Chapter 1 Consumer Behavior Its Origins And Strategic Applications


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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 1 Consumer Behavior Its Origins And Strategic Applications

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Consumer Behavior: Its Origins and Strategic Applications
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Overview of Consumer Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The Marketing Concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Marketing Mix and Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Marketing Concept </li></ul><ul><li>A Simplified Model of Consumer Decision Making </li></ul>
  3. 3. Consumer Behavior <ul><li>The behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Customers Search for Products weblink
  5. 5. Personal Consumer <ul><li>The individual who buys goods and services for his or her own use, for household use, for the use of a family member, or for a friend. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Consumer <ul><li>A business, government agency, or other institution (profit or nonprofit) that buys the goods, services, and/or equipment necessary for the organization to function. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Government Buying weblink
  8. 8. Development of the Marketing Concept Production Concept Selling Concept Product Concept Marketing Concept
  9. 9. The Production Concept <ul><li>Assumes that consumers are interested primarily in product availability at low prices </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap, efficient production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market expansion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Product Concept <ul><li>Assumes that consumers will buy the product that offers them the highest quality, the best performance, and the most features </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward Marketing Myopia </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Selling Concept <ul><li>Assumes that consumers are unlikely to buy a product unless they are aggressively persuaded to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell, sell, sell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of concern for customer needs and satisfaction </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Marketing Concept <ul><li>Assumes that to be successful, a company must determine the needs and wants of specific target markets and deliver the desired satisfactions better than the competition </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make what you can sell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on buyer’s needs </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion Question <ul><li>What two companies do you believe grasp and use the marketing concept? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe this? </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Marketing Concept <ul><li>Consumer Research </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>The process and tools used to study consumer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Two perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positivist approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretivist approach </li></ul></ul>Implementing the Marketing Concept
  15. 15. weblink
  16. 16. The Marketing Concept <ul><li>Consumer Research </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Process of dividing the market into subsets of consumers with common needs or characteristics </li></ul>Implementing the Marketing Concept
  17. 17. Segmentation Used by Sports Illustrated
  18. 18. Discussion Question <ul><li>What products that you regularly purchase are highly segmented? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the different segments? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is segmentation useful to the marketer for these products? </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Marketing Concept <ul><li>Consumer Research </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of one or more of the segments to pursue </li></ul>Implementing the Marketing Concept
  20. 20. The Marketing Concept <ul><li>Consumer Research </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a distinct image for the product in the mind of the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Successful positioning includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the benefits of the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating a unique selling proposition </li></ul></ul>Implementing the Marketing Concept
  21. 21. This product is positioned as a solution to facial redness.
  22. 22. The Marketing Mix <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul>
  23. 23. Successful Relationships Customer Value Customer Satisfaction Customer Retention
  24. 24. Successful Relationships <ul><li>Customer Value </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as the ratio between the customer’s perceived benefits and the resources used to obtain those benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived value is relative and subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a value proposition is critical </li></ul>Value, Satisfaction, and Retention
  25. 25. Discussion Question <ul><li>How does McDonald’s create value for the consumer? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they communicate this value? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Successful Relationships <ul><li>Customer Value </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Retention </li></ul><ul><li>The individual's perception of the performance of the product or service in relation to his or her expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers identified based on loyalty include loyalists, apostles, defectors, terrorists, hostages, and mercenaries </li></ul>Value, Satisfaction, and Retention
  27. 27. Successful Relationships <ul><li>Customer Value </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Retention </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of providing value is to retain highly satisfied customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal customers are key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They buy more products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are less price sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They pay less attention to competitors’ advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servicing them is cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They spread positive word of mouth </li></ul></ul>Value, Satisfaction, and Retention
  28. 28. Customer Profitability-Focused Marketing <ul><li>Tracks costs and revenues of individual consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Categorizes them into tiers based on consumption behavior </li></ul><ul><li>A customer pyramid groups customers into four tiers </li></ul>
  29. 29. Customer Profitability-Focused Marketing Tier 1: Platinum Tier 2: Gold Tier 3: Iron Tier 4: Lead
  30. 30. Traditional Marketing Concept Vs. Value and Retention Focused Marketing Table 1-2 Utilize an understanding of customer needs to develop offerings that customers perceive as more valuable than competitors’ offerings Market products and services that match customers’ needs better than competitors’ offerings Focus on the product’s perceived value, as well as the need that it satisfies Do not focus on the product; focus on the need that it satisfies Use technology that enables customers to customize what you make Make only what you can sell instead of trying to sell what you make Value and Retention Focused Marketing Traditional Marketing Concept
  31. 31. Impact of Digital Technologies <ul><li>Consumers have more power and access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers can gather more information about consumers </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange between marketer and customers is interactive and instantaneous and goes beyond the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers must offer more products and services </li></ul>
  32. 32. Societal Marketing Concept <ul><li>Marketers adhere to principles of social responsibility in the marketing of their goods and services; that is, they must endeavor to satisfy the needs and wants of their target markets in ways that preserve and enhance the well-being of consumers and society as a whole. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Consumer Behavior Is Interdisciplinary <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul>
  34. 34. A Simplified Model of Consumer Decision Making – Figure 1-1