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2013 History of Civilization - Chapter III


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2013 History of Civilization - Chapter III

  1. 1. History of Civilization 3. MESOPOTAMIA AND NEAR EAST IN BRONZE AGE
  2. 2. TOPICS  Sargon the Great and Akkadian Empire  Ur-Nammu and Sumerian Renaissance  Elamites and Amorites  Babylonian Kingdom  Hammurabi and his Code of Laws  Mittani and Hatti
  3. 3. THE SUMERIANS  Mesopotamia became an area of multiple city-states, each built around a temple of local deity  Sumer (Akkadian word meaning “native/noble”) in south developed a culture in 5th millenium BCE, which initially was close to pre-historic Samarran culture (in north) Semitic tribes Arian peoples “Fisher-folk” Eridu: city of Enki, one of five cities before the Deluge “When kingship from heaven was lowered, the kingship was in Eridu”  Historical periods:  Ubaid (ca. 6500-3800 BCE)  Uruk (ca. 4000-3100 BCE)  Dynastic (from ca. 2900 BCE)  Mythological timeline: Sumerian king list, starting in pre-dynastic (antediluvian) times
  4. 4. THE NEIGHBORHOOD  Languages:  Indo-European  Afro-Asiatic  Isolates Shem, Ham, and Japheth by James Tissot (1890th)  The Fertile Crescent according to Genesis 10
  5. 5. CHRONOLOGY  Fundamental problems:  Dating reign of Hammurabi  When Hittites sacked Babylon?  Chronologies: Short, Medium, Long, Extra-Long, etc. 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 BCE Ancient Sumer Akkad Amorite K. Babylon Cassite K. Sack of Babylon ca. 1531 BCE by Mursilis I Amarna Letters Hattusa destroyed Hittite Empire Treaty of Kadesh 1258 BCE Nebuchadnezzar I takes Susa Sack of Babylon by Elamites 1158 BCEGreat Pyramids Thutmose III Egypt's New K. HammurabiSargon Ur- Nammu The Flood? Babylon taken by Assyrians ca. 1234 BCE Babylon destroyed by Assyrians ca. 1087 BCE Babylon independent: ca. 1894 BCE
  6. 6. CITY OF URUK  The settlement (since 5th millenium BCE) gave name to the Uruk period (between 4000 – 3100 BCE) of Chalcolithic Mesopotamia  The city is said to become the capital of Sumerian king Enmerkar  Capital of King Gilgamesh (according to epic)  Erech in Book of Genesis  Archaeology: Uruk XVIII – I, abandoned ca.700BCE Mask of Warka (Lady of Uruk) (ca. 3100 BCE)
  7. 7. STORIES OF CREATION AND FLOOD  Sumerian cities each had its god (it was said there were 60x60 deities)  Before 3rd millenium these cities were theocracies, led by “En”/”Ensi” (priests)  Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic, inheriting many generic traits of Indo- European religions (sacrifices, magic, purification, divinations, etc.)  Gods’ traits = duties of men  Seven Gods Who Decree created world, animals, “black-headed people” (as servants)  Abgal (7 demi-god sages) gave culture to mankind, then stayed as advisors  Mes were fundamental things/ideas created by Enlil and given to Enki to be spread  King Zi-ud-sura learnt about impending flood and saved men and animals in an ark Creation to be understood as functional not material Enlil and Ninlil
  8. 8. SUMERIAN COSMOLOGY  Primordial beings  Abzu: fresh underground waters  Tiamat (Nammu): ocean (and chaos monster)  Mummu: “the deep one who has awaken”  Lahmu & Lahamu: born of Abzu & Tiamat  Anshar (sky pivot) and Kishar (earth mother):  son and daughter of Lahmu & Lahamu  parents of Anu  Seven gods who decree  Anu: lord of heaven, king of deities, demons, and spirits  Enlil: lord of the storm  Enki: creation, intelligence, crafts, patron of city of Eridu  Ninhursag (Mamma): fertility  Inanna (Ishtar): love, war, planet Venus, patroness of Uruk  Nanna (Sin): wisdom, Moon god, patron of city of Ur  Utu (Shamash): the Sun  Deities  Demigods and Heroes  Spirits and Monsters DINGIR (Sumerian) IL (Akkadian)
  9. 9. SUMERIAN LEGENDS  Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta  Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna  Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave  Lugalbanda and the Anzu Bird  …continued in:  Dumuzid the Shepherd  Epic of Gilgamesh Marriage of Dumuzid and Inanna
  10. 10. ELAMITES  Semitic people near Zagros mountains  ca. 3200 – 1100 BCE (Babylonian invasion) Guennol Lioness (ca. 2900 BCE)
  11. 11. CITY OF UR  Dates from 3800 BCE  Independent city-state in 26th century BCE  According to biblical account the native city of patriarch Abraham Golden Lyre and Standard of Ur (ca. 2600 BCE)
  12. 12. SARGON THE GREAT  Reigned ca. 2270 – 2215 BCE  “Šarru-kīnu” means “King is Legitimate”  “Sargon legend” describes his background and path to power  Came to power in Kish, captured Uruk, leveled its walls, conquered Sumerian cities and established Akkadian empire  Court: 5400 men “share table with king” and govern the empire, Akkadian becomes lingua franca  Was succeeded by sons Rimush and Manishtushu who had to put down revolts and uprisings
  13. 13. COLLAPSE OF EMPIRE AND GUTIANS  Gutian people originated in Zagros mountains, as nomads practiced hit-and-run tactics, overran the Akkad ca. 2150 BCE  Gutians were said to be uncouth “barbarians” “unhappy people unaware how to revere the gods”  Gutian dynasty in Sumer: ca. 2150 – 2050 BCE King Gudea of Lagash (ca. 2080 – 2060 BCE)  Rise of city of Lagash:  largely unaffected by Gutians, independent after the collapse of empire  patron god: Nin Ur (Nin Girsu), warrior deity who dispatched Slain Heroes  Earlier kings:  Lugalanda (24th century BCE), corrupt  Urukagina (ca. 2380 – 2360 BCE), the reformer
  14. 14. UR-NAMMU  Sumerian Renaissance:  Utu-Hengal, ruler of Uruk, defeated Gutians with help of other cities and became Sumerian King  Seven years later Ur-Nammu (governor of Ur and his son-in-law) established new Sumerian dynasty: 18 years of rule (ca. 2112 – 2094 BCE), restoring law and order  Period of Ur III ca. 2100 – 1900 BCE  Centralization, state-run projects, new towns (with Akkadian names)  Law code of Ur-Nammu  Literature, epic poems (one describes death of king Shulgi, son of Ur-Nammu, in the battle against Gutians) King Ur-Nammu appoints city governor Half –mina (248 g) with inscription of king Shulgi
  15. 15. EPIC OF GILGAMESH  Epic poem converged from several Sumerian sources around 2100 BCE  Early written versions before 18th century, “standard” texts: ca. 13-10th cent. BCE  Twelve tablets are canonicGilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Humbaba  Stories of Gilgamesh and his rival/friend Enkidu  The legendary king of Uruk and builder of its walls, probably ca. 26th century BCE  Also featured: flood hero Utnapishtim  Second half of epic tells about the hero’s quest for immortality
  16. 16. ZIGGURATS  Etymology: “built on raised area”  Stepped pyramid structure, originated as shrine built on top of raised platform  Central part of the temple complex, and as extension, of the city  Reflection of Axis Mundi: shrine on top is meeting place of gods and men Great Ziggurat of Ur built by Ur-Nammu and Shulgi (21st century BCE) Tower of Babel by Lucas van Valckenborch (ca. 1555)  Building of the Tower and confusion of tongues (from Genesis):  "They are one people and have one language, and nothing will be withheld from them which they purpose to do"  "Come, let us go down and confound their speech"
  17. 17. FINDS OF LEONARD WOOLLEY  Excavations (in 1920s) of City of Ur  Artifacts dated before 2000 BCE  “Ram in a Thicket” alludes to Genesis 22  Royal Game of Ur is one of the oldest known table games
  18. 18. UR III RISE AND FALL  After 42 – year reign by king Shulgi his descendants ruled over most of Mesopotamia and upper Euphrates:  Amar-Sin (9 years)  Shu-Sin (8 years)  Ibbi-Sin (13 years)  City of Eridu is abandoned due to salinity increase in Amar-Sin years  Ur around 2000 BCE with ~65000 inhabitants was probably largest city in the world  Elamites sacked Ur ca. 1940 BCE, commemorated in Lament of Ur  Ishbi-Erra, governor of Isin, established independent kingdom and ruled 1953 – 1921 BCE
  19. 19. AŠŠUR AND AMORITES  Sumerian dynasty of “Ur-III” was defeated by Elamites and collapsed after 1940 BCE  Sumerian becomes language of high learning and religion  Ashur (Assyria) existed in northern Tigris area as independent Akkadian state since early 24th century  Amorites were Semitic people migrating to lower Mesopotamia from Levant  Founded by Amorite chieftain ca. 1894 BCE, Babylon was a tiny city-state on shores of Euphrates Old Babylonian cylinder seal (19th century BCE)
  20. 20. HAMMURABI  The sixth king of Babylon, ruled ca. 1728 – 1686 BCE (short chronology)  Established Babylonian empire Hammurabi receives regalia from Shamash: image on the top of the stele with laws inscribed  The Code of 282 laws:  Precise descriptions of offenses and punishments  Presumption of innocence and competitiveness in presenting evidence  Scaling according to social status  Regulating contracts and wages
  21. 21. ENÛMA ELIŠ  Babylonian variation of creation mythos:  Apsu and Tiamat are fought by Ea (Enki) and younger gods  Apsu is slain, Tiamat establishes Qingu as her consort and gives him Tablets of Destiny  Marduk son of Ea slays Qingu and Tiamat  Humankind is created for the service of gods When on High the sky was not named And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name And the primeval Apsu, who begat them And chaos, Tiamat, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen When of the gods none had been called into being
  22. 22. MARDUK  Planet Jupiter and patron deity of Babylon gained supremacy over Enlil and Ashur  Enuma Elish established supremacy of Marduk in Babylonian religion  12 days of Akitu festival in spring were celebration dedicated to Marduk  The fifty names of Marduk  The Marduk prophesy (the itinerant idol)  Poem How Erra Wrecked the World tells story of god of discord luring Marduk out of his statue after Erra is called to be a leader of Seven “peerless champions” sent by Anu on mission of destruction
  23. 23. BABYLONIAN ASTRONOMY  Recognition of periodic character of astronomical phenomena and application of mathematics to make predictions  Star catalogues and recognition of constellations (including 18 zodiacal)  Origins: Sumerian or Elamite?  Influence on Greek astronomy  “Enuma Anu Enlil …” texts (major series of 70 tablets) contained collection of omens and became source of astrology ☿ Shamash SIN NERGAL NeboMarduk Ninurta Ishtar
  24. 24. BABYLONIAN MATHEMATICS  Sumerians had multiplication and division tables, geometric exercises  Babylonians developed pre- calculated tables for solution of quadratic and cubical equations  Calculations of growth (e.g. for loans)  Calculation of ephemeris into astronomical tables  Extensive metrological system Sexagesimal Numerals in Cuneiform
  25. 25. ASSYRIANS  Semitic people in North Mesopotamia (Sumerian province of Subartu)  After fall of Akkadian empire: rise of Old Assyrian Kingdom :  ca. 2000 BCE: Oligarchy rather than Monarchy  Under king Shamshi-Adad I (reigned 1813 – 1791 BCE), son of Amorite: gaining control of neighboring cities and trade routes  Fell to Hammurabi ca. 1756 BCE  Independency restored ca. 1730 BCE  Expansion into Anatolia: trade and colonies Old Assyrian “Khabur Ware” jar (ca. 1800 BCE)
  26. 26. RISE OF HITTITES  People speaking Indo-European language migrated into Anatolia after 2000 BCE  King Labarna (reigned ca. 1586 – 1556 BCE) moved his capital from Nesa to Hattusa and became Hattusili I  King Mursili I (reigned ca. 1556 – 1526 BCE)  reached southern Mesopotamia and sacked Babylon ca. 1531  His assassination marked the end of the Old Hittite Kingdom Egyptian picture of Hittite chariot
  27. 27. CASSITE KINGDOM OF BABYLON  Cassites: originated in Zagros mountains and spoke language isolate  After the fall of Old Babylonian kingdom (ca. 1531 BCE) took control of Mesopotamia  Original Cassite deities merged with Babylonian pantheon  Cassites built a new royal capital and restored previously abandoned Nippur  Recovered Marduk idol from Hittites  Assyrian interferences:  sack of Babylon ca. 1360s BCE: intervention after king’s murder and installation of new king  periods of direct Assyrian rule  Elamites destroyed Babylon in 1155 BCE, taking the last king to Susa Cassite Ningal temple in Ur
  28. 28. EGYPT’S EXPANSION  XVIIIth dynasty:  Hatshepsut (1508 – 1458 BCE) expanded the kingdom’s riches  Thutmose III (1479 – 1425 BCE) achieved the greatest territorial span for Egypt  War with Kadesh and battle of Megiddo  Tale of Taking of Joppa (by general Djehuty)  Conquest of Canaan  Attack on Mittani: crossing the Euphrates
  29. 29. HURRIANS & MITTANI  Hurrians were located in North Mesopotamia (bronze age), speaking language isolate  Mittani were Indo-European – speaking people who were ruling class in land of Hurrians (Hanigalbat in Assyrian)  Mittani king Shaushtatar (ruled in 15th century BCE) sacked Assur  King Tushratta was a contemporary of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, and Suppiluliuma I Urkish lion and the earliest writing in Hurrian (21st century BCE)
  30. 30. AMARNA LETTERS  Archive of Egyptian kings (XVIIIth dynasty)  Period of 15th – 14th cent.  Clay tablets:  001–014 Babylonia  015–016 Assyria  017–030 Mittani  031–032 Arzawa  033–040 Alashiya  041–044 Hatti  045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan
  31. 31. HITTITE EMPIRE  Maximal extent under Suppiluliuma I (reigned 1344 – 1322 BCE) his sons:  Arnuwanda (1321 BCE)  Piyasshili (ruler of Carchemish)  Mursili II (1321 – 1295 BCE)  Zannanza his grandsons:  Muwatali II (1295 – 1272 BCE)  Hattusili III (1267 – 1237 BCE) Kadesh  Battle: 1274 BCE  Treaty: 1258 BCE 1300 BCE
  32. 32. CASSITES IN MESOPOTAMIA  Cassite dynasties: till ca. 1155 BCE  Almost 400 years of stability  Transformation of Babylonian kingdom into territorial state Kudurru of King Meli-Shipak II (ca. 1186 – 1172 BCE) granting lands to his daughter Cassite decorative art: Glass, dog figurines (12th century BCE)
  33. 33. ANCIENT CANAAN, HEBREWS  Semitic people native to Canaan worshipped El and Ashera, Baal, Moloch, Yahweh The Tetragrammaton  Israelites adopted Yahweh as national god and believed in a covenant with the LORD Egyptian depiction of the Canaanites (13th century BCE) Figure of Baal (Ugarit, ca. 14th cent. BCE)
  34. 34. BOOK OF GENESIS  Genesis is the first book of Hebrew bible and first of Five Books of Moses (Tora) Creation of Light by Gustav Dore (1864) ‫ית‬ִׁ‫אש‬ ֵ‫ְּר‬‫ב‬,‫א‬ ָּ‫ָּר‬‫ב‬‫ִׁים‬‫ה‬‫ֹל‬ֱ‫א‬... 1–6: Creation, Eden, Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel 6–11: Noah's Ark, the Flood, the Tower of Babel 12–17: Abraham, Sarah, Lot, Hagar and Ishmael 18–22: Abraham's visitors, Sodomites, Lot's visitors and flight, Hagar expelled, binding of Isaac 23–25: Sarah buried, Rebekah for Isaac 25–28: Esau and Jacob, Esau's birthright, Isaac's blessing 28–32: Jacob flees, Rachel, Leah, Laban, Jacob's children 32–36: Jacob's reunion with Esau, the rape of Dinah 37–40: Joseph's dreams, coat, and slavery, Judah with Tamar, Joseph and Potiphar 41–44: Pharaoh's dream, Joseph in government 44–47: Joseph's brothers visit Egypt, he reveals himself 48–50: Jacob's blessings, death of Jacob and of Joseph
  35. 35. THE SOURCES  In Mesopotamian religions:  Creation of order from chaos  Garden of Eden  The Fall of Man  The Flood  The Legend of Tower From Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)  The documentary hypotheses:
  37. 37. THE FALL OF MAN
  38. 38. CAIN AND ABEL
  42. 42. THE PROMISE
  43. 43. FIRE IN THE SKY
  44. 44. THE DEMAND
  45. 45. JACOB AND ESAU
  46. 46. JACOB’S LADDER
  48. 48. A NEW NAME
  49. 49. … AND TWELVE SONS
  52. 52. REUNION
  53. 53. MOTIFS AND PROBLEMS  Transcendence of God  The Covenant  Value of Faith  Path to Redemption The Fall of Man Hendrik Goltzius, 1616  The Problem of Free Will  The Problem of EvilThe Destruction of Sodom John Martin, 1842
  54. 54. OPPOSITIONS AND REPETITIONS  Oppositions  Cain and Abel  Isaac and Ishmael  Jacob and Esau  Joseph and brothers Cain and Abel Titian, 1544  Repetitions  Sin and Catastrophe  God’s demands and promises  Barren wife  Deception Abraham and Isaac Rembrandt, 1635  Male and Female  Good and Evil
  55. 55. ABANDONING MYTHOPOEIC VIEWS  Mythopoeic worldview  Seeing things as persons not as impersonal objects  Tolerance of contradiction  Concrete, not abstract, understanding  “Pre-philosophical” thinking  Single, transcending God  Each event is a divine act  Divine above nature  Modern worldview  Universal laws  “Philosophical” thinking The Creation of Adam (Michelangelo, ca. 1512)
  56. 56. BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE  Invasions of Sea Peoples  Destruction of Hattusa, Collapse of Hittite Empire  Victories of Merneptah (1213 to 1203 BCE) over Libyans and Israel  Victories of Ramses III over Sea Peoples ca. 1175 BCE  Egypt withdraws from Canaan ca. 1150 BCE Philistines in Battle of Djahy  Disruption of trade networks  Migrations and resettlements
  57. 57. NEBUCHADNEZZAR I  Reigned ca. 1126 – 1103 BCE (early Iron Age in Babylon, the forth king of IVth dynasty)  Victory over Elam:  Retrieval of Marduk idol from Susa  Hymn to Marduk Kudurru depicting Nebuchadnezzar granting Lakti-Marduk freedom from taxation Nabû-kudurr-usur = Nabû, protect my heir!”
  58. 58. ASSYRIA RESURGENT  Tiglath-Pileser I reigned ca. 1114 – 1076 BCE (early Iron Age), assuming title “King of Sumer and Akkad”  Assyria acquires leading position in Near East it will hold thru “Ancient Dark Ages” and for next 500 years Clay prism glorifying achievements of Tiglath-Pileser (from Ashurbanipal’s library)
  59. 59. SUMMARY  Mesopotamian Civilizations developed advanced societies evolving from cities to states  First empires; spreading of culture by trade, conquest and exchange  Extensive literary corpus  Concepts: divine creation, code of laws  Achievements: astronomy, mathematics, technology, etc.  Hebrews developing monotheistic narrative The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563)
  60. 60. IN THE NEXT CHAPTER  Aegean Civilizations  Cyclades and Minoans  Mycenaean Greece  Mythology of Gods and Heroes  Age of Homer
  61. 61. Thank You