Morphology Son


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general information about morphology

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Morphology Son

  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY What is Morphology? Morphology is a field of linguistics focused on the study of the forms and formation of words in a language. Words in a language consist of one element or elements of meaning which are called morphemes .
  2. 2. What is a morpheme? <ul><li>The smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function. </li></ul><ul><li>A single word may be composed of one or more morphemes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EX/She looked unhappier than the day before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>un+ happy+er (can be analyzed into 3 morphemes) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. MORPHEMES <ul><ul><li>free morphemes bound morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(basic word forms) (prefixes and suffixes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Morphemes :morphemes which can be used as a word on their own.They generally consist of separate English word forms such as nouns,verbs and adjectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX/girl,system,happy,act,plane, etc . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bound morphemes : <ul><li>morphemes which can not occur on their own as an independent word.They are generally prefixes and suffixes like re-,-ist,-ed,-s in the words re print,typ ist ,talk ed and boy s ,for example and are attached to other forms which are described as stems -basic word forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX/un + happy + er(unhappier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefix stem suffix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bound free bound </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>EX/carelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Show the free and bound morphemes in the words below.Which one or ones have bound morphemes? </li></ul><ul><li>desire,shortened,bottle,previewer </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE :be careful about these words </li></ul><ul><li>receive,reduce,repeat </li></ul>
  6. 6. Free Morphemes <ul><li>Lexical morphemes functional </li></ul><ul><li>morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical morphemes(lexical content words): </li></ul><ul><li>set of ordinary nouns,verbs and adjectives that carry the content o f messages we convey.Since we can add new lexical morphemes to the language,we call these morphemes open class words. Some examples are nice,book,walk,house, etc . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functional morphemes(Grammatical words): <ul><li>the class of words which consist largely of functional words in a language.We also call them closed class words because we can not add new lexical morphemes to a language. </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners:the,a/an prep.:in,of </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary:can,could intensifier:very,too </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors:and,or </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns:I,me,he </li></ul><ul><li>sub.conj:while,because </li></ul><ul><li>EX/When he arrived,the old man had an umbrella and a large plastic bag full of books. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bound Morphemes <ul><li>Derivational morphemes Inflectional morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational Morphemes :these bound morphemes are used to produce new lexical words from the existing ones and they can be both prefixes and suffixes.There is the change of meaning because there is the change of lexical category. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>EX/noun to adjective care + ful(adj.) </li></ul><ul><li>noun suffix </li></ul><ul><li>EX/singer,exactly,moralize </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE:In some cases,there is no change of category ,but there is still change of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>EX/re + print (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>pre. Verb </li></ul><ul><li>some others are friendship,unhappier,mislead . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inflectional morphemes : <ul><li>used to signal grammatical function of a word,not to produce new words in a language. </li></ul><ul><li>They are only found in suffixes and there is no change of meaning or lexical category.These morphemes always come after the derivational morphemes. </li></ul><ul><li>-s(third person singular):She wait s at home </li></ul><ul><li>-ed(past tense):She wait ed at home </li></ul><ul><li>-ing(progressive):She is eat ing the donuts </li></ul><ul><li>-en(past part.):Mary has eat en the donut </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>-s(plural):She ate the donut s . </li></ul><ul><li>-’s(possessive):Disa ’s hair is short </li></ul><ul><li>-er(comp.):Disa has short er hair than Karin </li></ul><ul><li>-est(super.):Disa has the short est hair </li></ul><ul><li>Find the inflectional and derivational morphemes in the sentences below </li></ul><ul><li>1)Slowly,he ambled down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>2)I could feel the warmth of the fire </li></ul><ul><li>3)That is the biggest fish I have ever seen. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Morphological Description </li></ul>
  13. 13. MORPHEME Free Morpheme Bound Morpheme Lexical Morpheme Functional (Grammatical) Morpheme Derivational Morpheme Inflectional Morpheme
  14. 14. <ul><li>What is the difference between derivational and inflectional morpheme?? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Derivational Morphemes   1. Derivational morphemes derive a new word by being attached to root morphemes or stems. 2. They can be both suffixes and prefixes in  English. Examples:    beautiful, exactly, unhappy, impossible, recover   3. Change of Meaning  Example:       un+do (the opposite meaning of ‘do’)                         <ul><li>     Inflectional Morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>  1. Inflectional morphemes give grammatical information such as number (plural), tense, possession and so on . </li></ul><ul><li>2. They are only found in suffixes in  English.  Examples:  boys,  Mary’s , walked  </li></ul><ul><li>3. No change of Meaning  Examples:       walk vs. walks                          toy vs. toys  </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4.i)Change grammatical category of words. Example: teach + er = teacher verb + suffix =noun ii)No change of grammatical category. Example: friend + ship =friendship noun + suffix =noun <ul><li>4.Never change grammatical category of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: old + er = older </li></ul><ul><li>adj.+suffix =adj. </li></ul>
  17. 17. DON’T FORGET <ul><li>A derivational suffix always attached to a word before an inflectional suffix. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: teach + er + s = teachers </li></ul><ul><li> verb + d.s + i.s </li></ul><ul><li>öğret + men + ler </li></ul><ul><li>fiil +yapım eki + çekim eki </li></ul>
  18. 18. Read your sentences and a)say how many morphemes they have b)list all the elements of sentences
  19. 19. <ul><li>The child’s wildness shocked the teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>The child -’s wild -ness shock -ed </li></ul><ul><li>Functional lexical inflectional lexical derivational lexical inflectional </li></ul><ul><li>the teach -er -s </li></ul><ul><li>Functional lexical derivational inflectional </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1)The insurance policy covers all baggage and personal effects. </li></ul><ul><li>2)The lucky boys find a backpack in the park and they open it carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>3)The man was fishing with relaxation and enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>4)The singer’s new songs are more professional than the others. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Problems in morphological description <ul><li>1)Car cars </li></ul><ul><li>boy boys </li></ul><ul><li>word words </li></ul><ul><li>man men these are </li></ul><ul><li>woman women irregular plurals so </li></ul><ul><li>feet foot we can’t explain which </li></ul><ul><li> inflectional morpheme they take or do they take </li></ul><ul><li> any inflectional morpheme. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2) leg legal </li></ul><ul><li>car carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>polite cosmopolite </li></ul><ul><li>win window </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from Turkish : </li></ul><ul><li>bal balık </li></ul><ul><li>as aslan </li></ul><ul><li>kap kaplan </li></ul><ul><li>gaz gazete </li></ul><ul><li>kep kepçe </li></ul><ul><li>kel kelepçe </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3)Sometimes there may not be a derivational relationship between the noun,verb and adjective of a word.It has been pointed out that an extremely large number of English words owe their morphological patterning to languages like Latin and Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: law(n.) comes from Old English ‘lagu’ </li></ul><ul><li> legal(v.) comes from Latin ‘legalis’ </li></ul><ul><li> mouth(n.) comes from Old English </li></ul><ul><li> oral(adj.) comes from Latin </li></ul>
  24. 24. Morphs and allomorphs Morpheme : the smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function. un+happy+(i)er Morph :an actual form used as part of a word,representing one version of a morpheme. Un+happy+(i)er
  25. 25. <ul><li>Cat + plural(-s) </li></ul><ul><li>Bus + plural(-es) </li></ul><ul><li>Baby + plural(-ies) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep + plural(0) </li></ul><ul><li>Man + plural(change of vowel) </li></ul><ul><li> + </li></ul>Allamorph :one of a closely related set of morphs. allomorph
  26. 26. <ul><li>In addition to –s and –ies, another allomorph ’plural’ in English seems to be a zero- morph because the plural form of sheep is actually ‘ sheep +0=sheep ’.When we look at ‘man+plural’, we have a wovel change in the word (æ e), </li></ul><ul><li> as the morph that produces so called irregular plural for men. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The versions of the plural morpheme Child Deer Bus Car Ox Baby man Child+(r )en Deer Bus+es Car+s Ox+en Babies men
  28. 28. <ul><li>antidisestablishmentarianism </li></ul>Anti+dis+establish+ment+ari+an+ism
  29. 29. Write the versions of the past tense morpheme with the words below Walk Find Build Is Go Cut run
  30. 30. Kanuri(Nigeria)
  31. 31. <ul><li>Ilocano </li></ul><ul><li>A language of Philippinnes </li></ul><ul><li>Has a quite different way of marking plurals </li></ul>Reduplication : repeating all or part of a form examples: Head heads Ulo ululo Life lifes biag bibiag
  32. 32. Tagalog <ul><li>Another language spoken in Philippinnes </li></ul><ul><li>sulat(write) </li></ul><ul><li>sumulat(Write!) </li></ul><ul><li>susulat(will write) </li></ul>Infix: a morpheme that is inserted into a word