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Consumer learning


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Consumer learning

  1. 1. Consumer Learning<br />
  2. 2. Importance of Learning<br />Marketers must teach consumers:<br />where to buy<br />how to use<br />how to maintain<br />how to dispose of products<br />
  3. 3. Consumer Learning<br />A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experiencethat they apply to future related behavior<br />
  4. 4. Learning Processes<br />Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information<br />Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effort<br />
  5. 5. Elements of Learning Theories<br />Motivation<br />Cues<br />Response<br />Reinforcement<br />
  6. 6. Reinforcement<br />A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus.<br />
  7. 7. Behavioral Learning Theories<br />Classical Conditioning<br />Instrumental Conditioning<br />Modeling or Observational Learning<br />
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning<br />A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.<br />
  9. 9. Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning<br />A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.<br />
  10. 10. PavlovianModel of Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned Stimulus<br />Meat paste<br />Unconditioned Response<br />Salivation<br />Conditioned Stimulus<br />Bell<br />AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS<br />Conditioned Stimulus<br />Bell<br />Conditioned Response<br />Salivation<br />
  11. 11. Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned Stimulus<br />Dinner aroma<br />Unconditioned Response<br />Salivation<br />Conditioned Stimulus<br />6 o’clock news<br />AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS<br />Conditioned Stimulus<br />6 o’clock news<br />Conditioned Response<br />Salivation<br />
  12. 12. Relevance to Marketing<br />Conditioned Stimuli – Brand Image<br />Unconditioned Stimuli – New Additions to the Brand<br />Response – Acceptance of the Brand<br />
  13. 13. Cognitive Associative Learning<br />Classical conditioning is viewed as the learning of associations among events that allows the organism to anticipate and represent its environment.<br />For the conditioning to happen, <br />The conditioned stimuli should precede the Unconditioned stimuli<br />Repeated pairing of Conditioned and Unconditioned stimuli<br />Conditioned stimuli is new and unfamilier<br />Unconditioned stimuli is biologically or symbolically salient.<br />
  14. 14. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning<br />Repetition<br />Stimulus Generalization<br />Stimulus Discrimination<br />
  15. 15. Repetition<br />Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wearout.<br />Cosmetic variations reduce satiation.<br />Substantive Variations are the changes in advertising content.<br />
  16. 16. Three-Hit Theory<br />Repetition is the basis for the idea that three exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to be effective<br />The number of actual repetitions to equal three exposures is in question.<br />
  17. 17. Stimulus Generalization<br />The possibility of other similar stimuli replacing a known conditioning stimuli.<br />
  18. 18. Stimulus Generalization and Marketing<br />Product Line, Form and Category Extensions<br />Family Branding<br />Licensing<br />Generalizing Usage Situations<br />
  19. 19. Stimulus Discrimination<br />The ability to discriminate a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences.<br />Positioning<br />Differentiation<br />
  20. 20. Try <br />Brand A<br />Unrewarded<br />Legs too tight<br />Try <br />Brand B<br />Unrewarded<br />Tight in seat<br />Stimulus Situation (Need good-looking jeans)<br />Try <br />Brand C<br />Unrewarded<br />Baggy in seat<br />Try <br />Brand D<br />Reward<br />Perfect fit<br />Repeat Behavior<br />A Model of Instrumental Conditioning<br />
  21. 21. Instrumental Conditioning<br />Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors.<br />A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.<br />
  22. 22. Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing<br />Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)<br />Extinction and Forgetting<br />Reinforcement Schedules<br />Total / continuous reinforcement<br />Fixed / systematic reinforcement<br />Variable / random reinforcement<br />
  23. 23. Shaping<br />Performance of Reinforcement before the actual consumer behaviour.<br />Massed versus Distributed Learning<br />
  24. 24. Reinforcement<br />Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior<br />Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream<br />Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response<br />Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo<br />
  25. 25. Other Concepts in Reinforcement<br />Punishment<br />Choose reinforcement rather than punishment<br />Extinction<br />Combat with consumer satisfaction<br />Forgetting<br />Combat with repetition<br />
  26. 26. Observational Learning<br />A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.<br />
  27. 27. Consumers Learn by Modeling<br />
  28. 28. Cognitive Learning Theory<br />This theory is based on the premises that the kind of learning most characteristics of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.<br />
  29. 29. Appeal to Cognitive Processing<br />
  30. 30. Information Processing<br />A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved.<br />
  31. 31. Information Processing and Memory Stores<br />Sensory Store<br />Working Memory (Short-term Store)<br />Long-term Store<br />Sensory <br />Input<br />Rehearsal<br />Encoding<br />Retrieval<br />Forgotten; <br />lost<br />Forgotten; <br />lost<br />Forgotten; <br />unavailable<br />
  32. 32. Rehearsal and Learning<br />Rehearsal is repeating the information or relating it to other information. <br />Rehearsal makes the information available for short term memory so that the encoding can happen.<br />Encoding is the process where a word or visual image is selected to represent a perceived object.<br />
  33. 33. Retention<br />Information is stored in long-term memory<br />Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired<br />Semantically: according to significant concepts<br />
  34. 34. Models of Cognitive Learning<br />Innovation Adoption Model<br />Decision-Making Model<br />Tricompetent Model<br />Innovation Decision Process<br />Promotional Model<br />Sequential Stages <br />of Processing<br />Attention<br />Cognitive<br />Knowledge<br />Awareness<br />Awareness Knowledge<br />Affective<br />Evaluation<br />Interest<br />Evaluation<br />Persuasion<br />Interest<br />Desire<br />Action<br />Conative<br />Purchase<br />Postpurchase<br />Evaluation<br />Trial<br />Adoption<br />Decision<br />Confirmation<br />
  35. 35. Involvement Theory<br />A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.<br />
  36. 36. Split Brain Theory<br />Figure 7.14<br />Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in certain functions<br />
  37. 37. Encouraging Right and Left BrainProcessing<br />
  38. 38. Issues in Involvement Theory<br />Involvement Theory and Media Strategy<br />Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance<br />Narrow categorisers<br />Broad categorisers<br />Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion<br />High involvement – Central route of persuasion <br />Low involvement – Peripheral route of Persuasion.<br />Measures of Involvement<br />
  39. 39. Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion<br />A theory that proposesthat highly involved consumers are best reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the product (the central route) while uninvolved consumers can be attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route).<br />
  40. 40. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)<br />A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.<br />
  41. 41. The Elaboration Likelihood Model<br />Involvement<br />HIGH<br />LOW<br />Central Route<br />Peripheral Route<br />Message Arguments Influence Attitudes<br />Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes<br />
  42. 42. Measures of Consumer Learning<br />Recognition and Recall Measures<br />Aided and Unaided Recall<br />Cognitive Responses to Advertising<br />Copytesting Measures<br />Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty<br />
  43. 43. Phases of Brand Loyalty<br />Cognitive Loyalty- Peoples thought about object<br />Affective Loyalty– refers to moods, feeling or emotional responses to the object<br />Conative Loyalty– refers to behavioural intention or willingness to act.<br />Action / Behaviour Loyalty.<br />
  44. 44. Brand Loyalty As A Function of <br />Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior<br />Repeat Patronage<br />High<br />Low<br />Latent<br />Loyalty<br />Loyalty<br />High<br />Relative Attitude<br />No <br />Loyalty<br />Spurious Loyalty<br />Low<br />