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egypt civilization


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  • My solution:
    The pyramids were built by raising megaliths have the corresponding counterweight on the opposite side also obviously be placing a pair of rollers on the top edge of each day the ramp slope was more slippery. Some scuff marks left by the strings, are still visible today.

    Las pirámides las construyeron elevando megalitos gracias a disponer del correspondiente contrapeso en el lado opuesto, además, obviamente, de ir colocando un par de rodillos en el borde cada día más alto de la pendiente que tenía la rampa más deslizante. Algunas huellas dejadas por las rozaduras de las cuerdas, aún son actualmente visibles.
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egypt civilization

  1. 1. Project on egyPtian civilization Group members:- Dhara Desai (02) Vishal Desai (04) Kaushal Joshi (10) N upur Juneja (11) Abhishek Patel ( ) Submitted to:- Ms. Vabhiz Engineer Mayur Kapadia ()
  2. 2. introduction to egyPtian civilization Ancient Egypt, civilization that thrived along the Nile River in northeastern Africa for more than 3,000 years, from about 3300 BC to 30 BC. It was the longest-lived civilization of the ancient world. Geographically, the term ancient Egypt indicates the territory where the ancient Egyptians lived in the valley and delta of the Nile. Culturally, it refers to the ways ancient Egyptians spoke, worshiped, understood the nature of the physical world, organized their government, made their livings, entertained themselves, and related to others who were not Egyptian. The Nile River, which formed the focus of ancient Egyptian civilization, originates in the highlands of East Africa and flows northward throughout the length of what are now Sudan and Egypt. Northwest of modern-day Cairo, it branches out to form a broad delta, through which it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. Because of seasonal rains farther south in Africa, the Nile overflowed its banks in Egypt every year. When the floodwaters receded, a rich black soil covered the floodplain. This natural phenomenon and its effects on the environment enabled the ancient Egyptians to develop a successful economy based on agriculture.
  3. 3. Other natural factors combined to give rise to a great civilization in the Nile region. In Egypt’s relatively cloudless sky the Sun almost always shone, consistently providing heat and light. The Nile served as a water highway for the people, a constant source of life-giving water, and the sustainer of all plants and animals. In addition, natural barriers provided good protection from other peoples. The desert to the west, the seas to the north and east, and the Nile’s rapids, or cataracts, to the south prevented frequent hostile attacks. In this setting a sophisticated and creative society came into being. That society was the only one in the area to endure for thousands of years. Each of its rivals rose to power but ultimately faded from importance. It was in this land that two of the Seven Wonders of the World were found: the pyramids at Giza and the lighthouse at Alexandria. The ancient Egyptians produced a vast body of written records, including ethical and moralistic treatises, instructional texts, religious and magical scrolls, evocative love poetry, epic stories, and ribald tales. They possessed a sophisticated understanding of mathematics and the principles of architecture, enabling them to introduce to the world large stone buildings before 2500 BC. Their enduring images—sculpted, painted, and drawn—captivate viewers even today.
  4. 4. geograPhy Egypt is located in the middle of the Sahara Desert. There are no mountains in Egypt just sand dunes. The sand dunes make huge sand hills in the desert making it hard to travel. The sand dunes are crated by wind blowing the sand around. There are two parts of Ancient Egypt. Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River’s delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean. Upper (southern) Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta. Most of Egypt is made of sand and some rock. The geographic size is 387,000 square miles.
  5. 5. According to inscriptions and documents found by archaeologists, the Egyptians called their country Kemet, meaning “the Black Land,” a reference to the dark, fertile soil that remained after the Nile floodwaters had receded. They also used another term, Deshret, or “the Red Land,” a designation for the desert sands that burned under the blazing Sun. In addition, they used the term Lower Egypt to refer to the northern delta area and the term Upper Egypt to refer to the communities along the river all the way south to Aswān. etail D p ma
  6. 6. Relation w the Nile ith The Nile River is an important part of Egypt. The Egyptians call the Nile river the life of Egypt because if there was no Nile river there would not be anybody living there. There probably would not be an Egypt or any history about it. The Nile River is about 4,145 miles long. It is the longest river in the world. The Nile gave them rich soil to grow there crops so they have food. Egypt's two most important places are the Nile delta and the Nile valley, all ancient Egyptians depended on the Nile river for food, water and transportation. The availability of this unlimited water supplies allowed the creation of a society witch produced the wonders of Ancient Egypt. The Nile river was a swamp land. The Nile river flows into the Mediterranean sea. It is next to the Dead sea, but doesn’t flow into it. The river splits into three parts before it flows into the sea.
  7. 7. Time-Line From - To ( BC )         Old Kingdom 2686 - 2181 BC         Middle Kingdom 1991 - 1786 BC         New Kingdom 1567 - 1085 BC
  8. 8. About 3100 BC-- Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt; invention of hieroglyphic writing; Protodynastic Period begins. About 2686 BC-- End of Protodynastic Period; start of the Old Kingdom. About 2650-- Imhotep builds the Step Pyramid of Zoser. About 2560-- Construction of the Giza pyramids and the Sphinx. 2181-- End of Old Kingdom ,papyrus already in use; civil wars. 1991-- Start of Middle Kingdom. 1786-- Middle Kingdom collapses in the face of invasions from the east. 1567-- Beginning of New Kingdom as invaders are repulsed. About 1450-- Egyptian empire extends from Sudan to Syria. About 1378-- Akhenaten ( ruled about 1378 - 1362 ), a pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, introduces monotheism, worship of a single god. 1200 – 1100-- Libyan incursions; decline of the pharaohs' power. 1085-- End of New Kingdom. About 940-- Egypt reunited under Libyan kings. 746-- Nubian kings conquer Egypt; Assyria makes incursions and becomes steadily more influential. About 620-- Psamtik I ( ruled about 663 - 609 ), a 26th dynasty
  9. 9. 525-- Persian empire absorbs Egypt. 404-- Independence restored. 341-- Persian rule restored. 332-- Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. 305-- Ptolemy I (ruled about 305 - 285 ) comes to the throne; library at Alexandria founded. 285-- Ptolemy II ( ruled about 285 - 246 ) comes to the throne; Pharos lighthouse - one of the seven wonders of the world - built at Alexandria ( about 270 ). 47 Cleopatra ( about 47 - 30 ) takes over the throne with the help of Julius Caesar. 30 Cleopatra commits suicide; Egypt becomes a province of the Roman empire.
  10. 10. government & Political history
  11. 11. – The Egyptians had special kings called pharaohs. There were many pharaohs but for a long time there were only 2. This was during the first Dynasty. King Menes had ruled Upper Egypt (a.k.a. Narmer) and another pharaoh, name unknown, had ruled Lower Egypt and they had a war and Unknown Pharaoh lost and King Menes was the first pharaoh to rule all of Egypt. – There were crowns for each pharaoh. The crown for Lower Egypt is a strange square-like shape with a coil. The crown for Upper Egypt
  12. 12. religion & PhilosoPhy
  13. 13. Excavations of ancient settlements have uncovered traces of religious practices and beliefs in Egypt from as early as 6000 BC. Some sites near the modern border between Egypt and Sudan include areas that were devoted to rituals and festivals, as well as sections for burials. Little is known about the early religious practices and beliefs. Graves of cattle have been found, indicating some degree of veneration of those animals. Human graves dating to Pre dynastic times include artifacts, weapons, vessels, and other materials. The inclusion of these objects in graves indicates a belief in some type of afterlife during which the items would be put to use. By the time Egypt was unified, the early religious practices had developed into a formal religion involving the worship of many gods and goddesses. The environment played a significant role in shaping the nature of the deities the Egyptians worshiped. Their gods and goddesses took the form of humans, animals, or combinations of humans and animals. These forms represented the forces of nature and the elements of the Egyptians' physical world. By picturing the natural powers as recognizable entities and creating mythological stories about them, the Egyptians tried to reach an understanding of the complicated interactions within their universe.
  14. 14. The Egyptians believed of an afterlife. They believed that when you died you would travel down a great river. So when somebody died they would put food pots precious items, and most of their belongings with them. If a great pharaoh died they would be placed in a great tomb with gold, clothing, food, and sometimes even their wives or children so that they wouldn’t be lonely. There was a lot of Egyptians gods the people worshiped. Our favourite is a great and powerful god named Anubis. His job was the lead the dead souls to the underworld, and into the kingdom of Osiris. Osiris was Anubis son. Anubises sing was the jackal.
  15. 15. god & goddess Egyptians believed in a lot of gods. One of them, Osiris, the god of the underworld changes there daily life routine. Every day they have to go to there temple and give him an offering so he will spare there lives. The god gave them food and a place to live. Even if it wasn’t that great. The religion for the Egyptians didn’t stop at their Natural surroundings and affairs in society, it’s almost as if they adhered it to the inner human brain. Ancient Egyptians thought that went you passed on to the after life whatever you were buried with would come with you. The Egyptians would mummify you by taking your brains out through your nose and draining all the fluids from your dead body.
  16. 16. Ma’at (or Maat) was the god of order, justice and truth. A woman wearing a crown surmounted by a huge ostrich feather. Her totem symbol is a stone platform or foundation, representing the stable base on which order is built. Maat was the personification of the fundamental order of the universe, without which all of creation would perish.Seth was the God of the desert, storm and violence, which are all enemies of the fertile, properous, narrow valley of the Nile. Horus, the son of Osiris, was the god of balance and harmony, assigned to maintain the ma’at of Egypt. His function was to ensure the continuing existence and activity of the gods on earth by means of religious acts and to maintain the natural order such as the flow of the Nile an the fertility of the soil..
  17. 17. goddess hathor & god hours
  18. 18. different god & goddess
  19. 19. mummification Making a Mummy was a complicated job! First the dead person’s brain and some other organs were removed and put in jars called canopic jars. Then the body was covered with salts and left to dry for up to 40 days. When the body was dry it was stuffed with linen and other things to help it keep it’s shape. Then it was oiled and bound tightly with linen bandages. The priest in charge wore a jackal mask and represented the egyptian god called anubis. an amulet was plased with the mummy for luck.These are the canopic jars that containd the liver, stomach,intestines and lungs of the dead person. The heart was not removed. Each jar represeanted a god.
  20. 20. the judgment The Egyptians viewed the heart as the seat of intellect and emotion. Before entering the pleasures of eternity, the dead person had to pass a test in which Anubis, the god of the dead, weighed the person’s heart against Ma’at, the goddess of justice and truth, who was represented by a feather. If the deceased’s good deeds outweighed the bad, then his heart would be as light as the feather (heavy hearts bore the burden of guilt and evil), and Osiris would welcome the newcomer to the next world. If the deceased fell short in his judgment, his body would be eaten by a monster that was part crocodile, part lion, and part
  21. 21. tombs & temPles The temples of Ancient Egypt remain as a constant reminder of the power and glory of the Egyptian state and it's Gods. Each of the major gods had their own cult center with a temple complex as well as the 'state' temples at Luxor and Karnak. In addition the Pharaohs also built mortuary temples where their bodies were prepared for their eternal rest. Several of these survive at Luxor. The surviving tombs provide a treasure trove of both objects and Information. The paintings and models included with the burials give a glimpse of the everyday life of the ordinary people and the texts provide invaluable information which helps to build up family trees and to establish the chronology.
  24. 24. art Wich used in different temPles
  27. 27. tombs Tombs were built as large and adorned as the owner could afford, and anyone with the funds prepaid for mummification. The reason for this heavy focus on death relates to the image of the world divided into two halves, which together formed the eternal continuity of cosmos. Yes, this sounds confusing to most modern people, but it was the unquestionable truth to the ancient Egyptians. The sun was the guide for this cycle. During day, the sun passed over the world of the living. During night the sun entered the other world, the other part of cosmos, the world located beneath the ground of man. And this is a central fact to understanding the shape of tombs, especially the finest ones, the royal tombs on the west bank of the Nile at Luxor. Here the pharaohs and queens built their staging posts for joining the eternal cycle of the sun. Hence it was important to drill into the ground, getting as good a position as possible to join nothing less than the Sun.
  29. 29. inside the tombs
  30. 30. Pyramids in the 3rd dynasty (Old Kingdom) Imhotep built the step pyramid for Zoser. This structure was the first all stone monument and was, of course, the inspiration for the true pyramids that followed, culminating into the pyramids of Giza, and in particular the great pyramid of Khufu.   The pyramids were the major achievements of the 4th dynasty - approximately 2500 BC (Old Kingdom) - and were built for Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. These structures are truly awesome. The pyramid of Khufu, for example: contains over 2,300,000 stones the base is 13 square acres, 568,500 sq. ft, or 7 city blocks the side of each base is 754 feet, or more than 2 football fields the pyramid weights 6.5 million tons each stone weighs approximately 2.5 tons and is 481 feet tall
  32. 32. Pyramid Pharaoh Dates (BC) 1 Zoser 2630-2611 Sekhemk 2 2611-2603 het 3 Khaba 2603-2599 4 Snefru 2575-2551 5 Snefru 2575-2551 6 Snefru 2575-2551 7 Khufu 2551-2528 8 Djedefra 2528-2520 9 Khafra 2520-2494 10 Menkaura z
  33. 33. The Great Pyramids of Giza The Pyramid of The Great Pyramids of Giz
  34. 34. PeoPle & life Occupation-- Farming Brewing and Bread making Plowing and Sowing Sailing Harvesting papyrus and Herding
  35. 35. yl ife dail They lived very simple life. Their Houses were made out of mud. Rooms were brightly painted, sometimes with birds, flowers or with the figures of protective gods. Cooking was often done out side over a fire. Poor people ate bread, cheese, beans and salad and drank water. Adults ate their food sitting on simple stools. They also ate beef, pork, antelope and hyena meat as well as goose, pigeon and fish from the Nile. Wealthier people had more varied diets. Most farming families ate fairly simple food.
  36. 36. language art and Writing Language in there time was very advanced for there times. They had a form of writing called hieroglyphics. This form of writing used pictures and symbols instead of letters. The Egyptians didn’t provide much education. The ancient Egyptians didn’t have many schools like we have today but the schools that they did have were teaching people how to be scribes. Girls did not attend school but wealthy girls could read. The boys were taught the trade by their fathers. Most of the learning took place at home where there was an emphasis of practicing skills. The parents taught the children about religion, educational principles and values. Napoleon's invasion led to the spread of all the Egyptian art.
  37. 37. *Hieroglyphs *Pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian language *Originally used to keep records of the king’s possessions. Scribes could easily make these records by drawing a picture of a cow or a boat followed by a number. As the language became more complex, more pictures were needed. Eventually the language consisted of more than 750 individual signs. The word hieroglyphs, in Greek, means sacred drawings. They were only used for religious things and were usually drawings of familiar objects.
  38. 38. thank you PPT design & composed by Kaushal Joshi