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9/19/2011 Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior

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Date: 9/19/2011
Course: MK617 Consumer Behavior
Assignment: Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior

Description: “Every product you purchase reflects who you really are”
A critical review of Joseph Sirgy article about Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior.
For this assignment, students were presented some definitions and theories about Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior. This included the definition of the Image product, the process of identification, congruity and incongruity, but also some self-concept measurements practices.

Published in: Business
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9/19/2011 Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Self-Conceptin ConsumerBehaviorA CriticalReviewJoseph SirgyBy Walid ABRAZ for MK 6179/19/2011
  2. 2. Self-Concept inConsumer BehaviorA Critical ReviewJoseph SirgySome Key wordsConsumer behaviorSelf-conceptProduct ImageThe brandCongruity / IncongruitySelf-esteemSelf-consistencyIdentificationMarketingMotivationPurchase
  3. 3. Objective of the studyit denotes the importance of Self-concept inconsumer behavior.Every product you purchase reflects whoyou really are.1. Definitions and theories about the self-concept2. The Image Product3. The self-concept studies4. The self-concept theories : Identification /Congruity / Incongruity5. The self-concept measurements6. The self-concept research7. A critical review of the self-concept
  4. 4. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 1/6 The Self-concept denotes the “totality of the individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object” How do you see yourself? Some define the Self-Concept to be “Self-Image”, which means “an individual’s perception of himself”. It is often described of defined by the word “Self-description” Example 1 “I am a marketer” or “I am a teacher”MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 4
  5. 5. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 2/6 The Self-concept seems to have three (03) components : 1. The Ideal self-concept The person you would like to be. Ex. : I want to be a Successful Marketing Manager 2. The Public self-concept The image you think people have on you. Ex. : I am perceived to be arrogant and snob! 3. The Real self-concept What you really think about yourself. Ex. : I am intelligent and competent !MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 5
  6. 6. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 3/6 DO NOT CONFUSE WITH THE FOLLOWING… 1. Self-esteem which means the auto-evaluation in a positive or a negative way. Ex.: I believe I am competent and I am proud about that. (+) I think I am disrespectful and I am ashamed about that. (-) In this case we have to distinguish that the self-esteem is a focus on a positive or a negative auto-evaluation. Whereas, the self-concept refers to what we think about ourselves in general. 2. Self-consistency that denotes the ego-centrism which means the tendency for an individual to behave consistently with a view of himself.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 6
  7. 7. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 4/6 Back to the self-concept components… Sometimes there is a conflict between the Real Self-Concept and the other types or components. For example in performing art, sport or studies, those conflicts may affect the performance of a person. That’s why many people try to work on how to improve their self-concept by using psychological methods (therapies). Ideally, to avoid such conflicts and feel good, people often try to create a harmony between the three components of the self-concept. In other words, to maintain good mental health, people try to establish a kind of balance between those components. This means that the Public self-concept and the Ideal self-concept should be compatible with the Real self-concept.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 7
  8. 8. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 5/6 Moreover, different theories have been presented in this article to define the “Self-concept”. 1. According to the “Psychoanalytic theory”: the self-concept is defined as the self-system inflicted with conflicts. 2. According to the “Behavioral theory”: the self-concept is a set of self- responses to a stimulation. 3. According to the “Organismic theory”: the self-concept refers to body function and natural development. 4. According to the “Cognitive theory”: the self-concept is represented as being a conceptual system processing information about the self. This theory definitely denotes the self-concept as being an individual’s psychological functions.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 8
  9. 9. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Definition and theories 6/6 5. According to the “Symbolic interactionism”: the self-concept is seen as being a function of interpersonal interactions. In this context, the self-concept refers to the differences that could exist between people. That means that people respond toward products or concepts differently. This difference in interpretations and assumptions is based on how much those objects, products, concepts or images are significant to people.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 9
  10. 10. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Moreover, if an object, product or image is important to one person, it can be less important or unimportant at all to another person. As a result, both persons facing the same objects, products, images or concepts may have significantly different reactions to them. I LIKE beers I HATE beersMK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 10
  11. 11. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical ReviewPassing the introduction where the author presenteddifferent definitions and interpretations of what the “self-concept” stands for ; the first part of the article is linked tohow to use the self-concept while studying theconsumer behavior as a part of the marketingresearch.In this context, Sirgy talks about the well known conceptthat “Consumers can be defined in terms of theproducts they purchase or they use. Or in terms ofwhat those products mean for them”.French citation adaptation :• Dis moi ce que tu consommes, je te dirais qui tu es ! (Tell me what you consume, I’ll tell you who you are !) MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 11
  12. 12. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The product image 1/1 Several factors determine the personality Or the image of a product, such as : the physical appearance, the packaging, the advertising, and the price…etc. In general, when all these factors are present, we generally talk about the brand. The American Marketing Association defines a product when it comes to a brand as being : a name, a term, a design, and a symbol that identify or distinguish a product from another.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 12
  13. 13. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Furthermore…! According to Holman, as cited in this article, for a product to have an image, a personality association, and to effectively convey a message in term of communication, it has to be : Purchased visibly, Used variably, and personalizable.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 13
  14. 14. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The self-concept studies 1/4 In general, those studies tend to deal directly with the product image and how it is perceived by the consumers. 1. The stereotypic image of the product : Ex: the stereotypic image on the cars “made in germany” to be the most reliable, performing and highly designed cars.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 14
  15. 15. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The self-concept studies 2/4 2. The product image in direct association with the self-concept (A): Ex: FC Barcelona soccer team derived products’ image that is extremely related to the high level of soccer playing and to the Spanish Catalan Identity.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 15
  16. 16. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The self-concept studies 3/4 2. The product image in direct association with the self-concept (B): It’s important to know that in terms of self-concept and product image, the FC Barcelona club fans play an important role in the development of the club and the affirmation of it’s Catalan identity. As such, different derived products were manufactured using the FCB brand image in relation of the Catalan supporters’ self-concept. Consequently, the FCB “Company” gained a competitive advantage by associating the FCB brand with the self-concept. This successful association was very difficult to reproduce by the other European soccer teams.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 16
  17. 17. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The self-concept studies 4/4 3. Sex-typed product image: It’s a part of the consumers behavior studies based on the consideration of the sex role in purchasing products. • How do the consumers perceive the masculine and feminine products? • How to decide weather a specific product is for males or for females? • And how do consumers differentiate masculine products form feminine ones? most men most women are into both are into fancy are into cars perfumes underwearMK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 17
  18. 18. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Theories 1/4 A. The Identification 1/2 1. According to Levy as cited in this article, the consumer behavior toward purchasing products is not functionally but regarded as being affected by the different symbols, images, and messages encountered. 2. The consumer behavior is probably affected by the product image affecting his self-concept. 3. Some consumers who see people purchasing a specific product, or are influenced by displays, and advertisements on packaging are more likely ready to purchase this same product.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 18
  19. 19. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Theories 2/4 A. The Identification 2/2 4. Through purchasing specific products, some consumers tend or want to enhance their self-concepts related to those specific products or services. Kind of special feelings when purchasing a product or a service (ex: cars, bikes, tattoos, piercings… etc.) Also, the use of some products or services might be the only way for some consumers to express theirs thoughts or their feelings.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 19
  20. 20. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Theories 3/4 B. The Self-image / Product image Congruity 1/2 The main idea developed in this theory by Joseph Sirgy is that the consumers insist in conveying a specific image that is congruent with the product they purchase. It’s a theory where consumers are highly motivated to purchase a product. (A high status product A high consumer position A high value) A POSITIVE SELF-CONGRUITY Ex : L’OREAL cosmetics and beauty products “L’OREAL, parce que je le vaux bien” (L’OREAL because I’m worth it)MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 20
  21. 21. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Theories 4/4 B. The Self-image / Product image Congruity 1/2 However, Sirgy discusses not only the positive congruity that involve the product image and the self-concept, but also : • The positive self-incongruity : Where a positive product image is compared to a negative self-image belief. • The Negative self-congruity: Where a negative product image is compared to a positive self-image belief. • The Negative self-incongruity : Where a negative product image is compared to a negative self-image belief. In those cases, the consumer will have to deal with his real wants and needs, while paying attention to his self-esteem and self-consistency to purchase a product (+/- motivated to purchase).MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 21
  22. 22. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Measurements 1/1 1. The Q-Sort : A method that measures the relation between the consumer and the product. The self-identification of a consumer to a product. This method denotes a series of questions addressed to the respondents in order to extract what the consumers really want. “Most like me” “Least like me” Question 1 X Question 2 X Question 3 X In addition to other types of self-concept measurements where discussed in this article, such as : 2. The Semantic Differential 3. The Adjective check-list 4. The sex-role attitude measurement.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 22
  23. 23. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review The Self-Concept Research 1/1 In this section, the author presents 5 types of research related to self- concept. 1. Some are related to social and psychological factors. 2. Others treat the relation between the consumer behavior and the self-concept / product image. 3. While other research focus on the consumer behavior as being directly influenced by the self-concept. 4. In addition to some particular attention to the product images that stimulate the consumer behavior and motivate the purchase. 5. Finally, Sirgy represents the self-concept as a function of behavior.MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 23
  24. 24. Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior A Critical Review Conclusion The research problems : a critical review As in all other studies and analysis, the author presents his own critical review of the theories relevance and research problems. Starting by a critique on the theoretical part of the self-concept studies : passing by the interrelationship between the self-concept and the product image (congruity / incongruity) : to end up his study by a critique on the self-concept measurement : • The semantic Differential : Based on the choice of question and adjectives, this method presents some methodological difficulties, as there is no one agreed method by the consumer behavior researchers. • The Q-Method : The difficulties are mostly related to respondents that may find it difficult to describe themselves in terms of product. Not all the people can identify themselves to a specific product. The “most like me”/ “least like me” does not work sometimes. Overall, the author initiated us to an important starting point of the consumer behavior studies, namely the self-concept and its different aspects, and characteristics that constitute a real pillar for the marketing researchers in the process of wanting to know what the consumers really want ?MK 617 - Consumer Behavior By Walid ABRAZ 24
  25. 25. REFERENCES http://www.answers.com/topic/self-concept http://askville.amazon.com/symbolic- interactionism/AnswerViewer.do?requestId=4515077http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=853263&show=pdf http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=9627 http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=9747 http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=6065 http://www.jstor.org/pss/3150479 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mar.4220120105/abstracthttp://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=853263&show=pdf

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