ATTITUDE IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Presented by : Anshu Sweta
<ul><li>“ IT IS YOUR ABILITY TO TAKE YOU TO THE TOP BUT IT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TO KEEP YOU THERE” </li></ul><ul><li>“ ABILITY IS WHAT YOU ARE CAPABLE OF DOING, MOTIVATION DETERMINES WHAT YOU DO, ATTITUDE DETERMINES HOW WELL YOU DO” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Defining attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>A predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Is lasting because it tends to endure over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Is general because it applies to more than a momentary event. </li></ul><ul><li>Has three components - beliefs, affect, and behavioural intentions. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Functional theory of attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian function - related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Value expressive function - attitudes that express the consumers’ central values or self concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego defensive function - formed to protect consumers from external threats or internal feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge function - attitudes formed as the result of a need for order, structure, or meaning. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The ABC model </li></ul><ul><li>A ffect - how a consumer feels about an attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>B ehaviour - the consumer’s intention to do something with regard to an attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>C ognition - the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>The model emphasises the interrelationships between knowing, feeling, and doing. </li></ul>
Forming attitudes Attitudes can form in different ways, depending on the particular hierarchy of effects in operation. They can occur via: • Classical conditioning. • Instrumental conditioning. • Or via a complex cognitive process.
<ul><li>Levels of commitment to an attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest level: compliance. This attitude is formed as it helps in gaining rewards or avoiding punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification - formation of attitudes in order for the consumer to be similar to another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest level: internalisation - deep seated attitudes which become part of a consumer’s value system. </li></ul>
Cognitive consistency and dissonance Cognitive consistency - where consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and are motivated to maintain uniformity among these. Cognitive dissonance - where consumers are confronted with situations where there is some conflict between their attitudes and behaviours. Dissonance reduction occurs by eliminating, adding, or changing elements.
Other theories (1 of 2) Self perception theory - assumes that consumers use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes are, in the same way as we know the attitudes of others by watching what they do. Social judgement theory - assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in the light of what they already know or feel. The initial attitude acts as a frame of reference, and new information is categorised in terms of this standard.
<ul><li>Other theories (2 of 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Balance theory - considers relations among elements a consumer might perceive as belonging together. This perspective involves relations among three elements (the triad): </li></ul><ul><li>A person and his/her perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Some other person or object. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory specifies that consumers desire relations among elements in the triad to be harmonious or balanced. </li></ul>
STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>- COGNATIVE COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li>- THE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li>- THE CONATIVE COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>THEORY OF TRYING-TO-CONSUME MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>ATTITUDE-TOWARDS-THE-AD MODEL </li></ul>
TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL CONATION COGNITION AFFECT
COGNITIVE COMPONENT <ul><li>The knowledge and perceptions that are required by a combination of direct experiences with the product and related information about the very product from various sources. This knowledge and resulting perceptions commonly take the from of belief. This belief ultimately culminates into attitude towards buying the product. </li></ul>
AFFECTIVE COMPONENT <ul><li>A consumer’s emotions or feeling about a particular product or brand constitutes the affective component of an attitude. These emotions or feeling with the product subsequently results into brand loyalty sometimes. </li></ul>
CONATIVE COMPONENT <ul><li>Conative component is concern with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Conative component is frequently treated as an expression to of the consumer’s intention to buy. </li></ul>
MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODEL <ul><li>These are needed as a simple response does not always provide all the information we need to know about why a consumer has certain feelings towards a product or about what marketers can do to change consumers’ attitudes. </li></ul>
Elements of multi-attribute models <ul><li>Attributes - characteristics that consumers consider when evaluating the attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs - cognitions about the specific attitude object. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance weights - these reflect the relative priority of an attribute to the consumer. </li></ul>
THEORY OF TRYING-TO-CONSUME MODEL <ul><li>This theory is designed to account for the many cases in which the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempts to consume. </li></ul><ul><li>In trying to consume, here are often personal impediment, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., a consumer is trying to lose weight but loves chocolates bars. </li></ul>
ATTITUDE-TOWARDS-THE-AD MODEL Exposure to an Ad Judgments about the Ad (cognition) Feelings from the Ad (Affect) Beliefs about the brand Attitude toward the Ad Attitude towards the brand
Estimating the attitudinal impact of alternative changes How expensive are the product modifications required to change attitude? Are they possible to accomplish? How resistant to change are consumers? What is the potential attitudinal payoff each change might deliver?
Consumer intentions <ul><li>How much existing product should be produced to meet demand? </li></ul><ul><li>How much demand will there be for a new product? </li></ul>Useful for firms when predicting how people will act as consumers Firms interested in many types of consumer intentions
Types of intentions Spending intentions reflect how much money consumers think they will spend No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will Will you spend at least $1,000 on Christmas gifts this year? Purchase intentions represent what consumers think they will buy No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will Will you buy a Mercedes-Benz automobile during the next 12 months?
Types of intentions Repurchase intentions indicate whether consumers anticipate buying the same product or brand again No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will The next time you purchase coffee, will you buy the same brand? Shopping intentions capture where consumers plan on making their product purchases No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will Will you shop at Wal*Mart during the next 30 days?
Types of intentions Search intentions indicate consumers’ intentions to engage in external search No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will The next time you need to be hospitalised, will you speak to your doctor before choosing a hospital? Consumption intentions represent consumers’ intentions to engage in a particular consumption activity No chance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I definitely will Will you watch the next Super Bowl?
How firms can predict behaviour Rely on past behaviour to predict future behaviour Problems: <ul><li>Situations change (changes in market can cause unpredictable changes in demand) </li></ul><ul><li>Sales trends are sometimes erratic </li></ul><ul><li>Past behaviours not available for new products or first-time behaviours </li></ul>Rely on consumers’ reported intentions People often do what they intend
Constraints on predictive power of intentions Intentions can change <ul><li>Intend to do something and don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Intend not to do something and do </li></ul>Can’t control whether consumers act upon their intentions Can influence predictive accuracy Intentions’ predictive accuracy strongly depends on how they are measured The more closely intention measures correspond to the to-be-predicted behaviour, the greater the predictive accuracy
Consumer intentions: Other uses Indicator of the possible effects of certain marketing activities Intentions may provide an informative indication of a company’s likely success in retaining customers
EVALUATIVE SCALE-GAUGE CONSUMER’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS OLD SPICE AFTERSHAVE REFRESHING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NOT REFRESHING POSITIVE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NEGATIVE PLEASANT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNPLEASANT APPEALING TO OTHERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNAPPEALING TO OTHERS
How situation might influence Attitude Product/service Situation Attitude Vicks inhaler Runny nose due to allergy “ I’ve got to stop my nose from running because I’ve got a date in two hours.” Hyundai automobiles Heavy rush in the buses “ I am thinking to buy a new car in this Diwali.” ICICI prudential Life insurance “ I want to make my family is secured.” Noukari.com Need a job “ I have graduated last month and now it is time to find a job.” Jet airways Family wedding “ My cousin is getting married and I want to be there.”
Attitude with reference to a company Mr. Sanjeev Kapoor KAPOOR'S are one of the pioneers in the manufacture of secondary glass containers (ampoules and tubular vials) in India having entered into this field of activity in the year 1962. From its humble beginnings in the early 60's the group has grown today into one of the premier independent label in the country and Kapoor's have became synonymous with glass ampoules, tubular vials and neutral glass tubing in India. In 1980 the operational reins of KAPOOR GLASS was handed over to Mr. Sanjeev Kapoor by the founder his father, Mr. Dharminder Kapoor. In these 2 decades at the helm of KAPOOR, Sanjeev using his creative resource, innovative thinking and dynamism transformed the reactive attitude of the company's management into a very proactive aggressive outlook and changed the face of the industry forever.
<ul><li>With his firm belief that "Quality Alone Survives" he and his team dedicated all their efforts towards converting this philosophy into action. </li></ul><ul><li>Under his leadership many firsts in the industry were achieved. </li></ul>Tubing Plant - Taloja Ampoule Plant - Panvel
<ul><li>Kapoor's foresight and market instincts had anticipated the transition of the Indian market very soon evolving into the European trend of COMPOSITE INDUSTRIES being the order of the day. This was the motivating factor for Kapoor's to plunge into production of neutral glass tubes. </li></ul>
The era of technology <ul><li>Being convinced that the company that would possibly prevail into 21st century, will be those that have the foresight to invest wisely in modernization, automation and harnession emerging technologies to face the challenges of the ever growing stringent quality demands of the pharma companies and be able to face head-on international global competition, </li></ul>
<ul><li>Kapoor's invested in high level of technical upgradation in tubing plant at Taloja, acquired modern third generation machineries for production of ampoules. These machines are equipped with controls which would enable the group to deliver 'zero defect' ampoules of all shapes and types complying with Din standards. </li></ul><ul><li>With a very highly professional and motivated team, believing that our positive attitude and aptitude would give us the altitude, we shall continue our endeavor to give our customer value for money in terms of International quality at affordable cost. </li></ul><ul><li>It is our faith that, transparency in communication and organizational agility will help us conquer what we have set out to do, to be a global player and make ourselves proud of the "Made in India" label. </li></ul><ul><li>Kapoor today is the only composite manufacturer of neutral glass tubes, ampoules and vials in India. </li></ul>