liquid,that is to 
say,molecules such as pentane permeate more rapidly 
than larger molecules such as decane.
 The polarity of the liquid also plays an important role in 
permeation.For example,non polar liquids such as 
toluene permeate more rapidly than polar aniline in 
membranes such as polyethylene.

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gas and liquid permeation

  • 1. GAS PERMEATION AND LIQUID PERMEATION Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 ASHWINI KUMAR RISHABH RAJ
  • 2. PERMEATION Permeation is the penetration of a permeate (such as liquid,gas or vapour) through a solid.  It is directly related to the concentration gradient of the permeate, a material's intrinsic permeability, and the materials' Mass diffusivity.  Permeation is modeled by equations such as Fick's laws of diffusion, and can be measured using tools such as a minipermeameter.  Permeation works through diffusion; the permeant will move from high concentration to low concentration across the interface.
  • 3. THEORY  Gas permeation is the term used to describe a membrane separation process using a non-porous semi-permeable membrane. In this, a gaseous feed stream is fractionated into per-meate and non-permeate streams. Transport occurs by a solution-diffusion mechanism and membrane selectivity is based upon the relative permeation rates of the components through the membrane. Each gaseous component transporting through the membrane has a characteristic permeation rate that is a function of the ability to dissolve and diffuse
  • 4.  Separation mechanism: different velocity of gas permeation (sorption, diffusion, sieving effect, desorption)  Driving force: partial pressure gradient.  Working pressure: up to 100 bar.  Non-porous polymeric membranes: PDMS(polydimethylsulphoxan),PS(polysulphone),PES.  Ceramic Membranes (small pores for Knudsen).  Metallic membranes (Pd and Ag alloys).
  • 5.
  • 6. process  In the process as shown in fig. The feed gas at high pressure P1 contains some low molecular weight species (molecular weight <50) to be separated from small amounts of high molecular weight species.  The other side of the membrane is maintained at much lower pressure P2 often near ambient pressure the membrane used is micro pores perm selectivity for certain low molecular weight species in the feed gas(species A)  If the membrane is dense these species are absorbed at the surface and then transported though the membrane by one or mechanism.
  • 7.  Thus perm selectivity depends on both membrane adsorption and membrane transport rate.  In this process perfect separation is generally not achievable, If the difference of molecular weight of substance is near by.
  • 8. Calculation:  The gas permeability was calculated according to the following equation.  where l is the film thickness (m), Q is the permeate volumetric flow rate (mol/s), p2 is the feed absolute pressure, p1 is the downstream absolute pressure (Pa) and A is the membrane area available for transport (m2). Permeability is reported in units of (mol. m /(m2.s.Pa)).
  • 9. Application:  Separation of hydrogen from methane,  Removal of carbon di oxide,  Removal of organic solvent from air,  Nitrogen enrichment from air.
  • 10. Advantages:  Low capital investment,  Ease of installation,  Ease of operation,  High pressure flexibility,  Low weight and space requirement,  Low environmental impact.
  • 11. Gas permeation Residuals gases to fuel-gas Hydrogen Recycle of n-C4 Unitat de isomerització n-Butane Isobutane Recycle H2 (96%) Hydrogen recovery in a butane isomeration plant. A typical PRISM® Separator (Airproducts)
  • 12. LIQUID PERMEATION  DEFINITION-When a volatile liquid mixture is imposed on the feed side of a nonporous membrane and the other side of the membrane has a liquid phase ,the process is called liquid permeation.  The molecular structure of the permeating gas or liquid is an important factor in permeation.Liquid permeation depends upon the molecular size of the liquid,that is to say,molecules such as pentane permeate more rapidly than larger molecules such as decane.
  • 13.  The polarity of the liquid also plays an important role in permeation.For example,non polar liquids such as toluene permeate more rapidly than polar aniline in membranes such as polyethylene.