KM technologies and strategy


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Describes a link between KM technologies and business strategy through context-specific KM inititiatives. Paper presented at CATI 2005, Congresso Anual de Tecnologia de Informa��o, S�o Paulo, Brazil.

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KM technologies and strategy

  1. 1. Linking Knowledge Management Technologies to Strategy André Saito and Katsuhiro Umemoto Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Graduate School of Knowledge Science Ver 4.0 – 2005.3.16 Congresso Anual de Tecnologia de Informação – CATI 2005 June 29 - July 1, São Paulo, Brazil
  2. 2. Introduction Brief survey of KM technologies Knowledge taxonomies Machine-based learning Measurement and reporting Meta-search systems Mobile computing Online analytical processing Ontology and taxonomy Personalization Process modeling Push technology Search Social network analysis Videoconferencing Visualization systems Workflow management Decision support systems Document management E-learning Enterprise portals Executive information systems Expert networks Expert systems Expertise directories Group support systems Groupware Information retrieval tools Intellectual property mgmt. Internet, intranet and extranets Knowledge portals Knowledge repositories Agent technology Artificial intelligence Business intelligence Case-based reasoning Cognitive mapping tools Collaboration support systems Communication systems Community management Competence management Computer based training Content management Customer relationship mgmt. Data and knowledge discovery Data mining Data warehousing
  3. 3. Introduction Existing classification schemes <ul><li>Alavi & Tiwana, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation, Storage and retrieval, Transfer, Application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jashapara, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing, Capturing, Evaluating, Sharing, Storing and presenting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Becerra-Fernandez, Gonzalez & Sabherwal, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery, Capture, Sharing, application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rao, 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation, Codification, Retrieval, Application, Distribution, Validation, Tracking, Personalization, Full-spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luan & Serban, 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business intelligence, Knowledge base, Collaboration, Content and document management, Portals, Customer relationship management, Data mining, Workflow, Search, E-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lindvall, Rus & Sinha, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document and content management, Organizational taxonomy, Collaboration services, Data and knowledge discovery, Expert networks, Knowledge portals, Customer relationship management, Competence management, Intellectual property management, E-learning management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tsui, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search, Meta-web crawler, Process modeling and mind mapping, Case-based reasoning, Data and text mining, Taxonomy/ontological tools, Groupware, Measurement and reporting, E-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binney, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional, Analytical, Asset management, Process, Developmental, Innovation and creation, Pervasive </li></ul></ul>  
  4. 4. Introduction Gaps in previous schemes <ul><li>The most popular approach is to relate technologies to knowledge processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies support to KM, but lack comprehensiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another common approach is to list commercially available KM applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice-oriented, reasonably comprehensive, but link to KM not very clear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A managerial approach focuses on technology investment decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links technology to strategy, but mixes technology with practices </li></ul></ul>  
  5. 5. Research design <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the relationship between KM technologies and business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map KM technologies according to this relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To link the strategy , the knowledge management , and the technology domains via a conceptual map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify key concepts in relevant literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate ambiguity in the use of terminology through semantic commitments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map relationships between concepts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Analytical framework Product Knowledge Objects Process Understanding Methods Power Capability Motives Surveyed KM literature KM systems architectures Existing classification schemes Knowledge processes Methods for implementing KM Human-oriented approach to KM KM and strategy Episteme Data Information Knowledge Wisdom
  7. 7. KM technologies and KM systems architecture <ul><li>KM component technologies are integrated into KM applications’ layers </li></ul>Source: Adapted from Maier, 2004. Access and Personalization Knowledge services Infrastructure and Integration Discovery Publication Collaboration Learning Data and knowledge sources
  8. 8. KM technologies and Knowledge processes <ul><li>Processes intertwine in many levels  too complex </li></ul><ul><li>However, there seems to be some convergence </li></ul>Correlation among different terms describing knowledge processes Use Application Evolution Selling Evaluating Application Internalization Share Distribution Collaboration Sharing Transfer Socialization Store Organization Publication Search and retrieval Deletion and archiving Organizing Storing Storage and retrieval Combination Create Acquisition Creation Capturing Creation Externalization Identify Identification CEN 2004 Maier 2004 Jashapara 2004 Alavi & Leidner 2001 Nonaka &Takeuchi 1995
  9. 9. KM technologies and KM implementation <ul><li>There is confusion between two related, but different concepts: KM technologies vs. KM practices </li></ul>Equivalent terms used in the literature KM activities KM activities KM systems KM mechanisms KM techniques Knowledge technologies KM processes Knowledge tasks Knowledge activities KM tools KM instruments KM applications KM solutions KM tools KM instruments KM applications KM solutions Knowledge processes KM practices KM technologies
  10. 10. KM approaches and practices <ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources mgmt. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>New functions and roles </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives and storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>After action reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Codification </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise directory </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge audit </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Linking KM technologies to KM <ul><li>It is more convenient to relate KM technologies to KM initiatives than to knowledge processes </li></ul>
  12. 12. KM technologies and KM strategies <ul><li>The term KM strategy is used to refer to several different concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zack (2002): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge strategy defines which knowledge should be pursued and how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM strategy determines how a knowledge strategy is implemented </li></ul></ul>Equivalent terms used in the literature Strategic KM KM methodology KM framework KM strategy KM strategies KM strategy Knowledge strategy KM strategy KM approaches
  13. 13. Knowledge strategies <ul><li>Zack (1999) proposes that knowledge gaps exist in comparison to competitors, and are handled through either knowledge creation or reuse </li></ul><ul><li>von Krogh, Nonaka & Aben (2001) suggest that creation or reuse happen in existing or new knowledge domains </li></ul>Knowledge domain Knowledge process New Existing Create Reuse Source: Zack,1999. Source: Adapted from von Krogh, 2001 Innovative knowledge Advanced knowledge Core knowledge Innovative knowledge Advanced knowledge Core knowledge Innovator Leader Viable competitor Laggard At risk Your organization Competitors Probing strategy Expanding strategy Appropriating strategy Leveraging strategy
  14. 14. Knowledge and KM strategy <ul><li>KM is linked to business strategy through knowledge strategies , which should guide KM strategies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Linking KM technologies to strategy <ul><li>KM technologies are linked to strategy through KM initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>KM initiatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Address knowledge gaps/surpluses in knowledge domains </li></ul><ul><li>Adopts a KM approach through adequate choice of KM practices </li></ul><ul><li>Create or reuse knowledge through a combination of personalization and codification approaches </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mapping KM technologies <ul><li>We have distinguished KM technologies between component technologies and KM applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the domain they come from, component technologies are classified between infrastructure and knowledge technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the domain they are applied to, KM applications are classified between KM systems and business applications </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mapping KM technologies Categories of KM technologies
  18. 18. Mapping KM technologies <ul><li>We argue that KM technologies support strategy mainly through KM initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary kind of support to KM initiatives can be used to classify KM systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either the creation or the reuse of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either via a personalization or a codification approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM component technologies can also be classified this way, although many of them can support KM initiatives in multiple ways </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Mapping KM technologies Categories of KM systems Document management Content management Process management Enterprise portals Learning management Competence management Decision support Search and retrieval Discovery and datamining Group support Project management Community support Creation Reuse Personalization Codification
  20. 20. Mapping KM technologies KM component technologies <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases, Repositories, Data warehouses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office suites, Graphics, Multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines, Glossaries, Taxonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process modeling, Process engines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule-based systems, Case-based reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology development, ontology acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, Wireless, Mobility, Peer-to-peer technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing and distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets, extranets, portals, Personalization, Syndication, Audio/Video streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia, Simulations, Web seminars, Learning objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Analytics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query, Reporting, Multi-dimensional analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Datamining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques, Neural networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language processing, Semantic analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative profiling, Intelligent agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2D and 3D navigation, geographic mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail, Mailing lists, Discussion groups, Chat, Instant messaging, Audio/Video conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Group collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing, Calendaring, Meeting support, Application sharing, Group decision support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community management, Blogs, Wikis, Social network analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea generation, Cognitive mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul>Creation Reuse Personalization Codification
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>We argue that the best way to relate KM technologies to strategy is through KM initiatives , that address knowledge gaps in particular knowledge domains </li></ul><ul><li>We suggest a categorization of KM technologies according to their primary kind of support to KM initiatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>either creation or reuse of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>either a personalization or a codification approach </li></ul></ul>